SMS Bayern was the lead ship of the Bayern class of battleships in the German Kaiserliche Marine. The vessel was launched in February 1915 and entered service in July 1916, too late to take part in the Battle of Jutland, her main armament consisted of eight 38 cm guns in four turrets, a significant improvement over the preceding König's ten 30.5 cm guns. The ship was to have formed the nucleus for a fourth battle squadron in the High Seas Fleet, along with three of her sister ships. Of the other ships only one—Baden—was completed. Bayern was commissioned midway through the war, had a limited service career; the first operation in which the ship took part was an abortive fleet advance into the North Sea on 18–19 August 1916, a month after she had been commissioned. The ship participated in Operation Albion in the Gulf of Riga, but shortly after the German attack began on 12 October 1917, Bayern was mined and had to be withdrawn for repairs, she was interned with the majority of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow in November 1918 following the end of World War I.
On 21 June 1919, Admiral Ludwig von Reuter ordered the fleet to be scuttled. In September 1934, the ship was raised, towed to Rosyth, scrapped. Design work on the Bayern class began in 1910 in the context of the Anglo-German naval arms race, with initial discussions focused on the caliber of the main battery, they considered 32 cm, 38 cm, 40 cm guns. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, the State Secretary of the Reichsmarineamt, was able to use public outcry over the Agadir Crisis to pressure the Reichstag into appropriating additional funds for the Kaiserliche Marine to offset the additional cost of the larger weapons; the design staff settled on the 38 cm caliber since the 40 cm was more expensive and the 38 cm gun marked a significant improvement over existing German guns. Bayern was 179.4 m long at the waterline, an 180 m long overall. She had a beam of 30 m and a draft of 9.3–9.4 m Bayern displaced 28,530 metric tons at a normal displacement. Bayern was powered by three Parsons steam turbines, with steam provided by three oil-fired and eleven coal-fired Schulz-Thornycroft water-tube boilers.
Her propulsion system was rated at 35,000 metric horsepower for a maximum speed of 21 knots, on trials achieved 55,967 metric horsepower for a maximum speed of 22 knots. The ship could carry up to 3,400 t of coal and 620 t of fuel oil, which provided a maximum range of 5,000 nmi at a cruising speed of 12 kn; the ship was the first German warship armed with eight 38 cm SK L/45 guns. The main battery guns were arranged in four twin gun turrets: two superfiring turrets each fore and aft, her secondary armament consisted of sixteen 15 cm SK L/45 guns, four 8.8 cm SK L/45 guns and five 60 cm underwater torpedo tubes, one in the bow and two on each beam. Upon commissioning, she carried a crew of 1,129 enlisted men; the ship had an armored belt, 170–350 mm thick and an armored deck, 60–100 mm thick. Her forward conning tower had 400 mm sides, the main battery turrets had 350 mm thick sides and 200 mm thick roofs. Bayern was ordered with the provisional name "T" in 1912, under the fourth and final Naval Law, passed that year.
Work began at the Howaldtswerke Dockyard in Kiel under construction number 590. The ship was laid down on 22 December 1913 and launched on 18 February 1915. After fitting-out, she was commissioned on 18 March, but remained idle in port for the next month, undergoing initial tests, including inclination tests to determine how the vessel responded to flooding, she got underway on 15 April for initial trials of her main battery. Bayern conducted her first full-power speed test on 25 April off the island of Alsen. After further examinations, the ship was deemed ready for service on 15 July, a month and a half too late for her to participate in the Battle of Jutland. Bayern joined III Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet upon her commissioning; the ship would have been available for the operation, but the ship's crew, composed of the crew from the decommissioned battleship Lothringen, was given leave. She had cost the Imperial German Government 49 million Goldmarks. Bayern was joined in service by one sister ship, Baden.
Two other ships of this class, Sachsen and Württemberg, were canceled. At the time of her commissioning, Bayern's commander was Kapitän zur See Max Hahn. Ernst Lindemann, who went on to command the battleship Bismarck during her only combat sortie in World War II, served aboard the ship as a wireless operator. On 25 May, the last King of Bavaria, visited the ship. Bayern served as the fleet flagship, from 7 to 16 August. Admiral Reinhard Scheer planned a fleet advance for 18–19 August 1916; this was an attempt to draw out and destr
The two-cylinder, superheated Bavarian Pt 2/3 engine was built by Krauss for the Royal Bavarian State Railways between 1909 and 1915. With its characteristic design - a carrying axle placed well to the front and two coupled axles at the rear under the outer firebox they asserted themselves over the rival Bavarian Pt 2/4 N and H classes and, after the demand fell for the services for which they were designed, they continued to be operated well into the 1960s on south German branch lines. A total of 97 examples were built in three variants that only differed from one another. Up to 1937, 50 engines were equipped with a Bissel axle; the constructional feature of this locomotive was the unusually large distance between driving and carrying axle of 4,000 mm or, on the final six units, of 4,050 mm. This resulted in a lighter, but economically more sensible, lightweight design, that proved to be outstanding. Behind the idea of the Pt 2/3 stood the concept of "light trains", whereby the guard was saved at the expense of the fireman, who accessed the train through a door in the back wall of the locomotive, whereupon he had to take over all the duties of the guard.
The Pt 2/3 DRG Class 70, was ousted from its original duties by electrification and by stronger locomotives like the Class 64 and moved into branch line services, where it remained for many years as a result of its economy. The doors on the rear wall, which had become superfluous, were in some cases removed in order to provide a larger coal bunker; the Deutsche Bundesbahn took over 89 locomotives. The last engine, no. 70 083, was retired by the Nuremberg federal railway division in 1963 and transferred to Munich. After spending forty years as a memorial in Mühldorf am Inn, the Bavarian Branch Line Union was able to place the loco in service again in 2005. After the Second World War, numbers 70 086, 092, 095 und 096 remained in Austria, were preserved as ÖBB Class 770, their main area of operation was the Pöchlarn–Kienberg-Gaming line. No. 770.086 was paid off on 31 January 1967 as the last of its type. This locomotive, displayed at Pöchlarn station was reactivated in 1997 and, since 1999, has headed specials for the Brenner & Brenner Steam Locomotive Company.
Knipping, Andreas. Die Baureihe 70 - Die bayerische Tenderlok für leichte Züge und ihre badische Schwester. Freiburg: EK-Verlag. ISBN 3-88255-170-4. Royal Bavarian State Railways List of Bavarian locomotives and railbuses
If I Loved You: Gentlemen Prefer Broadway — An Evening of Love Duets is a show conceived and directed by American-Canadian singer-songwriter Rufus Wainwright, which premiered on June 14, 2014 during Luminato in Toronto, Canada. The concert featured men singing classic love songs to one another, included a full orchestra and performances by Wainwright and special guests Boy George, David Byrne, Josh Groban and Steven Page. Countertenor Brennan Hall, Brent Carver, Glen Hansard, Ezra Koenig and Andrew Rannells appeared; the program featured songs written by gay men, including Noël Coward, Lorenz Hart, Jerry Herman and Cole Porter. In 2012, having been together for seven years, Wainwright married Jörn Weisbrodt, who became artistic director of Luminato in 2011. Wainwright began appearing at Luminato in 2010, when he performed in support of his album All Days Are Nights: Songs for Lulu and presented the North American premiere of his first opera, Prima Donna. Since Wainwright has performed at Luminato regularly.
In 2012, he and his sister Martha Wainwright paid tribute to their mother, who died in 2010, with a program called Love Over and Over. In 2014, Weisbrodt said of his association with both Luminato and Wainwright, "I think the primary purpose of my job is to love artists. Of course the relationship with my husband Rufus Wainwright is special but I feel if someone is more talented and deserves more to be associated with this festival it is him rather than me." For the 2014 festival, Wainwright conceived and directed a program called If I Loved You: Gentlemen Prefer Broadway, which will feature "guys singing classic love songs to other guys". The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation described the program as "male singers putting a new spin on dozens of love songs traditionally performed by a man and a woman, or by a man singing about a woman", it premiered on June 14, 2014 at the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts, during Luminato's closing weekend, was billed as a "prelude" to Toronto's WorldPride event, which took place during June 20–29 and replaced annual Pride Week events for the year.
WorldPride served as a concert partner. The concert was confirmed on April 8, 2014 by Weisbrodt during a news conference about the festival. Wainwright and Weisbrodt had announced the show during an exclusive party they hosted. In promoting the concert, Weisbrodt said: What Rufus has put together for this evening of celebrating love is mind- boggling and something I would not have been able to pull off as the artistic director by myself, it promises to be one of the most unusual nights of music. Who doesn't want to hear these artists sing together? If I Loved You is not about turning something from "straight" to "gay," by singing love duets with only men, but instead, to declare the universality of love, to celebrate love that comes in every shade. Luminato promoted the event with the following description: Rufus Wainwright teams with Grammy and Tony-winning music director Stephen Oremus to redefine dozens of the most beloved gems in the Great American Songbook, all love songs from Broadway musicals.
Wainwright’s recontextualizations, performed by men and to men, fortify the songs’ universality as expressions of love. The groundbreaking evening will showcase Wainwright and an international spectrum of pop and musical theatre stars in unexpected enchanting pairs. In a press release issued on April 8, a spokesperson for WorldPride said, "You can never underestimate the power of seeing yourself reflected in art, how important, to a feeling of belonging. WorldPride 2014 Toronto will showcase a rich range of LGBTQ art and voices from across the world in a once-in-a-lifetime event. We are delighted to partner with a cultural icon like the Luminato Festival to celebrate Toronto’s vibrant arts community and bring focus on global LGBTQ struggles and triumphs." Tickets went on sale the week of news conference. Boy George's participation was confirmed on his official website, which noted that the concert would take place on his birthday; the show included a full Broadway orchestra, conducted by music director Stephen Oremus, performances by Wainwright and special guests Boy George, David Byrne, Josh Groban and Steven Page.
Scheduled to appear are counter-tenor Brennan Hall, Brent Carver, Glen Hansard, Ezra Koenig and Andrew Rannells. Some of the songs were written by gay men, including Noël Coward, Lorenz Hart, Jerry Herman and Cole Porter. Included were the songs "If I Loved You" from Carousel, "Some Enchanted Evening" from South Pacific, "We Kiss in a Shadow" from The King and I, all written by Rodgers and Hammerstein, as well as songs by Stephen Sondheim. Prior to the concert, the Toronto Star said, "One thing we can be sure of is that, to borrow a phrase from one famous song, this could be the start of something big... After its Toronto premiere, it’s safe to assume If I Loved You will head for New York, the Hollywood Bowl and London"; the paper's entertainment contributor Martin Knelman predicted that the concert would sell out "in record time". Rufus Wainwright's'If I loved you' on YouTube
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. It is one of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, serving as an alternative to the all-in-one iMac, sits below the performance range iMac Pro and Mac Pro; the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional PC running operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, it uses many laptop components to achieve its compact size. The Mac mini was introduced in January 2005; the second generation Mac mini, introduced in February 2006, carried over the design of the PowerPC version, but used Intel Core processors and other upgraded components, made wireless connections such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi standard. The third generation Mac mini was introduced in June 2010, with a thinner unibody aluminum case, it was the first Mac with an HDMI port, more positioning it as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV.
Revisions added Thunderbolt and Intel Core i5 and i7 processors. The fourth generation Mac mini was introduced in October 2018, it carries over the design of the previous generation in a darker "space gray" finish, switches to standard solid-state storage, replaces most data ports with USB-C. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer. On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever"; the Mac mini was intended as an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers. Unlike regular desktops, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and a 85W external power supply and full-size DIMM's, the Mac mini used low-power laptop components to fit all the necessary components into the small case and prevent overheating.
The exterior of the Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom. The original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user; the back of the machine contained the I/O vents for the cooling system. It has an external 85W power supply; some Mac mini owners used a putty knife or a pizza cutter to pry open the cases of older models to gain access to the interior for installation of cheaper third party memory upgrades. Apple describes this procedure in detail, including an official Apple part number for a "modified putty knife"; the Mac mini G4 used single-core 32-bit PowerPC processors with 512 KB of on-chip L2 cache. The processor accessed memory through the front-side bus, clocked at 167 MHz; the chips in these models of Mac mini ran at either 1.33, 1.42, or 1.5 GHz. It had an ATI Radeon 9200 graphics processor with 32 MB of DDR SDRAM in the standard editions, upgraded to 64 MB VRAM in the high-end version of the final Mac mini G4 in 2005; the Mac mini G4 uses 333 MHz DDR SDRAM, allows a maximum of 1 GB of memory, has only one desktop DIMM slot for random-access memory.
This restricts both the maximum amount of available memory, which can reduce performance by forcing the system to page to the hard disk, since the system is unable to take advantage of dual channels, maximum bandwidth. This issue was addressed in the Intel models of Mac mini by using two notebook DIMM slots; the Mac mini G4 uses a single 2.5-inch Ultra ATA/100 hard drive, which offers a maximum transfer rate of 100 MB/s. Because of its sealed enclosure, it is not possible to upgrade the hard drive without opening the enclosure and voiding the warranty of the system; the Mac mini G4 contains a second ATA cable that connects to the optical drive. A Combo drive was included as standard, while a SuperDrive able to write to DVDs was an option; the Mac mini includes two USB 2.0 ports and one FireWire 400 port. Networking is supported with 10/100 Ethernet and 56k V.92 modem, while 802.11b/g Wi-Fi and Bluetooth were additional build-to-order options. External displays are supported via a DVI port. Adaptors are available for VGA, S-Video, composite video.
The system contains an analog 1/8-inch stereo mini jack. In the last revision of the Mac mini G4, the internal mezzanine board was upgraded to accommodate the AirPort Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technology onto one chip. In prior models, the Mac mini included an AirPort Extreme card taped to the mezzanine board and a separate Bluetooth module; this new Wi-Fi card no longer uses an MMCX-Female connector for the antenna but rather a proprietary Apple one. Notes:1 The serial number and specifications sticker on the underside of the latest revision do not carry the actual specs of the upgrade. For example, on a 1.5 GHz model, 1.42 GHz is listed. The product packaging did not reflect the upgrade. Apple did not revise the official specifications on their web site; the Mac mini G4 can run different operating systems designed for the PowerPC architecture. For example, users can install the AmigaOS-compatible MorphOS, OpenBSD, or Linux distributions such as Debian or Ubuntu. Unlike the Intel models, a G4 Mac mini running Mac OS X 10.4 can run Mac OS 9 "Classic" applications, as long as a bootable copy of the OS 9 System Folder is installed from which to run the Classic environment.
As of Mac OS X 10.5
Brunswick Wharf Power Station was a coal- and oil-fired power station on the River Thames at Blackwall in London. The station was planned from 1939 by Poplar Borough Council but construction only started in 1947 after the Second World War, it was decommissioned in 1984, the site was redeveloped. The station was built in stages between 1947 and 1956 on the site of the former East India Export Dock, itself the Brunswick Dock of the Blackwall Yard shipyard; the site was controversial due to both potential air pollution in a densely populated part of London, to the implications of further concentrating generating capacity in an area, a strategic target in The Blitz. The building was a monumental brick structure with fluted concrete chimneys, similar to Gilbert Scott's design for Battersea Power Station, its main building contractor was Peter Lind & Company with Redpath Brown & Company supplying the steelwork and Company building the reinforced concrete chimneys and Marples and Partners being the main civil engineering contractors.
Metropolitan-Vickers supplied the six turbo-alternators and Clarke, Chapman & Company and John Brown & Company supplied the 11 boilers. A new 855 feet concrete wharf with three Stothert & Pitt luffing cranes was built to land coal brought by colliers; the first phase of the station was supposed to be commissioned in 1948 but in fact did not start supplying electricity until 1952. The station was opened by British Electricity Authority chairman Walter Citrine, 1st Baron Citrine in 1954 but was not completed until 1956. In 1957 the alternators were uprated to produce a total of 118 MW; the final configuration of the station was 4 x 55 MW generators and 2 x 60 MW hydrogen cooled generators. Eleven boilers were installed; the boilers were manufactured by John Brown & Co.. The maximum steam capacity of the boilers was 3,520,000 lb/hr. Steam pressure and temperature at the turbine stop valves was 900 psi and 482°C. In 1958 Brunswick Wharf was used in an experiment – Operation Chimney Plume – by the CEGB to determine whether power station flue-gas plumes penetrated fog layers.
On 4 December 1958 an aircraft flew above the low lying fog over London. Chemical were added to the power station boilers to colour the flue-gas plumes, it was found that the hot flue-gas plumes rose clear of the fog layer. Whereas the'washed' and therefore cooler plumes from Battersea power station and Bankside power station were subsumed within the fog layer; the station was coal-fired, but the BEA's successor, the Central Electricity Generating Board, had it converted to oil in 1970–71. The conversion to oil included the first solid state furnace controls in the UK, installed by Associated British Combustion, of Portchester UK. Associated British Combustion was subsequently in financial trouble and was acquired by Combustion Engineering of USA. Electricity output from Brunswick Wharf power station over the period 1961-1984 was. Brunswick Wharf annual electricity output GWh; the CEGB planned to enlarge the station, but the 1973 oil crisis increased the price of oil, the CEGB found it had surplus generating capacity.
The CEGB therefore decommissioned the station in 1984 and sold it in 1987. The power station was demolished in 1988–89, with the exception of the switchgear house, which survived until the 1990s but was redeveloped. Three blocks called Elektron Towers and a block called Switch House have been built on the site of the power station; the current site contains the Brunswick Wharf Substation