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Execution by firing squad

Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading, is a method of capital punishment common in the military and in times of war. Execution by shooting is a old practice; some reasons for its use are that firearms are readily available and a gunshot to a vital organ, such as brain or heart kills quickly. A firing squad is composed of several military personnel. All members of the group are instructed to fire thus preventing both disruption of the process by a single member and identification of the member who fired the lethal shot. To avoid the disfigurement of multiple shots to the head, the shooters are instructed to aim at the heart, sometimes aided by a paper target; the prisoner is blindfolded or hooded, as well as restrained, although in some cases prisoners have asked to be allowed to face the firing squad without their eyes covered. Media portrayals have shown condemned being offered a final cigarette as well. Executions can be carried out with the condemned either sitting.

There is a tradition in some jurisdictions that such executions are carried out at first light or at sunrise. This gave rise to the phrase "shot at dawn". Execution by firing squad is distinct from other forms of execution by firearms, such as an execution by shooting to the back of the head or neck. However, the single shot by the squad's officer with a pistol is sometimes incorporated in a firing squad execution if the initial volley turns out not to be fatal. Before the introduction of firearms, bows or crossbows were used—Saint Sebastian is depicted as executed by a squad of Roman auxiliary archers in around 288 AD; the method is the supreme punishment or disciplinary means employed by military courts for crimes such as cowardice, espionage, mutiny, or treason. If the condemned prisoner is an ex-officer, acknowledged to have shown bravery in their past career, they may be accorded the privilege of giving the order to fire. An example of this is Marshal of France Michel Ney; as a means of insulting the condemned, past executions have had them shot in the back, denied blindfolds, or tied to chairs.

This was the method used to execute Galeazzo Ciano, son-in-law of Benito Mussolini, several other former Facists who voted to remove him from power. By some reports, Ciano managed to twist his chair around at the last second to face his executioners. In some cases, one or more members of the firing squad may be issued a weapon containing a blank cartridge. No member of the firing squad is told beforehand; this is believed to reinforce the sense of diffusion of responsibility among the firing squad members. This diffusion of responsibility makes the execution process more reliable because the members are more to aim to kill if they are not blamed for it, or if there is a chance they did not fire the lethal shot, it allows each member of the firing squad to believe afterwards that he did not fire a fatal shot—for this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "conscience round". According to Pte. W. A. Quinton, who served in the British Army during the First World War and had the experience of serving with a firing squad in October 1915, he and 11 colleagues were relieved of any live ammunition and their own rifles before being issued replacement weapons.

The firing squad was given a short speech by an officer before they fired a volley at the condemned man. He said about the episode, "I had the satisfaction of knowing that as soon as I fired, the absence of any recoil that I had fired a blank cartridge". In more recent times, such as in the execution of Ronnie Lee Gardner in the American state of Utah in 2010, one rifleman may be given a "dummy" cartridge containing a wax bullet instead of a lead bullet, which provides a more realistic recoil. On 1 April 1916 a Belgian woman, Gabrielle Petit, was executed by a German firing squad at Schaerbeek after being convicted of spying for the British Secret Service during World War I. During the Battle of the Bulge in World War II, three captured German spies were tried and executed by a U. S. firing squad at Henri-Chapelle on 23 December 1944. Thirteen other Germans were tried and shot at either Henri-Chapelle or Huy; these executed spies took part in Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny's Operation Greif, in which English-speaking German commandos operated behind U.

S. lines, masquerading in U. S. uniforms and equipment. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 expressly prohibits the usage of capital punishment in peacetime, but authorizes the use of the death penalty for military crimes committed during wartime. War needs to be declared formally, in accordance with international law and article 84, item 19 of the Federal Constitution, with due authorization from the Brazilian Congress; the Brazilian Code of Military Penal Law, in its chapter dealing with wartime offences, specifies the crimes that are subject to the death penalty. The death penalty is never the only possible sentence for a crime, the punishment must be imposed by the military courts system. Per the norms of the Brazilian Code of Military Penal Procedure, the death penalty is carried out by firing squad. Although Brazil still permits the use of capital punishment during wartime, no convicts were executed during Brazil's last military conflict, the Second World War; the military personnel sentenced to death during World War II had their sentences reduced by the President of the Republic.

Following the milita

Yuri Nemyrych

Jerzy Niemirycz or Yuriy Nemyrych was a Polish-Lithuanian magnate and politician of Ruthenian stock and Cossack Hetmanate official and diplomat. Jerzy Niemirycz was born in Ovruch, Kiev Voivodeship in 1612 during the Polish-Lithuanian intervention in Muscovy, the oldest son of wealthy Polish-Lithuanian Anti-Trinitarians noble family, Klamry coat of arms, his father was a podkomorzy of Kiev Stefan Niemirycz and his mother was Maria Wojnarowska. He studied at the Racovian Academy in Raków, Kielce County in Leiden, travelled across Western and Southern Europe, back at Leiden, he has shown great interest in politics, evidenced by his work Discursus de bello Moscovitico, written in 1633 and dedicated to his uncle and fellow Polish Brethren Roman Hojski. Upon his return home, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in 1634, he was a well-educated lower level magnate and aspiring Polish-Ruthenian politician, a model noble citizen, he took part in the wars against Sweden. At the end of hostilities he married Calvinist Elżbieta Słupecka, who connected him with them most prominent noble Protestant families of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1636 Kiev voivodeship nobility elected him a judge to the Crown Tribunal in Lublin. He performance as a judge found him more favour with his electorate, for in 1637 he was elected to the parliament where he presided for many years, he became a podkomorzy of Kiev and exerted significant influence in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth politics. He worked to enhance his family fortune, centred in Horoszki, through acquisitions and other means his estates grew to include 14 cities and 50 villages with 7600 serfs, so by 1648 he had the second largest territory in the Ukraine, after the Wiśniowiecki family. A Polish Brethren, Niemirycz defended his fellow Arians in court and in parliament in the 1640s, supported a fellow Protestant George II Rákóczi as candidate for the Polish-Lithuanian throne in 1648, when king Władysław IV Vasa died in the mist of war; because of the Cossack Uprising of 1648 he had to evacuate his family to Warsaw, took limited part in fighting against the rebellious Cossacks and serfs, advocating moderation.

He returned to his estates in 1649 but the massacre of Polish army by the Cossacks and Crimean Tatars at Batoh in 1652 forced him to evacuate again, this time to his estates in Volhynia. During the Deluge, like many Polish–Lithuanian nobles and magnates, he embraced the Swedish invaders in 1655 in hopes of improving the Protestant position in the Commonwealth and reconquering his estates in the Ukrainian palatines, his pleadings for improvement of Polish Brethren cause with the Swedish king Charles X Gustav of Sweden failed and he switched side to the Cossacks side. He took place in the preparation of the Treaty of Radnot, signed in 1656. In 1657 he moved to Cossack Ukraine and Cossack hetman Khmelnytsky had his estates restored to him, he supported Ivan Vyhovsky, as Khmelnytsky's successor, signed in Korsun, jointly with Ivan Bohun and Ivan Kovalivsky, an agreement between Sweden and Cossack Hetmanate in 1657. During that time, when he envisioned a semi-independent duchy of Ukraine as a new element of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and where there was no place for a Polish Brethren statesman, Nemirycz decided to convert to Orthodoxy and he encouraged his fellow Polish Brethren to do the same in an infamous, Exhortation to all Dissidents from the Romish Religion to Take Refuge in the Bosom of the Greek Church.

He was a co-author of the Treaty of Hadiach, signed in 1658, which established the Grand Duchy of Ruthenia, transforming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth. He drafted the treaty, and, as the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Ruthenia, headed the Ukrainian delegation to the Polish–Lithuanian parliamentary session for ratification, where it was ratified. In 1659 the Muscovite Tsardom refused to accept the new Commonwealth and invaded Ukraine, but Russian army was defeated at the battle of Konotop, but through conspiracies and money Russian achieved the cancellation of Vyhovsky’s hetman position by the Cossacks of "black council", caused a rebellion of the serfs and pro-Russian Cossacks and these rebels killed Yuri Nemyrych in a minor engagement he was stabbed 70 times in the chest, thus ingloriously died a statesman, whom Moscow named the greatest heretic and outlaw. He and his sole wife Elżbieta Słupecka, Rawa coat of arms, had three children: Tomasz and Teodor Nemyrych, who restored family estates but never achieved any prominence and whose family converted to Roman Catholicism.

Perevolochna Stanisław Kot, Jerzy Niemirycz:W 300-lecie Ugody Hadziackiej, Paris 1960

Clarence Eldridge

Clarence Ernest Eldridge was a Major League Baseball umpire in the American League and an advertising executive. Eldridge was a newspaper writer in college, acquiring the nickname "Dope." He practiced law before beginning his career in baseball umpiring. Eldridge umpired his first major league game on June 24, 1914, his only game in 1914, he returned the following year to umpire five games. All six of his career major league games umpired were at first base. Following his umpiring career, he worked as an advertising manager for the REO Motor Car Company, a vice president of Young & Rubicam, vice president in charge of marketing for General Foods, executive vice president of the Campbell Soup Company, he was inducted into the American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame. Eldridge attended the University of Michigan, he served as managing editor for the University of Michigan Daily. He left school in 1907 for a stint as the sporting editor at the Arkansas Gazette. Eldridge umpired Michigan baseball games, managed the 1909 Michigan Wolverines baseball team and worked as a college football referee in Michigan and surrounding states.

Eldridge umpired minor league baseball in the Southern League, Southern Michigan League and Central League between 1907 and 1910. In spite of his varied extracurricular pursuits, Eldridge managed to earn an undergraduate degree from Michigan in 1909 and a law degree from the school in 1911. After completing the law degree, Eldridge became a practicing attorney in Chicago, he kept a watchful eye out for umpiring opportunities, however. He was quoted as saying that he knew that he might rather umpire. "A regular position has not been offered me in the major leagues. I hope. I am afraid of my choice," he said. Eldridge would serve as a substitute umpire in a total of six MLB games over the 1914 and 1915 seasons

24 Oras Ilokano

24 Oras Ilokano Balitang Ilokano is a Philippine television newscast show broadcast by GMA Network in the Ilocos Region. It premiered on June 25, 2012; the newscast concluded on April 24, 2015. It was replaced by Balitang Amianan in its timeslot; the program delivers news and current events coming from Abra. It is aired live weekdays from GMA Ilocos studios in San Vicente, Ilocos Sur and was simulcasted on TV-5 Ilocos Norte and TV-7 Abra. Premiered on June 25, 2012, the newscast began its airing weeks after the launch of GMA Ilocos. Former Balitang Amianan anchor Jorge Guerrero returned to his hometown in Ilocos just to anchor the said news program. Following the changes on its now-main newscast 24 Oras, Balitang Ilokano was rebranded as 24 Oras Ilokano since November 10, 2014; the newscast got cancelled after more than two and a half years of broadcast due to the strategic streamlining happened to all provincial stations of the network. Following the cancellation was the retrenchment of its staff and personalities and the closure of the network's regional news department.

Laoag City and Ilocos Norte Vigan City and Ilocos Sur Bangued and Abra Batac City Candon City Jorge Guerrero Brigette Mayor - relief anchor for Jorge Guerrero Argie Lorenzo - relief anchor for Jorge Guerrero.

Lycée Carnot

The Lycée Carnot is a public secondary and higher education school located at 145 Boulevard Malesherbes in the 17th arrondissement, France. Recognized as one of the most prestigious high schools in France, it is ranked as one of the best classe préparatoire aux écoles de commerce; some of its former students have been among the most influential personalities in the country, including Jacques Chirac, the former French President, Pascal Lamy, the former president of the World Trade Organization since. Daft Punk musicians Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo met there in 1987; the poet Louis Aragon attended Carnot. The school has a long tradition of excellence, has been sending its graduates to the best schools in France and abroad: - Polytechnique - Centrale - HEC - ESSEC - Sciences Po Paris - EM Lyon - LSE - UCL - KCL - McGill University Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and members of Daft Punk; the two met at the lycée. Maurice Bloch, anthropologist Jacques Chirac, former President of France Gilles Deleuze, French philosopher in the post-structural tradition and colleague of Michel Foucault.

Dimitri Kitsikis, Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, Honorary President, The Dimitri Kitsikis Public Foundation. Guy Môquet, French Communist militant Pascal Lamy, former president of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. Joseph Rovan, French philosopher and politician Dominique Strauss-Kahn, former French finance minister and former former Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund Guy Debord, author of The Society of the Spectacle and activist in the May 1968 events in France Thierry Jacquillat, former president of Paris-île de France Capital Economique and former Vice President and Director of Pernod Ricard Lycée Carnot - Paris website

Drummond Community High School

Drummond Community High School is a non-denominational secondary school built in 1925 by John Alexander Carfrae which serves the area of north east Edinburgh. Drummond Community High School is on Bellevue Place and was known as Bellevue Junior Secondary School; the catchment area serves an area to the east of the city including the southern areas of Leith, Abbeyhill and Bellevue. In addition to the school roll of 352, the school provides places for over 400 adult day learners and 400 adult learne Drummond Community High School's page on Scottish Schools Online Official School Website