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Execution of Louis XVI

The execution of Louis XVI by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. The National Convention had convicted the king in a near-unanimous vote and condemned him to death by a simple majority. Louis XVI awoke at 5 o'clock. After dressing with the aid of his valet Jean-Baptiste Cléry, he went to meet with the non-juring Irish priest Henry Essex Edgeworth to make his confession, he heard his last Mass, served by Cléry, received Communion. The Mass requisites were provided by special direction of the authorities. On Father Edgeworth's advice, Louis avoided a last farewell scene with his family. At 7 o'clock he confided his last wishes to the priest, his royal seal was to go to his wedding ring to the Queen. After receiving the priest's blessing, he went to meet Antoine Joseph Santerre, Commander of the Guard. A green carriage waited in the second court, he seated himself in it with two militiamen sitting opposite them.

The carriage left the Temple at 9 o'clock. For more than an hour the carriage, preceded by drummers playing to drown out any support for the King and escorted by a cavalry troop with drawn sabres, made its way through Paris along a route lined with 80,000 men-at-arms and soldiers of the National Guard and sans-culottes. In the neighbourhood of the present-day rue de Cléry, the Baron de Batz, a supporter of the Royal family who had financed the flight to Varennes, had summoned 300 Royalists to enable the King's escape. Louis was to be hidden in a house in the rue de Cléry belonging to the Count of Marsan; the Baron leaped forward calling "Follow me, my friends, let us save the King!", but his associates had been denounced and only a few had been able to turn up. Three of them were killed. At 10 o'clock, the carriage arrived at Place de la Révolution and proceeded to an area where a scaffold had been erected, in a space surrounded by guns and drums, by a crowd carrying pikes and bayonets. After refusing to have his hands tied, Louis XVI relented when the executioner proposed to use his handkerchief instead of rope.

After this his hair was cut and the collar of his shirt was removed. After being led upon the scaffold, Louis tried to give a speech but the noise of the drums made this difficult to understand, he was laid on the bench, the collar closed over his neck and the blade came down. According to reports the blade did not sever his neck but cut through the back of his skull and into his jaw. Edgeworth, Louis' Irish confessor, wrote in his memoirs: The path leading to the scaffold was rough and difficult to pass; the 13 February issue of the Thermomètre du jour, a moderate Republican newspaper, described the King as shouting "I am lost!", citing as its source the executioner, Charles-Henri Sanson. Charles-Henri Sanson responded to the story by offering his own version of events in a letter dated 20 February 1793; the account of Sanson states: Arriving at the foot of the guillotine, Louis XVI looked for a moment at the instruments of his execution and asked Sanson why the drums had stopped beating. He came forward to speak.

As he was strapped down, he exclaimed "My people, I die innocent!" Turning towards his executioners, Louis XVI declared "Gentlemen, I am innocent of everything of which I am accused. I hope that my blood may cement the good fortune of the French." The blade fell. It was 10:22 am. One of the assistants of Sanson showed the head of Louis XVI to the people, whereupon a huge cry of "Vive la Nation! Vive la République!" Arose and an artillery salute rang out. In his letter, published along with its French mistakes in the Thermomètre of Thursday, 21 February 1793, Sanson emphasises that the King "bore all this with a composure and a firmness which has surprised us all. I remained convinced that he derived this firmness from the principles of the religion by which he seemed penetrated and persuaded as no other man." In his Causeries, Alexandre Dumas refers to a meeting circa 1830 with Henri Sanson, eldest son of Charles-Henri Sanson, present at the execution. Henri Sanson was family appointed Executioner of Paris from April 1793, would execute Marie Antoinette.

Speaking to Victor Hugo in 1840, a man called Leboucher, who had arrived in Paris from Bourges in December 1792 and was present at the execution of Louis XVI, recalled vividly: Here are some unknown details. The executioners numbered four; the executioners wore breeches, coats in the French style as the Revolution had modified it

Leon Mettam

Leon Dorothy Mettam is a former English footballer who played as a striker for Northern Counties East League club Worksop Town He played in the Football League for Lincoln City. In July 2010, Mettam left The Steelmen to join league rivals Gainsborough Trinity. Mettam went on to join ambitious Worksop Town, who were managed by his former Lincoln City youth team coach, Simon Clark. On 10 June 2014, his Worksop Town teammate Shane Clarke joined Conference North side Tamworth. Following an ankle injury in October 2014 which kept him sidelined for the remainder of the year, Mettam joined Northern Premier League side King's Lynn Town on a month's loan in January 2015, scoring three times in five appearances. After being released by Tamworth at the end of the 2015/16 season; as of match played 22 May 2014. Leon Mettam at Soccerbase

Dieter Mahncke

Dieter Mahncke is a scholar of foreign policy and security studies, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Professor Emeritus of European Foreign Policy and Security Studies at the College of Europe. He is the author of books and articles on European security, arms control, German foreign policy, Berlin, US-European relations and South Africa. Mahncke was raised in South-West Africa. After starting his studies at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, he transferred to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where he received a B. A. in Political Science. He holds an M. A. and a Ph. D. from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, a Habilitation from the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Bonn. Mahncke was a Research Associate with the German Council on Foreign Relations, Lecturer in Political Science at Mainz University and Bonn University, he was Professor of Political Science at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich and Hamburg.

He was Vice President of the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg 1977–1978. From 1979–1985 Mahncke was adviser to the German President and Deputy Chief of the Planning Staff in the Ministry of Defense until 1996, he was a Visiting Fellow at Brown University and a Senior Visiting Fellow at the European Union Institute for Security Studies. From 1996 to 2010 Mahncke was Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Professor for European Foreign Policy and Security Studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, he was Director of the Department of Political and Administrative Studies from 1996–2008, from 2006–2010 the founding Director of the Department of EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies. Prior to this Mahncke had been a visiting professor at the College of Europe since 1975, teaching both on the Bruges and Warsaw campus. Mahncke has held visiting professorships in Germany, Bulgaria and the United States, he taught at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

From 1995–2010 he was Member of the Board of the Harris German Distinguished Visiting Professorship at Dartmouth College. Officer’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Honorary Professor of the College of Europe Knight’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Grand Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau Nukleare Mitwirkung. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland in der atlantischen Allianz 1954–1970. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 1972. Westeuropäische Verteidigungskooperation. Mit einem Vorwort von Helmut Schmidt. Band 31 der Schriften des Forschungsinstituts der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik. Verlag R. Oldenbourg, München/Wien 1972. Berlin im geteilten Deutschland. Band 34 der. Verlag R. Oldenbourg, München/Wien 1973. Seemacht und Außenpolitik. Mit einem Vorwort von Georg Leber. Band 11 der Reihe Rüstungsbeschränkung und Sicherheit” Alfred Metzner Verlag, Frankfurt/Main 1974. Vertrauensbildende Maßnahmen als Instrument der Sicherheitspolitik.

Ursprung, Perspektiven. Band 59 der Forschungsberichte der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. Verlag Ernst Knoth, Melle 1987. Konflikt in Südafrika. Die politische Problematik Südafrikas in ihren innen- und außenpolitischen Dimensionen. Band 12 der Studien zur Politik. Schöningh-Verlag, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1989. Amerikaner in Deutschland. Grundlagen und Bedingungen der transatlantischen Sicherheit. Mit einem Vorwort von Gerhard Stoltenberg. Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1991. Parameters of European Security. Institute for Security Studies, Western European Union. Chaillot Papers 10, September 1993. Vertrauensbildende Maßnahmen und europäisches Sicherheitssystem: Von Stockholm 1986 bis Helsinki 1992. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V. Bonn 1994. ASEAN and the EU in the International Environment. Asia-Europe Studies Series, Vol. 4, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1999. The College of Europe: Fifty Years of Service to Europe. Brügge 1999. Old Frontiers – New Frontiers; the Challenge of Kosovo and its Implications for the European Union.

Mit Vorwort von Javier Solana Madariaga. Peter Lang, Bern 2001. ISBN 978-3-906765-67-9. Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations: The Challenge of Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004. European Foreign Policy, College of Europe Studies No. 1, Brüssel: P. I. E. Peter Lang, 2004. ISBN 90-5201-247-4. International Terrorism. A European Response to a Global Threat?, College of Europe Studies No. 3, Brüssel: P. I. E. Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN 90-5201-046-3. Europe’s Near Abroad. Promises and Prospects of the EU’s Neighbourhood Policy, College of Europe Studies No. 4, Brüssel: P. I. E. Peter Lang, 2008. ISBN 978-90-5201-047-2. European Union Diplomacy. Coherence and Effectiveness. Mit Vorwort von Herman Van Rompuy, College of Europe Studies No. 15, Brüssel: P. I. E. Peter Lang 2012. ISBN 978-90-5201-842-3. South West Africa 1904–1907. in: D. Condit and B. Cooper and Response in Internal Conflict, Vol. III: The Experience in Africa and Latin America, Washington D. C. 1968, S. 83–103. Was ist Friedensforschung? in: Europa-Arch


Cyrtarachne is a genus of orb-weaver spiders first described by Tamerlan Thorell in 1868. As of April 2019 it contains fifty-five species: C. akirai Tanikawa, 2013 – China, Taiwan, Japan C. avimerdaria Tikader, 1963 – India C. bengalensis Tikader, 1961 – India, China C. bicolor Thorell, 1898 – Myanmar C. bigibbosa Simon, 1907 – São Tomé and Príncipe, Equatorial Guinea C. bilunulata Thorell, 1899 – Cameroon C. biswamoyi Tikader, 1961 – India C. bufo – China, Japan C. cingulata Thorell, 1895 – Myanmar C. conica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901 – Malaysia C. dimidiata Thorell, 1895 – Myanmar C. fangchengensis Yin & Zhao, 1994 – China C. finniganae Lessert, 1936 – Mozambique C. flavopicta Thorell, 1899 – Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea C. friederici Strand, 1911 – New Guinea C. gibbifera Simon, 1899 – Indonesia C. gilva Yin & Zhao, 1994 – China C. grubei – Mauritius C. guttigera Simon, 1909 – Vietnam C. heminaria Simon, 1909 – Vietnam C. histrionica Thorell, 1898 – Myanmar C. hubeiensis Yin & Zhao, 1994 – China C. ignava Thorell, 1895 – Myanmar C. inaequalis Thorell, 1895 – India, Korea, Myanmar C. invenusta Thorell, 1891 – India C. ixoides – Mediterranean, Madagascar C. jucunda Tanikawa, 2013 – Japan C. lactea Pocock, 1898 – East Africa C. laevis Thorell, 1877 – Indonesia C. latifrons Hogg, 1900 – Australia Cyrtarachne l. atuberculata Hogg, 1900 – Australia C. lepida Thorell, 1890 – Indonesia C. madagascariensis Emerit, 2000 – Madagascar C. melanoleuca Ono, 1995 – Thailand C. melanosticta Thorell, 1895 – Myanmar C. menghaiensis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994 – China C. nagasakiensis Strand, 1918 – India, Korea, Japan C. nodosa Thorell, 1899 – Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Yemen C. pallida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1885 – China C. perspicillata – Sri Lanka, New Guinea Cyrtarachne p. possoica Merian, 1911 – Indonesia C. promilai Tikader, 1963 – India C. raniceps Pocock, 1900 – India, Sri Lanka C. rubicunda L. Koch, 1871 – Australia C. schmidi Tikader, 1963 – India, China C. sinicola Strand, 1942 – China C. sundari Tikader, 1963 – India C. sunjoymongai Ahmed, Khalap, Mohan & Jadhav, 2015 – India C. szetschuanensis Schenkel, 1963 – China C. termitophila Lawrence, 1952 – Congo C. tricolor – Indonesia to Australia Cyrtarachne t. aruana Strand, 1911 – Indonesia C. tuladepilachna Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 – Philippines C. xanthopyga Kulczyński, 1911 – New Guinea C. yunoharuensis Strand, 1918 – China, Japan

Molon Labe (Falling Skies)

"Molon Labe" is the seventh episode of the second season of the American television drama series Falling Skies, the 17th overall episode of the series. It aired on TNT in the United States on July 22, 2012, it was directed by Holly Dale. The title is drawn from the defiant cry uttered by Sparta's King Leonidas I to Persians demanding that he surrenders his army's weapons, Molon labe. Karen leads Ben into a trap. Before Karen can place a harness on him and the Second Mass arrive and start a firefight. Karen manages to slip away but, in the confusion, Tom manages to point a gun at an Overlord, causing the enemy forces to stand down. Realizing the value of his target, Tom decides to take the Overlord prisoner and take the creature to Charleston. Weaver resumes command and sends Matt along with Lourdes and Anne to get more supplies from the basement before they leave the hospital, with Matt along as security. Soon after the prisoner has been brought to base, the humans are attacked. Weaver realizes the frontal assault is a diversion and sends Tom to stop a mech that has sneaked through the back.

While successful, the resulting explosion traps Anne and Matt in the basement. Karen appears offering terms: Surrender the Overlord and everyone will be spared, though Tom and Hal don't buy this for a second. Ben and Tom argue over Ben's ultimate fate with the teen deciding to leave after this for the Second Mass' protection. In the basement, Anne and Matt come across an injured Jamil, sent to look for them, he has no signs of visible injuries but is hurt in a bad way and cautions them not to open the door opposite him. At the same time and Hal are nearly attacked in the tunnels by a swarm of spider-like creatures sent by the aliens to force man's hand. In the meantime, Jamil is revealed to have been made into a "Trojan horse" as several creatures erupt from his body and chase Anne and Matt, trapping them in the blood lab. Matt is sent through the air vents by Anne to fetch help and narrowly avoids being eaten by the creatures thanks to being found by Tom and Pope and is pulled out in time; the basement is sealed off but since the creatures can eat through metal like rats this is only a temporary measure.

Karen appears again to tell the resistance it has run out of time and callously executes a captured fighter to prove a point. An enraged Tom goes to confront the Overlord to demand answers. Through Ben the creature reveals that they're after something on Earth though it won't specify what and that the culling of humans was a favor. Humans are a weak self-destructive species that fights over dwindling resources and is ruled by emotions. To prove a point it begins to kill Ben through the link. Tom retaliates by shooting the alien in the neck leaving Anne to try to keep their only bargaining chip alive. Weaver is furious at Tom's actions but admits if it was Jeannie in that situation he would have done the same. While still uncertain, both men realize. While the Overlords consider the resistance a minor irritant, the prospect of their own slaves starting an uprising has them rattled; this still doesn't change the fact. Tom tells them to bring in Karen. A smug Karen is brought in and gloats to Hal about how predictable the resistance is and how they fell for her ruse.

Her attitude changes when presented with the injured Overlord and she has to be restrained to hear Tom's proposition: Let the humans leave and she gets her master back to treat. Though the aliens could blow them up with an air strike, Tom reveals they have wired the building with C4; the explosives are connected to a detonator, with a hidden Pope and if he sees or gets word of trouble he will blow the building up, killing Karen and her master. The aliens are forced to agree with the resistance's demands. Ben and Tom say tearful goodbyes on the road. After Ben leaves on foot to join the skitter rebellion, the Second Mass begins the final leg of their journey to Charleston. In its original American broadcast, "Molon Labe" was seen by an estimated 3.45 million household viewers, according to Nielsen Media Research. "Molon Labe" received a 1.2 rating among viewers between ages 18 and 49, meaning 1.2 percent of viewers in that age bracket watched the episode. Les Chappell of The A. V. Club gave the episode an A-, remarking that the series is strong when it "tries to be scary".

He continued "Maybe Falling Skies will fall into the same potholes I’ve complained about but after "Molon Labe," I’m once again optimistic they might do better." Chris Carabott of IGN praised the episode and called it "easily the best episode of the season and could be considered one of the best of the series." He gave the episode a score of 9/10, an "amazing" rating

Novemberinte Nashtam

Novemberinte Nashtam is a 1982 Malayalam romantic drama film written and directed by P. Padmarajan, it stars Madhavi, Prathap Pothan and Surekha in the lead roles. The film is about a girl's emotional turmoil after a breakup and her supportive brother and how they try to get through the difficult period. Madhavi as Meera Ramachandran as Balu, Meera's brother Prathap Pothan as Das, Meera's lover Surekha as Ambika, Balu's wife Nalini as Rekha, Meera's friend Bharath Gopi as Meera's father Thodupuzha Vasanthi The music was composed by M. G. Radhakrishnan and K. C. Varghese Kunnamkulam with lyrics by Poovachal Khader; the film was produced by Abbas Malayil under the banner of Charasma Films. He had, in 1979, produced the film Neelathamara, directed by Yusufali Kechery and written by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. Abbas returned to film production with the film Parayan Baaki Vechathu. Novemberinte Nashtam on IMDb Novemberinte Nashtam at the Malayalam Movie Database Novemberinte Nashtam at ReLook: Novemberinte Nashtam at