Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Sound installation is an intermedia and time based art form. It is an expansion of an art installation in the sense that it includes the sound element, a work of art is an installation only if it makes a dialog with the surrounding space. A sound installation is usually a site-specific but sometimes it can be readapted to other spaces and it can be made either in close or open spaces, and context is fundamental to determine how a sound installation will be aesthetically perceived. This temporal factor gives the audience the excuse to explore the space due to the dispositions of the different sounds in space. The simplest sound form is a sound loop. This is mostly used in ambient art, and in case the sound is not the determinant factor of the art work. The most used sound structure is the form, since the public can decide to experience a sound installation for just a few minutes or for a longer period of time. This obliges the artist to construct an organization that is capable of working well in both of the two cases.
There is the possibility to have a sound structure. In this case, the artist might risk not having the audience staying for the length of the sound. Acousmonium Audium Installation art Interactive art Land art Poème électronique Sound art Sound installation art The sound installation Audium
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
A convention center is a large building that is designed to hold a convention, where individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests. Convention centers typically offer sufficient floor area to several thousand attendees. Very large venues, suitable for trade shows, are sometimes known as exhibition centres. Convention centers typically have at least one auditorium and may contain concert halls, lecture halls, meeting rooms, some large resort area hotels include a convention center
From 1807 prizes were given to artists and surplus funds were used to buy paintings for the nation. The British Institution was founded in June 1805 by a group of subscribers who met in the Thatched House Tavern in London. The British Institution opened at the Pall Mall site on 18 January 1806, above Seguier the Institution had a Keeper, a role given to a series of engravers. When in 1832 two pictures by Richard Parkes Bonington, who had been only four years, were included in an Old Masters exhibition. They were essentially the same group who were to succeed in persuading the government to found the National Gallery in 1824, there was a total group of 125 Governors and Subscribers, paying sums between 100 guineas down to one guinea annually. The Institution had been discussed with the Royal Academy before it was established, the Prince Regent was Patron from the foundation, and loans from the Royal Collection continued throughout the life of the Institution. In 1822 the hereditary nature of the Governors was eased out, as they were becoming far too numerous, the architect was George Dance the Younger, the clerk of the city works.
The gallery had a monumental, neo-classical stone-built front, and three rooms on the first floor, with a total of more than 4,000 square feet of wall space for displaying pictures. Boydell ran up debts in producing his Shakespeare engravings, and obtained an Act of Parliament in 1804 to dispose of the gallery. The main prize winner, William Tassie, a modeller and maker of replica engraved gems, sold the gallery property and contents at auction. When the British Institution took possession, they retained a sculptural group on the façade by Thomas Banks. The price of admission remained one shilling throughout the life of the Institution, there were some private openings in the evenings, for members and exhibitors, these being divided into two by splitting the alphabet. The number of works exhibited grew within a few years to over 500. Within a few years the number of works regularly reached over 500, the 1806 receipts for the shilling entries were £534 & 4s implying 10,684 paying visitors above the members and their guests.
In 1810 the Institution announced that in its first four years a total of 424 works had sold, raising £20,900 for the artists. In 1814 the Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia were among the visitors, from 1807 a number of prizes of £100 or £50 were given to students at the school who painted the best companion pieces to works by Old Masters on display at the gallery. These were increased and extended to artists, reaching 300,200 and 100 guineas by 1811. The Institution commissioned or bought a number of paintings which were presented to the National Gallery and it was given to the National Gallery, but transferred along with their British collection to what is now Tate Britain
Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. A negative image on film is used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print. The word photography was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, light and γραφή representation by means of lines or drawing, several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung. Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566, wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley, a hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture, renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means dark chamber in Latin and it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance and he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. The shadow images eventually darkened all over, the first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825, in 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature. Because Niépces camera photographs required a long exposure, he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy, Daguerres efforts culminated in what would be named the daguerreotype process
A craft is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan, the beginning of crafts in areas like the Ottoman empire involved the governing bodies requiring members of the city who were skilled at creating goods to open shops in the center of town. These people slowly stopped acting as subsistence farmers and began to represent what we think of a craftsman today, craftsmen tended to concentrate in urban centers and formed guilds. The households of craftsmen were not as self-sufficient as those of people engaged in agricultural work, once an apprentice of a craft had finished his apprenticeship, he would become a journeyman searching for a place to set up his own shop and make a living. After he set up his own shop, he could call himself a master of his craft. But crafts have undergone deep structural changes during and since the era of the Industrial Revolution, they participate in a certain division of labour between industry and craft.
There are three aspects to human creativity - Art and Science, roughly determinated, art relies upon intuitive sensing and expression, crafts upon sophisticated technique and science upon knowledge. Handicraft is the main sector of the crafts, it is a type of work where useful. Usually the term is applied to traditional means of making goods, the individual artisanship of the items is a paramount criterion, such items often have cultural and/or religious significance. Items made by mass production or machines are not handicraft goods, handicraft goods are made with craft production processes. Crafts practiced by independent artists working alone or in groups are often referred to as studio craft. Studio craft includes studio pottery, metal work, wood turning and other forms of working, glass blowing. A craft fair is an event to display and sell crafts. There are craft shops where such goods are sold and craft communities, such as Craftster, a tradesperson is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft.
Economically and socially, a status is considered between a laborer and a professional, with a high degree of both practical and theoretical knowledge of their trade. In cultures where professional careers are highly prized there can be a shortage of skilled manual workers, media related to Crafts at Wikimedia Commons
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Paul-Marie Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international, born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte in Paris and took up a post in the civil service. He began writing poetry at an age, and was initially influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader. Verlaines first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, Verlaines first published collection, Poèmes saturniens, though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality. Verlaines private life spills over into his work, beginning with his love for Mathilde Mauté de Fleurville, Mathilde became Verlaines wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale. He became head of the bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first letter from Arthur Rimbaud.
By 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, and effectively abandoned her and their son and Verlaines stormy affair took them to London in 1872. In Brussels in July 1873 in a drunken, jealous rage, romances sans paroles was published while Verlaine was imprisoned. From there he went to teach in Boston, before moving to Bournemouth, while in England he produced another successful collection, Sagesse. He returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, fell in love one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois. Verlaine was devastated when Létinois died of typhus in 1883, Verlaines last years saw his descent into drug addiction and poverty. He lived in slums and public hospitals, and spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafes and his poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, and served as a source of inspiration to composers. Gabriel Fauré composed many mélodies, such as the song cycles Cinq mélodies de Venise and La bonne chanson, claude Debussy set to music Clair de lune and six of the Fêtes galantes poems, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier.
Reynaldo Hahn set several of Verlaines poems as did the Belgian-British composer Poldowski and his drug dependence and alcoholism caught up with him and took a toll on his life. Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 51 on 8 January 1896, much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as decadent for its lurid content or moral vision. But with the publication of Jean Moréas Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as Symbolists
A chart, called a graph, is a graphical representation of data, in which the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart. A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structure, the term chart as a graphical representation of data has multiple meanings, A data chart is a type of diagram or graph, that organizes and represents a set of numerical or qualitative data. Maps that are adorned with extra information for a purpose are often known as charts, such as a nautical chart or aeronautical chart. Other domain specific constructs are sometimes called charts, such as the chart in music notation or a record chart for album popularity. Charts are often used to understanding of large quantities of data. Charts can usually be more quickly than the raw data. They are used in a variety of fields, and can be created by hand or by computer using a charting application. Certain types of charts are useful for presenting a given data set than others.
For example, data that presents percentages in different groups are displayed in a pie chart. On the other hand, data that represents numbers that change over a period of time might be best shown as a line chart. A chart can take a variety of forms, however there are common features that provide the chart with its ability to extract meaning from data. Typically the data in a chart is represented graphically, since humans are able to infer meaning from pictures quicker than from text. Text is generally used only to annotate the data, one of the most important uses of text in a graph is the title. A graphs title usually appears above the graphic and provides a succinct description of what the data in the graph refers to. Dimensions in the data are displayed on axes. If a horizontal and an axis are used, they are usually referred to as the x-axis and y-axis respectively. Each axis will have a scale, denoted by periodic graduations, each axis will typically have a label displayed outside or beside it, briefly describing the dimension represented.
If the scale is numerical, the label will often be suffixed with the unit of scale in parentheses
Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them. The term ethnologia is credited to Adam Franz Kollár who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in Vienna in 1783, the distinction between the three terms is increasingly blurry. Ethnology has been considered a field since the late 18th century especially in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups. The 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occidental, such as and this term was used in conjunction with savages, which was either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as noble savage. Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary, lévi-Strauss often referred to Montaignes essay on cannibalism as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a method, at discovering universal invariants in human society.
However, the claims of such cultural universalism have been criticized by various 19th and 20th century social thinkers, including Marx, Foucault, Althusser, list of scholars of ethnology Forster, Johann Georg Adam. Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772,3,4, the Elementary Structures of Kinship, Structural Anthropology Mauss, Marcel. Originally published as Essai sur le don, forme et raison de léchange dans les sociétés archaïques in 1925, this classic text on gift economy appears in the English edition as The Gift, The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Akwe-Shavante society, The Politics of Ethnicity, Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States, problemi generali delletnologia europea, La Ricerca Folklorica, No. Webpage History of German Anthropology/Ethnology 1945/49-1990 Languages describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, national Museum of Ethnology - Osaka, Japan Texts on Wikisource, Rhyn, G. A. F.
In art history, Old Master refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An old master print is a print made by an artist in the same period. The term old master drawing is used in the same way, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern, a pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries. The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master. Les Maitres dautrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, the collection in the Dresden museum essentially stops at the Baroque period. The end date is necessarily vague – for example, Goya is certainly an Old Master, the term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but usually is not. The term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague, especially when discussing paintings, although the terms Old Master Prints and it remains current in the art trade.
Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example, Old Master Paintings, Nineteenth-century paintings and Modern paintings, christies defines the term as ranging from the 14th to the early 19th century. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein