To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia. Exile, government man and assigned servant were all euphemisms used in Australia in the 19th century for convicts under sentence, transported from Britain to the colonies.
It is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018. According to him, comfortable exile is a "social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society; such people are considered'aliens' or internal'others' on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture." When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identified as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature. At the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles. Under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating out
Kita-Ōmagari Station is a railway station located in the city of Daisen, Akita Prefecture, operated by JR East. Kita-Ōmagari Station is served by the Tazawako Line, is located 72.0 km from the terminus of the line at Morioka Station. Kita-Ōmagari Station consists of one side platform serving a single bi-directional traffic. There is no station building, but only a shelter built on the platform; the station is unattended. Kita-Ōmagari Station opened on November 21, 1965 as a station on the Japan National Railways serving the city of Ōmagari, Akita; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987. National Route 105 Yotsuya Post Office List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Kita-Ōmagari Station at Wikimedia Commons JR East Station information
Chorus Aviation is a Canadian holding company which has controlled regional and charter airline operator Jazz Aviation LP from 31 December 2010. These services operate under the brand names Air Canada Express and Jazz Charters. Ownership was held by an income fund called "Jazz Air Income Fund", but a restructuring was announced in October 2010; this is motivated by a change in Canadian tax laws. In February 2011, Chorus reported that revenues had improved and that it had invested in the Uruguayan airline Pluna. After excessive losses, Pluna was shut down by the Uruguayan government on 5 July 2012, Pluna's entire fleet was auctioned off on 1 October 2012. Chorus aviation acquired air charter company Voyageur Airways in 2015. Voyageur Airways provides chartered aircraft to the United Nations in support of various programmes in Africa. On January 4, 2017, Chorus Aviation launched Chorus Aviation Capital with the objective of developing Chorus’ aircraft leasing activity into a global business with a diverse customer base and fleet of regional jet and turbo-prop aircraft in the 70 to 135-seat range.
Chorus Aviation Capital builds diversified portfolios of regional aircraft manufactured by ATR, Bombardier and Embraer that will be leased to regional aircraft operators around the world. On February 8, 2019, Chorus Aviation agreed to purchase nine CRJ900 regional jets from Bombardier in a deal valued at US$437 million; the aircraft will be operated by Chorus subsidiary, Jazz Aviation, with delivery expected in 2020. Jazz Air
Got No Bread, No Milk, No Money, But We Sure Got a Lot of Love is the debut album by the country singer-songwriter James Talley. It was recorded in 1973 at Hound's Ear Studios in Tennessee. Reviewing in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau wrote: "The most attractive thing about this homespun Western-swing masterpiece—infusing both its sure, unassuming intelligence and its plain and lovely songs—is a mildness reminiscent of the first recorded string bands. Talley's careful conception and production both work to revive a playing-pretty-for-our-friends feel that most folkies would give up their rent-controlled apartments for. Despite its intense rootedness, it's neither defensive nor preachy—just lays down a way of life for all to hear." "W. Lee O'Daniel and the Light Crust Doughboys" - 2:47 "Got No Bread, No Milk, No Money, But We Sure Got a Lot of Love" - 2:11 "Red River Memory" - 3:25 "Give Him Another Bottle" - 2:00 "Calico Gypsy" - 2:53 "To Get Back Home" - 2:20 "Big Taters in the Sandy Land" - 1:36 "No Opener Needed" - 3:11 "Blue-Eyed Ruth and My Sunday Suit" - 1:54 "Mehan, Oklahoma" - 2:41 "Daddy's Song" - 1:34 "Take Me to the Country" - 3:53 "Red River Reprise" - 2:13 James Talley - Acoustic Guitar, Lead Vocals Doyle Grisham - Steel Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Electric Guitar, Dobro Jerry McKuen - Electric Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Mandolin Johnny Gimble - Fiddle, Mandolin John Hiatt - Acoustic Guitar Rick Durrett - Organ, Accordion Steve Hostak - Electric Guitar Steve Mendell - Bass Wayne Secrest - Bass Lisa Silver - Fiddle Ralph Childs - Tuba Karl Himmel - Drums Gregg Thomas - Drums Dave Poe - Clarinet Tommy Smith - Trumpet Michael Martin - Spoons Johnny Bell - Background Vocals Dave Gillon - Background Vocals Tony Lyons - Background Vocals Producer: James Talley Recording Engineer: Richie Cicero/Lee Hazen/Tony Lyons Photography: Clark Thomas Liner Notes: Chet Flippo
The Montgomery Playhouse is Maryland's second oldest continually-running community theatrical performance group. Formed in 1989 from a merger between through a joint effort of the Board of Directors of both The Kensington/Garret Players and The Montgomery Players, The Montgomery Playhouse, in some form, has been providing theater performances for 85 years; the second oldest community theater in Maryland, The Montgomery Players have been in existence since 1929, where they performed in the Chevy Chase, Maryland area at Leland Junior High and the Landon School. In 1962 the group relocated to Inverness Playhouse in North Bethesda, where they spent the next ten years performing there. In 1972 The Montgomery Players once again moved and took up residence at 1201 Quince Orchard Boulevard in Gaithersburg, Maryland in a newly renovated 305-seat theater that they would call their own; this group, up through the merger in 1989, had produced 60 continuous seasons of community theater. The Garrett Park Players organization originated in 1949.
In their early years they performed on rented stages in local schools and recreation centers throughout Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1960 they merged with the Kensington Players; this combined group was known as the Kensington/Garret Players. In 1966 the group moved to a permanent residence at the Kensington Armory; when the State of Maryland closed down the Armory in 1974, the group moved to Quince Orchard Boulevard. In the ensuing years, the Montgomery Players and the K-G Players were both theaters who's attendance was in a slight decline. While sharing actors and technical personnel, they were not sharing in the same profits they once did. In May 1989, the Montgomery Players and the K-G Players decided to join forces in a business accord, since the majority of their theater talent were shared by the two companies, they decided to join forces in hopes of turning a profit, the Montgomery Playhouse was born in the space in which the Montgomery Players were occupying. In December 1999, the Montgomery Playhouse was forced to move from its home in Gaithersburg, Maryland to a temporary facility at the Shady Grove Middle School in Gaithersburg, Maryland.
The final production at their facility was Our Town. Eighteen months The Montgomery Playhouse made an accord with the Asbury Methodist Village to perform their main stage productions at their new facility, a 300-seat theater. Soon after that, the City of Gaithersburg, recognizing the accomplishments by offering an additional venue to perform smaller, more intimate performance pieces at the newly renovated Gaithersburg Arts Barn, a 99-seat theater. To this date, the Montgomery Playhouse performs at both venues. In November 1993, local actor and playwright Eric C. Peterson pitched an idea to the Montgomery Playhouse that it needed to foster and develop young, talented writers; as a member of The Writers Center in Bethesda, MD, the idea was to foster a relationship between the two organizations to help local writers get their works seen. The connection between The Writers Center and The Montgomery Playhouse never did achieve its full potential. However, from this meeting, the Black Box New Play Festival was born.
This short play festival was designed to encourage writers to submit new work for stage presentation. The winners of this festival would represent The Montgomery Playhouse in regional and national competitions; the works of local and nationally notable writers, such as John Morogiello and Mark Scharf have been showcased in these festivals. The festival remains a summer staple to Montgomery Playhouse's bill of fare to this day, performing in the Arts Barn in the Kentlands, Maryland
Øivind Lorentzen was a Norwegian shipping magnate. He was born in Holmestrand as a son of ship-owner Hans Ludvig Thala Margrethe Bredrup, his family lived in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1895. Lorentzen finished his secondary education in 1901, studied shipbuilding at Berlin Institute of Technology from 1901 to 1906. In April 1908 he married a daughter of Peder Nilsen. In 1923 they had 5 sons and one daughter: Hans Ludvig Ph. D.. He became a partner in his father's company Lorentzen & Co in 1908. In 1914 Lorentzen was behind the acquiring of Norway's first motor ship, MS Brazil; the vessel was bought by Fred. Olsen & Co. at the end of the year, but Lorentzen became manager for the ship's South America service, organized through Den Norske Syd-Amerika Linje. In 1920 Lorentzen advanced to CEO of Den Norske Syd-Amerika Linje, a position he left in 1938 to further his own shipping business; the conflict was grounded in Lorentzen's engagements outside of Den Norske Syd-Amerika Linje. When being hired in Den Norske Syd-Amerika Linje, he had left his family company, but continued working with the company Sobral.
When Sobral bought four vessels in 1936, Lorentzen offered to participate with these vessels in the ventures of Den Norske Syd-Amerika Linje, but it was rejected. He instead founded the Northern Pan-American Line with his son as CEO; this company trafficked Northern Brazil and the US. In 1939 he was hired as Director of Shipping, leading ones of the directorates under the Norwegian Ministry of Provisioning. In 1940, Norway was entangled in World War II, the state reorganized the country's shipping into Nortraship. Lorentzen became director of Nortraship, but stayed in the United States, whereas Ingolf Hysing Olsen was the director in London, where most of the Norwegian administration-in-exile sat; the war years saw disagreements between Lorentzen and Arne Sunde and Hilmar Reksten. The actions of Øivind Lorentzen and his son Per were scrutinized by a government committee between 1943 and 1945, was exonerated. Hysing Olsen took over as director after the war. Lorentzen instead continued his career in South American shipping.
He retired in 1959. His eponymous company existed until 1987. Lorentzen was a co-founder and first chairman of the humanitarian organization Landsforeningen mot Poliomyelitt, he was involved in a lengthy court case. In 1950 his company Sobral sued the former board of the shipyard Moss Værft & Dokk. Sobral claimed that Moss Værft & Dokk neglected their contract agreement regarding the construction of two vessels during the war. First, claimed Sobral, Moss Værft & Dokk had instead used their capacity on arming whaling vessels; the two vessels had been delayed, when they were completed, they had been taken over by Kriegsmarine as minesweepers. The court case lasted several years, reaching the court of appeal in 1954, he was decorated as a Knight, First Class of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 1938, he was promoted to Commander with Star after the war. He died in May 1980 in Norway, 97 years old