Assembly of Experts
The Assembly of Experts —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran. However all directly-elected members after the vetting process by the Guardian Council still have to be approved by the Supreme Leader of Iran before gaining membership to the Assembly of Experts. All candidates to the Assembly of Experts must be approved by the Guardian Council whose members are, in turn, appointed either directly or indirectly by the Supreme Leader; the Assembly consists of eighty eight Mujtahids that are elected from lists of vetted candidates by direct public vote for eight-year terms. The number of members has ranged from 82 elected in 1982 to 88 elected in 2016. Current laws require the assembly to meet for at least two days every six months; the current chairman of the Fifth Assembly is Ahmad Jannati. The Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader. Due to Ali Khamenei's longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power.
Iran's Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani, a Khamenei appointee, stated that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise Khamenei. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called the late Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made resulting Rafsanjani to retract it. Mehdi Karroubi, under house arrest since 2011 without trial, by the direct order of Khamenei, said that "the Assembly of Experts, a council of elected clerics charged with electing and disqualifying the Supreme Leader, has turned into a ceremonial council that only praises the Leader.” The members of this assembly are jurists, not theologians. This is a important difference. According to the Iranian Constitution, the assembly is in charge of supervising and electing the Supreme Leader.
In the event of his death, resignation or dismissal, the Experts shall take steps within the shortest possible time to appoint a new Leader. "Whenever the Leader becomes incapable of fulfilling his constitutional duties, or loses one of the qualifications mentioned in the Constitution, or it becomes known that he did not possess some of the qualifications he will be dismissed." The assembly has never dismissed a sitting Supreme Leader, as all of their meetings and notes are confidential, the assembly has never been known to challenge or otherwise publicly oversee any of the Supreme Leader's decisions. To choose the Supreme Leader, the Experts are to review qualified candidates and consult among themselves. Constitutionally the criteria of qualification for the office of the Supreme Leader include "Islamic scholarship, piety, right political and social perspicacity, courage, administrative facilities and adequate capability for leadership." In the event that they find one of the jurists better versed in Islamic regulations, in fiqh, or in political and social issues, or possessing more general popularity or special prominence than any of their members, they shall elect that person as Supreme Leader.
Otherwise, in the absence of such a candidate, the Experts shall elect and declare one of their own as Supreme Leader. Iranian constitutional referendum, 1989 removed the requirement for the leader to be a marja, as Ali Khamenei was not a marja at that time; the assembly gathers every six months. Activities of the assembly include compiling a list of those eligible to become Supreme Leader in the event of the current Supreme Leader's death, resignation, or dismissal; this is done by the 107/109 commission. Monitoring the current leader to make sure he continues to meet all the criteria listed in the constitution is done by the 111 commission. Members of the Assembly report to this commission about the issues concerning the current Supreme Leader, the commission can order an emergency meeting of the Assembly. If the commission denies this, the members can ask the entire plenary of the Assembly for a vote, if most of the members vote in favor, an emergency meeting will be scheduled to discuss the current Supreme Leader.
The meetings, meeting notes, reports of the Assembly are confidential and not made available to anyone outside the assembly, except for the sitting Supreme Leader. The constitution does not specify requirements for candidacy for the Assembly of Experts, leaving the Assembly itself to put limits on who may run for membership; the assembly has passed laws to require all its members be experts in fiqh, authorizing the Guardian Council to vet candidates for ijtihad proficiency using written and oral examinations. This law was challenged by the reformists, their 2006 election campaign included changing this law to allow non-clerics into the assembly, reforming the law that allows Guardian Council to vet candidates. Women are theoretically eligible to run for the Assembly of Experts and in 1998 nine women submitted their candidacy; the Guardian Council rejected them. The average age of the members of the Assembly is over 60 years, which results in many mid-term elections due to deaths and resignations.
The members must be Ayatollahs. The first elections for the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership were held in December 1982 and the Assembl
Mohammad Javad Zarif
Mohammad Javad Zarif Khonsari is an Iranian career diplomat and academic. He is the current foreign minister of Iran since 2013, he has held various significant cabinet posts since the 1990s. Zarif is a visiting professor at the School of International Relations and University of Tehran, teaching diplomacy and international organizations, he was the Permanent Representative of Iran to the United Nations from 2002 to 2007. During his tenure as foreign minister, he led the Iranian negotiation with P5+1 countries which produced the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on 14 July 2015, lifting the economic sanctions against Iran on 16 January 2016. On 25 February 2019, Zarif resigned from his post as foreign minister, his resignation was rejected by President Rouhani and he continues as foreign minister. Zarif has held other domestic and international positions as well: adviser and senior adviser to the Foreign Minister, Deputy Foreign Minister in Legal and International affairs, member of the UN Eminent Persons Group on Dialogue Among Civilizations, Head of the UN Disarmament Commission in New York, member of the Eminent Persons Group on global governance, Vice President for International Affairs of the Islamic Azad University.
Zarif was born on 7 January 1960 in Tehran. According to The New Republic, Zarif was born to an "affluent, religiously devout and politically conservative merchant family in Tehran", his father was one of the most well-known businessmen of Isfahan, his mother was the daughter of one of the most famous businessmen of Tehran. He was educated at a private religious institution. Zarif was shielded from TV, newspapers by his parents as a youth. Instead, he became exposed to revolutionary ideas by reading the books of Ali Shariati and Samad Behrangi. At age 17, he left Iran for the United States. Zarif attended Drew College Preparatory School, a private college-preparatory high school located in San Francisco, California, he went on to study at San Francisco State University, from which he gained a B. A. in 1981 and M. A. in 1982, both in international relations. Following this, Zarif continued his studies at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver, from which he obtained a second M.
A. in international relations in 1984 and a Ph. D. in international law and policy in 1988. His thesis was entitled "Self-Defense in International Law and Policy."Tom Rowe, a professor at the graduate school who led the committee that oversaw Zarif's dissertation, said: "He was among the best students that I've taught." Ved Nanda, who taught and was on Zarif's dissertation committee, recalled: " good in the classroom. At that time... I thought he'd play an important part in his country's life." Zarif was appointed a member of the Iranian delegation to the United Nations in May 1982—largely due to his English-speaking ability and relationships in America, rather than formal diplomatic training. As a junior diplomat Zarif was involved in negotiations to win the release of U. S. hostages held by pro-Iranian gunmen in Lebanon, according to the memoirs of former United Nations envoy Giandomenico Picco. Though the United States did not make a promised reciprocal goodwill gesture at the time, Zarif remained committed to improving ties.
In 2000, Zarif served as chairman of the Asian preparatory meeting of the World Conference on Racism and as the chairman of the United Nations Disarmament Commission. Zarif was professor of international law at the University of Tehran, he served as the vice president of Islamic Azad University in charge of foreign affairs from 2010 to 2012 under Abdollah Jasbi. He has served on the board of editors of a number of scholarly journals, including the Iranian Journal of International Affairs and Iranian Foreign Policy, has written extensively on disarmament, human rights, international law, regional conflicts, he served as Iran's representative at the United Nations from 2002 to 2007. He was linked with developing the so-called "Grand Bargain," a plan to resolve outstanding issues between the U. S. and Iran in 2003. Zarif, during his time at the UN, held private meetings with a number of Washington politicians, including the then-Senators Joseph Biden and Chuck Hagel. Zarif resigned from office on 6 July 2007.
He was succeeded by Mohammad Khazaee in the post. In 2007, Zarif was a headline speaker at an American Iranian Council conference in New Brunswick, New Jersey including Chuck Hagel, Dennis Kucinich, Nicholas Kristof, Anders Liden to discuss Iranian-American relations, potential ways to increase dialogue and avoid conflict. On 18 November 2008, Zarif claimed that Washington is conspiring to foment discord among Iranians in order to topple the Tehran government, he went on to say: "The concept of a velvet revolution in Iran should not be considered as groundless fear." On 23 July 2013, it was reported. This was not confirmed by the president-elect's office until 4 August when Rouhani nominated Zarif for the position to the Parliament, he was confirmed by the Parliament with 232 votes. He welcomed the first visit by a foreign leader to Iran since Rouhani assumed the presidency ten days after his approval as Foreign Minister with the arrival of Oman's sultan, Qaboos bin Said Al Said. Stories spread that there was a secret agenda to his meetings with Iranian officials, involving claims that he came to convey messages from the United States and to relay Iran's response to White House officials.
On 5 September 2013, in an exchange prompted by his Rosh Hashanah greeting on Twitter, Zarif said that Iran does not
Islamic Consultative Assembly
The Islamic Consultative Assembly called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles, is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election; the most recent election took place on 26 February 2016 and the new parliament was opened on 28 May 2016. The first recorded signs of a council to decide on different issues in ancient Iran dates back to 247 BC while the Parthian empire were in power. Parthians established the first Iranian empire since the conquest of Persia by Alexander and by their early years of reigning, an assembly of the nobles called “Mehestan” was formed that made the final decision on serious issues; the word "Mehestan" is consisted of two parts. "Meh", a word of the old Persian origin, which means "The Great" and "-stan", a suffix in the Persian language, which describes an especial place. Altogether Mehestan means a place; the Mehestan Assembly, which consisted of Zoroastrian religious leaders and clan elders exerted great influence over the administration of the kingdom.
One of the most important decisions of the council took place in 208 AD, when a civil war broke out and the Mehestan decided that the empire would be ruled by two brothers Ardavan V and Blash V. In 224 AD, following the dissolve of the Parthian empire, after over 470 years, the Mahestan council came to an end. Before the Islamic Revolution, Majlis was the name of the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979, the upper house being the Senate, it was created by the Iran Constitution of 1906 and first convened on 7 October 1906, soon gaining power under the rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Noteworthy bills passed by the Parliament under the Pahlavi Dynasty include the Oil Nationalization Bill and the Family Protection Law, which gave women many basic rights such as custody of children in the case of divorce. Women were not allowed to vote or be elected to the Parliament until 1963, as part of reforms under the Shah's "White Revolution"; the twenty-first National Consultative Assembly, which included female representatives, opened on 6 October 1963.
The last session of the Pre-Revolution Parliament was held on 7 February 1979. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Senate of Iran was abolished and was replaced by the Guardian Council thus the Iranian legislature remained bicameral. In the 1989 revision of the constitution, the National Consultative Assembly became the Islamic Consultative Assembly; the Parliament of Iran has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was the first chairman, from 1980 to 1989. Came Mehdi Karroubi, Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri, Mehdi Karroubi, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel and Ali Larijani since 2008. Over its history the Parliament is said to have evolved from being "a debating chamber for notables," to "a club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era, to a body dominated by members of "the propertied middle class" under the Islamic Republic. On 7 June 2017, there was shooting at the Iranian parliament and at the shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini. Gunmen opened fire at the Iranian Parliament and the mausoleum of religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini in Tehran.
The attack on the mausoleum has left 17 persons dead and more than 30 people injured. The parliament was attacked by four gunmen. Both attacks appear to have been coordinated; the Islamic Consultative Assembly can legislate laws on all issues within the limits of the Constitution. The Assembly cannot, for instance, enact laws contrary to the canons and principles of the official religion of the country or to the Constitution. Government bills are presented to the Islamic Consultative Assembly after receiving the approval of the Council of Ministers; the Islamic Consultative Assembly has the right to investigate and examine all the affairs of the country. International treaties, protocols and agreements must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Receiving and issuing national or international loans or grants by the government must be ratified by the Islamic Consultative Assembly; the President must obtain, for the Council of Ministers, after being formed and before all other business, a vote of confidence from the Assembly.
Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question. All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be sent to the Guardian Council; the Guardian Council must review it within a maximum of ten days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution. If it finds the legislation incompatible, it will return it to the Assembly for review. Otherwise the legislation will be deemed enforceable. There are 290 members of Parliament, fourteen of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities, are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the Parliament are women, while the global average is 13%; the Parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers through no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office.
Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Parliament may introduce legislation. Deputies may propose amendments to bills being deb
President of Iran
The President of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The President is the highest ranking official of Iran; the President carries out the decrees, answers to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over anything, as these are under the control of the Supreme Leader. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates; the procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of the decrees and wishes of the Supreme Leader; these include signing treaties and other agreements with foreign countries and international organizations, with Supreme Leader's approval. The President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of Parliament, the Supreme Leader who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the president or parliament's decision.
The Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei directly chooses the ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs, as well as certain other ministries, such as the Science Ministry. Iran’s regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran’s ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader; as such, the current long-time Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, ruling Iran for nearly three decades, has been issuing decrees and making final decisions on economy, foreign policy, national planning, everything else in the country. Khamenei has made final decisions on the degree of transparency in elections in Iran, has fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments; the President of Iran is elected for a four-year term by direct vote and not permitted to run for a third term or serve for more than 8 years in the office. The current President of Iran is Hassan Rouhani, assumed office on 3 August 2013, after the 2013 Iranian presidential election.
He succeeded Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who served 8 years in office from 2005 to 2013. Rouhani won re-election in the 2017 presidential election. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and referendum to create the Islamic Republic on March 29 and 30, the new government needed to craft a new constitution. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, ordered an election for the Assembly of Experts, the body tasked with writing the constitution; the assembly presented the constitution on October 24, 1979, Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini and Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan approved it. The 1979 Constitution designated the Supreme Leader of Iran as the head of state and the President and Prime Minister as the heads of government; the post of Prime Minister was abolished in 1989. The first Iranian presidential election was held on January 25, 1980 and resulted in the election of Abulhassan Banisadr with 76% of the votes. Banisadr was impeached on June 1981 by Parliament; until the early election on July 24, 1981, the duties of the President were undertaken by the Provisional Presidential Council.
Mohammad-Ali Rajai was elected President on July 24, 1981 and took office on August 2. Rajai was in office for less than one month because he and his prime minister were both assassinated. Once again a Provisional Presidential Council filled the office until October 13, 1981 when Ali Khamenei was elected president; the election on August 3, 2005 resulted in a victory for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The election on June 12, 2009 was reported by government authorities as a victory for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the incumbent candidate, although this is disputed by supporters of rival candidates, who noted the statistical anomalies in voting reports and large-scale overvoting in the announced tallies. Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Hassan Rouhani were each elected president for two terms; the procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term in a national election by universal adult suffrage for everyone of at least 18 years of age.
Candidates for the presidency must be approved by the Council of Guardians, a twelve-member body consisting of six clerics and six lawyers. According to the Constitution of Iran candidates for the presidency must possess the following qualifications: Iranian origin. Within these guidelines the Council vetoes candidates; the approval process is considered to be a check on the president's power, amounts to a small number of candidates being approved. In the 1997 election, for example, only four out of 238 presidential candidates were approved by the council. Western observers have criticized the approvals process as a way for the Council and Supreme Leader to ensure that only conservative and like-minded Islamic
2016 Iranian Assembly of Experts election
Assembly of Experts election were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect Assembly of Experts members. The 88 members of the Assembly of Experts, known as mujtahids, are directly elected; the elections had been planned for 2014, but were delayed by a year in order to hold them alongside the Islamic Consultative Assembly elections. The winning candidates of the elections, sitting until 2024, may have to choose the next Supreme Leader of Iran, or at least plan for it. For the first time in the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 801 aspirants registered to run in the elections; the number was a 62.47% increase compared to the previous election held in 2006. Among the candidates there were another unprecedented event. There have been no female members in the assembly since its establishment. On December 31, 2015 the Guardian Council announced that the four-hour Ijtihad test would be held January 5, 2016 in Qom in order to indicate candidates with proper knowledge, specifying that no alternative test date would be offered.
The Council invited 527 candidates to take the test, excluding the 152 who withdrew and 111 who were denied permission. Of the 16 women who registered, 10 received invitations. Nearly 80% of candidates who applied for the Assembly were disqualified by the Guardian Council, including every woman and Hassan Khomeini. Four incumbent members were disqualified: Ali Mohammad Dastgheib Shirazi, Fars Province Mohammad Vaez Mousavi, East Azerbaijan Province Mojtaba Taheri Khorramabadi, Luristan Province Hassan Namazi, West Azerbaijan ProvinceOther famous disqualified candidates include: Mehdi Ghoreishi Rasoul Montajabnia Kazem Seddiqi Morteza Agha-Tehrani Majid Ansari Mostafa PourmohammadiDisqualifications left nine constituencies with only one candidate per seat; the Ministry of the Interior declared that with the Guardian Council's approval, some qualified candidates changed their electoral district to make the election competitive in the destination constituency. In the previous election, The Two Societies endorsed 81 candidates in a joint statement and were able to win 69 seats out of 86.
The reformists lost the election. Along with the Parliamentary elections, it was the first election since the implementation of a landmark nuclear agreement between 5+1 and Iran that saw it curb sensitive nuclear activities in return for the lifting of sanctions against Iran; the deal was backed by moderates and reformists. In this election, contrary to the previous ones, The Two Societies did not reach a coalition and issued different lists; the main dispute between the two, was whether they should support Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani candidacy or not. Combatant Clergy Association supported Rafsanjani. There were three major electoral lists in the election: Combatant Clergy Association, led by Ali Movahedi-Kermani Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom, led by Mohammad Yazdi People's Experts, led by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and endorsed by The List of HopeIn a 17 February public speech, Supreme Leader of Iran Ali Khamenei warns of the subtle influence of foreign agents on the elections, stating that they are implementing new ploys in various ways to falsely polarize the election.
He condemned BBC Persian's programs on the elections and said that people will act differently from what they want. Hardliners attacked Ransanjani's list by calling it “The British list”, implying that it is supported by the United Kingdom. Ahmad Khatami, the interim Friday prayer imam of Tehran spoke out in the Friday prayer: “British and foreign media outlets are asking our people not to vote for Jannati, Mesbah, Alamolhoda and I; this is none of your business. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani dismissed the charges and said "Such interpretations regarding British list is an insult to Iranian people's wisdom", in a meeting with the reformist and moderate candidates, he deplored that 500 knowledgeable theologians and seminarians as well as university instructors were disqualified for the elections. "They presently have no excuse to insult us. Thus, they attribute phrases like ‘inside man’ and ‘British’ to the old revolutionaries... These figures have been defeated by the people and are now seeking to exact revenge on the administration and President Rouhani”, he added.
Despite the restrictions, reformists became well-organised to seek gains. The reformists who were barred from public presence as a result of 2009 protests, tried to keep the flame alive online; the instant messaging service Telegram played an important role in the campaigning period. More than 20 million Iranians are reported to be on the messaging app. Mohammad Khatami, facing restrictions on activities and Iranian media are banned from mentioning his name or publishing the images him, released a video message online urging people to vote for “The List of Hope”, creating a huge momentum —The coalition of reformists and moderates, endorsed Rafsanjani's “People's Experts”. Khatami's message was viewed more than 3 million times on Telegram in one day. Another poster shared on the app was viewed by a million people in 12 hours. Two days before the election, President Hassan Rouhani took to text message every cell phone to drum up support in Friday's elections, tacitly endorsing the moderate list of hope.
According to the Associated Press, moderate clerics defeated hardliners and dominated the assembly with Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and H
Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani, better known as Amoli Larijani, is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the former and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution. He was born in 1339 solar in Iraq, to Iranian parents, his father, Ayatollah Mirza Hashem Amoli, was an eminent Mujtahid of his time who worked in Najaf after being exiled by Mohammad Reza Shah. The family moved to Iran after the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Larinjani became familiar with modern sciences as child, he finished high school in 1356 solar. Following high school, he began his seminary studies in Qom, he finished his seminary studies in 1368 solar began to teach in both seminary and university. He became a member of scientific staffs of Qom University and taught many courses in theology and comparative philosophy. Larijani is a brother of Ali Larijani, Mohammad Javad Larijani, Bagher Larijani, Fazel Larijani. Larijani served as one of the 12 members of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran for eight years.
Described as "relatively junior" or "inexperienced cleric" with "close ties to Iran's military and intelligence agencies", he was appointed head of the judicial system of Iran by supreme leader Ali Khamenei on 14 August 2009. According to leading Iranian human rights defense lawyer Mohammad Seifzadeh, the head of the Judicial System of Iran is required to be a Mojtahed with significant experience in the field. Larijani, was neither an experienced jurist nor a ranked cleric and carried the title of Hojjat-ol Eslam up to a few months before his appointment to the post. Larijani's tenure as the Chief Justice Of Iran ended on March 7 2019, when the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei appointed Ebrahim Raisi to succeed him. Shortly after his appointment, Larijani appointed Saeed Mortazavi to the post of deputy prosecutor general of Iran. Mortazavi was prosecutor general of Tehran for more than seven years during which he was involved in murdering and torturing a number of Iranian civilians and activists.
One of the high-profile deaths attributed to Mortazavi is that of Canadian-Iranian photojournalist Zahra Kazemi. On 7 September 2009, Iranian police with permission from judiciary system and Tehran General Court entered the office for support of political prisoners and seized all the documents, computers among others; the police refused to give a receipt of the items. The office was organized by Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Mousavi for supporting the victims of torture in Iranian prisons. On 8 September 2009, Iranian Judiciary, unexpectedly closed and sealed the office of National Confidence Party and arrested Morteza Alviri and Alireza Beheshti and several of the closest allies of opposition leaders Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Mousavi; that same month, the authorities from the Judiciary System began targeting the children of leaders of the opposition groups. For instance, Atefeh Emam, the daughter of jailed activist Javad Emam, the Chief of Staff of Mousavi's campaign, was arrested on 9 September 2009, held in a secret facility and tortured to pressure her to make a "confession" implicating her father.
The Judiciary released her after twenty-four hours in the South of Tehran in an inappropriate condition. In 2015, he said. In 2016, he warned president Hassan Rouhani against voicing opposition to Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Sadegh Larijani stated that the government does not derive its legitimacy from the votes of the nation, he is a well-known critic of his reforms. In March 1998 an article by him attacking Khatami's call for a civil Islamic society and Abdolkarim Soroush's philosophy was published in Sobh newspaper. Larijani proclaimed: "We support a society, based on the spirit of Islam and religious faith, in which Islamic and religious values are propagated, in which every Koranic injunction and the teachings of the Prophet of Islam and the Imams are implemented, it will be a society in which the feeling of servitude to God Almighty will be manifest everywhere, in which people will not demand their rights from God but are conscious of their obligations to God." At the same time he considered as leading figure in the sphere of philosophy of fiqh.
He criticizes the views of people — such as Abdolkarim Soroush — who says that while there is a society, or civilization, of Muslims, there is no such thing as an Islamic society or civilization, that Islam is a spiritual and individual way of life, not an ideology. Larijani condemned protesters and those who expressed doubts in the 2009 presidential election results, calling the protests "illegal" and any doubts "baseless". On 23 May 2012, Larijani was put into the sanction list of the European Union, published in the Official Journal of the Union. In the journal, it was stated that as head of the judiciary in Iran, he endorsed and allowed harsh punishments for retribution crimes, crimes against God, crimes against the state. In January 2018, the United States sanctioned Larijani for human rights abuses, which Iran denied. Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani wrote works in a variety of different fields such as Islamic jurisprudence, principles of Islamic jurisprudence, analytic philosophy, philosophy of language, moral philosophy.
He translated some works into Persian, notably Geoffrey Warnock's Contemporary Moral Philosophy. He translated a philosophy of science article by Karl Popper. In a number of works he critici
Mohsen Rezaee Mirgha'ed is an Iranian conservative politician affiliated with the Resistance Front of Islamic Iran and senior military officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps who holds office as the secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council. Before the Iranian Revolution, Rezaee was a member of the Islamist guerilla rebel group Mansouroun and joined the Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization following the revolution. Dubbed a "perennial candidate", Rezaei ran as a conservative presidential candidate in the 2009 elections, coming third with 1.7 percent of the vote, behind winner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and reformist runner-up Mir-Hossein Mousavi. He was a candidate in 2013 presidential election and received 3,884,412 votes, he ranked fourth behind runner-up Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and Saeed Jalili. Rezaei was born in Masjed Soleyman on 9 September 1954 to a religious Bakhtiyari nomadic family, he spent his adolescence in the oil-rich city of Masjed Soleyman in southwestern Iran.
Along with his close friends, he established the "Religion and Science Association". When he was to begin studying at a school run by National Iranian Oil Company in 1969, Rezaei moved to the city of Ahvaz. At high school, he started his cultural struggle against the Shah's regime. In the last year of high school, he was arrested by the Shah Security service SAVAK in Ahvaz and tortured, he was 17. He did not stop his political activities. Rezaei arrived in Tehran in 1974 to study mechanical engineering at Iran University of Science and Technology, he worked at the same time. SAVAK intensified its crackdown on guerrilla groups, he had to abandon the university. He launched provincial branches of Mansouroun guerrilla fighters in seven provinces; when Ruhollah Khomeini returned home from exile, the Mansouroun group was tasked with protecting the revolutionary leader. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution, seven armed Muslim groups teamed up and established the Islamic Revolution Mujahideen Organization to safeguard the nascent Islamic Revolution.
Although he studied mechanical engineering at Iran University of Science and Technology before the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Rezaee switched to economics after the Iran–Iraq War, studying at Tehran University and received his PhD in 2001. Rezaei joined the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps and was appointed chief of its intelligence division, he was appointed as the IRGC commander by Ruhollah Khomeini, after it grew in organizational complexity he assumed the office of IRGC's commander-in-chief on 11 September 1981, when he was 27 years old, remained in the post until he announced his retirement from all of his military posts. He participated in the Iran–Iraq War. In 1986, he was named member of the Supreme Defense Council. Rezaee was removed from the IRGC in 1997 due to pressures from the followers of the president Mohammad Khatami. Another reason for his dismissal was his failure to respond to the perceived threat of attack from the US, he was replaced by Yahya Rahim Safavi. He became a member of Expediency Discernment Council and its secretary in August 1997.
He was appointed chair of the commission for macroeconomics and commerce. In addition, he is a reviewer of Iran's 2025 versions development. Rezaei founded the news website Tabnak Baztab, in 2002 as a reaction to proliferation of reformist websites, he is related to Wikirezaee. He co-founded Imam Hossein University and teaches there, it is reported that he has returned to IRGC in 2015. Rezaei was a candidate of the presidential election of 2005, but withdrew on 15 June 2005, only two days before the election. Rezaei mentioned he was withdrawing from the race for "the integration of the votes of the nation" and "their effectiveness", he did not endorse any candidate. On 23 April 2009, he announced that he entered the 2009 presidential race, after trying to find another conservative to run against President Ahmadinejad which he lost, he was a candidate in the 2013 election. Rezaei announced his run for presidency in October 2012. On 12 December 2016, Rezaei announced that he "has no decision to run for president" in 2017 election.
However, in February 2017 he told press that if asked by the Popular Front of Islamic Revolutionary Forces to stand, he "will think about it". In 1988, Rezaei sent a letter to Ayatollah Khomeini in which he argued that the Iran–Iraq War could not be won. In the run-up to the 2009 Iranian elections, Rezaei criticized opposing candidate Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's public comments questioning the Holocaust as "not useful" for Iran's international standing. Rezaei stated on 2 August 2009 that the ongoing trials of so-called'prisoners' was an unjust act, issuing a letter on behalf of the Expediency Council of which he is the secretary, condemning the government. A clash and the disagreement over strategy to be adopted in the Iran-Iraq war emerged between Ali Sayed Shirazi, commander of land forces, Rezaei in July 1986; when this rivalry became public, Ayatollah Khomeini met them in his residence on 19 July 1986 and urged them to "seek unity", telling them "You must endeavor, not to think in terms of being members of the Armed Forces or those of the Guards Corps or of the Basij forces....
We must understand that if there were to be any disputes among you... not only are we doomed here and now, but we are guilty before God."In November 2006, Argentine Judge Rodolfo Canicoba Corra issued international arrest warrants for Rezaei, six other Iranians and one Lebanese in connection with the attacks on 18