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Expendable launch system

An expendable launch system is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its components are either destroyed during reentry or discarded in space. ELVs consist of several rocket stages that are discarded sequentially as their fuel is exhausted and the vehicle gains altitude and speed; as of October 2019, most satellites and human spacecraft are launched on ELVs. ELVs are simpler in design than reusable launch systems and therefore may have a lower production cost. Furthermore, an ELV can use its entire fuel supply to accelerate its payload, offering greater fuel efficiency. ELVs are proven technology in wide-spread use for many decades. ELVs are usable only once, therefore have a higher per-launch cost than reusable vehicles. New reusable launch systems under development by private companies such as SpaceX and Blue Origin have the potential to obsolete many existing ELVs due to the lower per-launch costs of reusable rockets. Arianespace produces and markets the Ariane launcher family.

Arianespace's 23 shareholders represent scientific, technical and political entities from 10 different European countries. ISRO operates ELV rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk. II, GSLV Mk. III. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries manufactures ELVs. Russia operates several state-owned families of expendable launch vehicles, including Proton and Soyuz. All of the Russian space sector has been renationalized, starting in 2013 with the formation of the United Rocket and Space Corporation to consolidate a large number of disparate companies and bureaus. On 19 May 2015 State Duma passed a bill creating the Roscosmos State Corporation, further consolidating the industry. Several governmental agencies of the United States purchase ELV launches. NASA is a major customer with the Commercial Resupply Services and Commercial Crew Development programs launching scientific spacecraft. A state-owned ELV, the Space Launch System, is intended to be flying in 2020 or 2021; the United States Air Force is an ELV customer. Both the Delta IV and Atlas V from the 1994 Evolved ELV program remain in active service, operated by the United Launch Alliance.

The National Security Space Launch competition is ongoing to select EELV successors to provide assured access to space. Comparison of orbital launch systems Comparison of orbital launchers families Launch vehicle Lists of rockets Spacecraft propulsion Spaceflight ULA website Arianespace website ESA website Mitsubishi Heavy Industries website

Jove, Gijón

Jove or Xove is one of the twenty-six parishes within the municipality of Gijón, in Asturias, part of the West district of the city. To be integrated in Gijón, Roces was one of the historical parishes of the city, its population was 1,579 in 1995 and grew to 3,189 in 2012. Jove is located on the western coast of Gijón, it borders the city in the east, with the municipality of Carreño in the west. El Musel port is located in this district. In addition to El Musel port, in the Campa Torres, is the archaeological park where there are still remains of Oppidum Noega, the first important settlement in Gijón. Jove is the seat of UD Gijón Industrial, football team which plays in Tercera División. Jove Rubín Jove de Arriba Las Cabañas El Muselín Portuarios Official Toponyms - Principality of Asturias website. Official Toponyms: Laws - BOPA Nº 229 - Martes, 3 de octubre de 2006 & DECRETO 105/2006, de 20 de septiembre, por el que se determinan los topónimos oficiales del concejo de Gijón."

Corporations (Upper Canada)

There were two types of corporations at work in the Upper Canadian economy: the legislatively chartered companies and the unregulated joint stock companies. These two business forms had different legal standing. In contrast, joint stock companies were made illegal by the English Bubble Act of 1720. Joint stock companies were considered extensive partnerships under common law, English legislation limited these to a maximum of six partners. Without incorporation, the company was not considered a "separate personality." It could not hold property. Without incorporation, the company be sued at law, and without incorporation, shareholders were responsible for the debts to the company to the full extent of their personal property. There were significant legal hurdles that made the joint stock company an unwieldy form of partnership. Despite the difficulties in the unincorporated joint stock company form, it became popular in the late eighteenth century in Britain as the means through which public works were carried out.

General public feeling was that all corporations, chartered or otherwise, should only be founded for the public benefit. Although a limited number of companies were formed for the purpose of for-profit trade, others were a way of controlling forms of common property; the joint stock company was popular in building public works, since they should be for general public benefit, would otherwise be sacrificed to "legislated monopolies" with "exclusive privileges" such as the Bank of Upper Canada. As late as 1849 the "moderate" reform politician Robert Baldwin was to complain that "unless a stop were made to it, there would be nothing but corporations from one end of the country to the other." Radical reformers, like William Lyon Mackenzie, who opposed all such "legislated monopolies," saw joint stock associations as the only protection against "the whole property of the country… being tied up as an irredeemable appendage to incorporated institutions, put beyond the reach of individual possession."As a result, most of the joint stock companies formed in this period were created by political reformers who objected to the legislated monopolies granted to members of the Family Compact.

The political connection results from the fact the company was a voluntary association, "also a mini-republic. Each was a self-governing body composed of members of equal standing who had consented to join. Members created an association, devised its rules and policies, elected officers from among their ranks to carry out their wishes."In Upper Canada, the joint stock company is an interesting example of the voluntary "mini-parliament" because it fostered notions of "responsible government" through its separation of ownership and management. Responsible government means cabinet responsibility to the elected House of Assembly. However, responsible government had a second sense in the case of joint stock companies, i.e. the accountability of stockholders to management. Since joint stock companies lacked limited liability, stockholders were responsible for all the company's debts to the full extent of their personal property, they were an incubator of stakeholder democracy. The joint stock company required an unusually high level of "vigilance" from its members, a word borrowed from the "committees of vigilance" established by the reformers.

See Frederick H. Armstrong, Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology, rev. ed. Part VII, for a list of the joint stock companies incorporated during this period in Upper Canada. Bank of the People: The Bank of the People was a joint stock bank created by radical Reform politicians James Lesslie, James Hervey Price, Dr John Rolph in Toronto in 1835, it was founded after they failed to establish a "Provincial Loan Office" in which farmers could borrow small sums guaranteed by their land holdings. The Bank of the People was the only bank in Upper Canada not to suspend payments during the financial panic of 1837-8. Many of the shareholders, took part in the Rebellion of 1837 and the Family Compact plotted to have it taken over by the Bank of Montreal in 1840. Farmer's Bank: Two brash Devonshire businessmen, Capt. George Truscott and John Cleveland Green had served in the British Army in Canada, they formed a private partnership and established the Agricultural Bank at Toronto in 1834. In 1835, they issued a circular calling for shareholders in a new "Farmer's Bank" with Charles Duncombe as its president.

Truscott and Green turned to those opposed to the Bank of Upper Canada for financial support. Although Truscott & Green had touted Charles Duncombe as president of the new bank to solicit reform support, the chair of the general meeting of subscribers on 16 June was the Hon. John Elmsley, legislative councillor, the largest shareholder in the Bank of Upper Canada, he managed to take over control of the bank. Elmsley had fragile ties with the Family Compact, he was a retired naval officer. Farmers' Storehouse Company: The Farmers' Storehouse was organized as an unincorporated jo