Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants a sense of stepping back in time. Although it does not necessarily seek to reenact a specific event in history, living history is similar to, Living history approach to gain authenticity is less about replaying a certain event according to a planned script as in other reenactment fields. List, himself a right wing neopagan, asked his staff of landlords and he asked to have any visitors redressed in costumes and described rituals to signify in-game and out-game status to enhance the immersion experience. E. g. the role of the garment is of interest till today, the term living history describes the performance of bringing history to life for the general public in a rather freewheeling manner. The players are confined in their actions, but often have to stay at a certain place or building. The line between amateur and professional presentations at living history museums can be blurred, same as the border to Live action role-playing games.
Such events do not necessarily include a battle but aim at portraying the life. This often includes both military and civilian impressions, storytelling or acting sketches take place to involve or explain the everyday life or military activity to the viewing public. More common are craft and cooking demonstrations and leisure activities, combat training or duels can be encountered even when larger combat demonstrations are not present. In the United States, The National Park Service land, NPS policy does not allow for battle reenactments on NPS property, there are exceptions i. e. Saylors Creek, Gettysburg. So e. g. the Peter and Paul festival in Bretten, the Landshut Wedding or the Schloss Kaltenberg knights tournament. The majority of combat reenactment groups are battlefield reenactment groups, some of which have become isolated to some degree because of a focus on authenticity. Events with the professional reenactment-group Ulfhednar lead to a controversy in German archaeology, the German Polish living history group was supported by large museums and scholars and, since 2000 has largely coined the image of early history in Germany and international.
Among others, a paper with the programmatic title Under the crocheted Swastika, Germanic Living History and that sort of second hand living history is as well part of western Germany folklore and tries for a high level of authenticity. Activities may be confined to wearing period dress and perhaps explaining relevant historical information, while many museums allow their staff to move in and out of character to better answer visitor questions, some encourage their staff to stay in role at all times. Living history portrayal often involves demonstrating everyday activities such as cooking, medical care, or particular skills, considerable research is often applied to identifying authentic techniques and often recreating replica tools and equipment. Historical reenactment groups often attempt to organize such displays in an encampment or display area at an event, during the 1990s, reenactment groups, primarily American Civil War groups, began to show interest in this style of interpretation and began using it at their reenactments.
Living history can be a used to bridge the gap between school and daily life to educate people on historical topics
Campus Galli is a Carolingian monastic community under construction in Meßkirch, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The construction project plans to build a medieval monastery according to the early ninth-century Plan of Saint Gall using techniques from that era. The long-term financing of the project is to come from revenue generated from the operation as a tourist attraction. The construction site has been open for visitors since June 2013, the Carolingian monastery town is being constructed in a wooded area approximately four kilometers north of the small town of Meßkirch in southern Germany. The buildings are being built according to the Plan of Saint Gall, the major raw materials, such as wood and stone, will be obtained from the site. Between 20 and 30 staff members will be permanently at the site, the total construction time is estimated at forty years. Volunteer workers not only help with the construction, but act as costumed interpreters, the project was launched by the Aachen-based journalist Bert Geurten with 1 million euros provided by city and European-Union sources.
An Advisory Board of 18 experts in fields including archaeology, theology, a small area in the forest was cleared by the end of June 2013, and temporary shelters for the craftsmen were built. A map of the site shows areas for carpenters, basket weavers, blacksmiths, wood turners, broom makers, textile workers, there are pens for pigs and sheep, and a chicken coop, along with a bee hive. There is a garden for healers plants. In the center of the site is the construction of a wooden church. A documentary film of the evolution is being created by Reinhard Kungel in cooperation with the television station SWR. Guédelon Castle in France, a project for a construction of a medieval castle in Treigny Campus Galli
Vindolanda was a Roman auxiliary fort just south of Hadrians Wall, which it predates, in northern England. Located near the village of Bardon Mill, it guarded the Stanegate. It is noted for the Vindolanda tablets, among the most important finds of military, the first post-Roman record of the ruins at Vindolanda was made by the antiquarian William Camden, in his Britannia. Occasional travellers reached the site over the two hundred years, and the accounts they left are useful because they predate much of the stone-stealing that has damaged the site. The military bath-house was still partly roofed when Christopher Hunter visited the site in 1702, in about 1715 an excise officer named John Warburton found an altar there, which he removed. In 1814 the first real work was begun, by the Rev. Anthony Hedley. Hedley died in 1835, before writing up his discoveries, little more was done for a long time, although in 1914 a workman found another altar at the site, set up by the civilians living at the fort in honour of the Divine House and Vulcan.
The garrison were auxiliary infantry or cavalry units, not components of Roman legions, from the early third century AD onwards, this was the Fourth Cohort of Gauls. The earliest Roman forts at Vindolanda were built of wood and turf, the remains are now buried as much as 4 metres deep in the anoxic waterlogged soil. There are 5 timber forts, built one after the other, the first, a small fort was probably built by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians about AD85. By about AD95 this was replaced by a wooden fort built by the 9th Cohort of Batavians. That fort was repaired in about AD100 under the command of the Roman prefect Flavius Cerialis, when the 9th Cohort of Batavians left in AD105, their fort was demolished. The 1st Cohort of Tungrians came back to Vindolanda, built a wooden fort, and remained here until Hadrians Wall was built around AD122. Soon after Hadrians Wall was built, most of its men were moved north to the Antonine Wall, a stone fort was built at Vindolanda, possibly for the 2nd Cohort of Nervians.
From AD208 to 211, there was a rebellion against Rome in Britain. The Roman army may have built these to accommodate families of British farmers in this unsettled period, Septimius Severus died at York in AD211, his sons paid off the rebels and left for Rome. The stone buildings were demolished, and a new stone fort was built where the huts had been. A vicus, a village, developed to the west of the fort
Pembrokeshire is a county in the south west of Wales. It borders Carmarthenshire to the east and Ceredigion to the north east, Pembrokeshire County Councils headquarters are in the county town of Haverfordwest. Over the years Pembrokeshires beaches have received many International Blue Flag Awards, Green Coast Awards. In 2011 it had 39 beaches recommended by the Marine Conservation Society, industry is nowadays focused on agriculture and tourism, but historically mining and fishing were important activities. The county has a geography and a complex history. Pembrokeshires population was 122,400 at the 2011 census, an increase of 7. 2% from the 2001 figure of 114,131, Pembrokeshire is bordered by the sea on three sides, and by the counties of Ceredigion to the north east and Carmarthenshire to the east. Other towns include Pembroke, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Tenby, Narberth, Neyland, St Davids, in the west of the county, is the United Kingdoms smallest city with a population of 2,000. Saundersfoot is the biggest village in Pembrokeshire with a population of well over 2,500, see List of places in Pembrokeshire for a comprehensive list of settlements in Pembrokeshire.
The countys coastline includes internationally important seabird breeding sites and numerous bays, Pembrokeshire contains a predominantly coastal park, Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, which includes a 186-mile walking trail, the Pembrokeshire Coast Path. A large estuary and natural harbour at Milford Haven cuts deeply into the coast, this inlet is formed by the confluence of the Western Cleddau, the Eastern Cleddau, and rivers Cresswell and Carew. The estuary is bridged by the large Cleddau Bridge which carries the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock, upstream bridges span the Cleddau at Haverfordwest and Canaston Bridge, large bays are Newport Bay, Fishguard Bay, St Brides Bay and a portion of Carmarthen Bay. There are several islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey Island, Grassholm Island, Skomer Island. Pembrokeshires diverse range of features was a key factor in the establishment of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. Younger rocks have been lost by subsequent geological processes, the land on which Pembrokeshire is today was established approximately 60 million years ago by a combination of uplift and falling sea levels.
The sea cliffs and inland tors that are now a feature of the county were those that were resistant to weathering that has taken place since. The landscape was subject to change as a result of the ice ages over the last several thousand years. About 20,000 years ago the Irish Sea ice sheet deposited areas of clays, while Pembrokeshire is not a seismically active area, two periods of activity were noted in the 19th century. In 1873 there was a shock in the west of the county
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy, the metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. Three of Shakespeares plays are set in Verona and Juliet, The Two Gentlemen of Verona and it is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities many times over. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its structure and architecture. According to a theory that considers the geographical position of the city, Verona is short for Versus Romae which means In the direction of Rome because as italian people say All roads lead to Rome. The exclamation Vae Romae if understood in Latin means Alas Rome, in fact, to express distress or denounce a disgrace ancient Romans used the Latin interjection vae.
So, you explain the famous poem by William Shakespeare There is no world without Verona walls, But purgatory, torture. Hence-banished is banishd from the world, And worlds exile is death, the writer would express a Roman concept through its character named Romeo, a name that invokes Rome, according to which the city of Verona was a boundary between the Roman world and barbaric one. Verona was a place of passage and to horses, for those who wanted to go and had walked the Via Claudia Augusta. So the expression Vae Romae Alas Rome would indicate spirit of the place, another theory is that it is connected to the river. Vera was a name of the river Adige before the adoption of the current name, as in many similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix -ona which means settlement over. The city was sometimes known as Welsch-Bern in German. The precise details of Veronas early history remain a mystery, one theory is it was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the Cenomani.
With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman, Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC, and a municipium in 49 BC when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads, stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a day in 541. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city, in 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when they were fully overthrown that the Goths surrendered it
A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans. The trireme derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar. The early trireme was a development of the penteconter, an ancient warship with a row of 25 oars on each side, and of the bireme. The word dieres does not appear until the Roman period and it must be assumed the term pentekontor covered the two-level type. Triremes played a role in the Persian Wars, the creation of the Athenian maritime empire. The term is used to refer to medieval and early modern galleys with three files of oarsmen per side as triremes. Fragments from an 8th-century relief at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh depicting the fleets of Tyre and Sidon show ships with rams and they have been interpreted as two-decked warships, and as triremes. Modern scholarship is divided on the provenance of the trireme, Greece or Phoenicia, clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, drawing on earlier works, explicitly attributes the invention of the trireme to the Sidonians.
According to Thucydides, the trireme was introduced to Greece by the Corinthians in the late 8th century BC, and the Corinthian Ameinocles built four such ships for the Samians. This was interpreted by writers and Diodorus, to mean that triremes were invented in Corinth, Thucydides meanwhile clearly states that in the time of the Persian Wars, the majority of the Greek navies consisted of penteconters and ploia makrá. Athens was at that time embroiled in a conflict with the island of Aegina. The first clash with the Persian navy was at the Battle of Artemisium, the decisive naval clash occurred at Salamis, where Xerxes invasion fleet was decisively defeated. After Salamis and another Greek victory over the Persian fleet at Mycale, the Ionian cities were freed, the predominance of Athens turned the League effectively into an Athenian Empire. The source and foundation of Athens power was her strong fleet, in addition, as it provided permanent employment for the citys poorer citizens, the fleet played an important role in maintaining and promoting the radical Athenian form of democracy.
Athenian maritime power is the first example of thalassocracy in world history, aside from Athens, other major naval powers of the era included Syracuse and Corinth. In the subsequent Peloponnesian War, naval battles fought by triremes were crucial in the balance between Athens and Sparta. Based on all archeological evidence, the design of trireme surely pushed the limits of the ancient world. After gathering the proper timbers and materials it was time to consider the fundamentals of the trireme design and these fundamentals included accommodations, propulsion and waterline, center of gravity and stability and feasibility
Linear Pottery culture
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing circa 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK, and is known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture. The densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and it represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe. The pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls and jugs, without handles, but in a phase with lugs or pierced lugs, bases. The Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary and late phases are defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture, in the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Vistula and Elbe. A number of cultures ultimately replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, the culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Cucuteni-Trypillian.
The term Linear Band Ware derives from the potterys decorative technique, the Band Ware or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch. The earliest generally accepted name in English was the Danubian of V. Gordon Childe, most names in English are attempts to translate Linearbandkeramik. Since Starčevo-Körös pottery was earlier than the LBK and was located in a contiguous food-producing region, much of the Starčevo-Körös pottery features decorative patterns composed of convolute bands of paint, converging bands, vertical bands, and so on. The LBK appears to imitate and often improve these convolutions with incised lines, hence the term, the LBK did not begin with this range and only reached it toward the end of its time. It began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube, the rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave by the standard of current events, but over archaeological time seems especially rapid.
The LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the areas, i. e. it is not evidenced in Denmark or the northern coastal strips of Germany and Poland. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other. The LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine–Oise eastward to the line of the Dnieper, and southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend. An extension ran through the Southern Bug valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, a good many C-14 dates have been acquired on the LBK, making possible statistical analyses, which have been performed on different sample groups. The 95. 4% confidence interval is 5600–4750 BC, data continue to be acquired and therefore any one analysis should be taken as a rough guideline only
Thor Heyerdahl was a Norwegian adventurer and ethnographer with a background in zoology and geography. He became notable for his Kon-Tiki expedition in 1947, in which he sailed 8,000 km across the Pacific Ocean in a raft from South America to the Tuamotu Islands. The expedition was designed to demonstrate that ancient people could have made long sea voyages and this was linked to a diffusionist model of cultural development. He was appointed a government scholar in 1984, in May 2011, the Thor Heyerdahl Archives were added to UNESCOs Memory of the World Register. At the time, this list included 238 collections from all over the world, the Heyerdahl Archives are administered by the Kon-Tiki Museum and the National Library of Norway in Oslo. Heyerdahl was born in Larvik, the son of master brewer Thor Heyerdahl and his wife, as a young child, Heyerdahl showed a strong interest in zoology. He created a museum in his childhood home, with a common adder as the main attraction. He studied zoology and geography at the faculty of science at the University of Oslo.
After seven terms and consultations with experts in Berlin, a project was developed and sponsored by Heyerdahls zoology professors, Kristine Bonnevie and he was to visit some isolated Pacific island groups and study how the local animals had found their way there. The couple had two sons, Thor Jr and Bjørn, after the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, he served with the Free Norwegian Forces from 1944, in the far north province of Finnmark. In 1949, Heyerdahl married Yvonne Dedekam-Simonsen and they had three daughters, Annette and Helene Elisabeth. Heyerdahl blamed their separation on his being away from home and differences in their ideas for bringing up children, in his autobiography, he concluded that he should take the entire blame for their separation. In 1991, Heyerdahl married Jacqueline Beer as his third wife and they lived in Tenerife, Canary Islands and were very actively involved with archaeological projects, especially in Túcume and Azov until his death in 2002. He still had been hoping to undertake a project in Samoa before he died.
Heyerdahl died on April 18,2002, in Colla Micheri, Italy, the Norwegian government gave him a state funeral in Oslo Cathedral on April 26,2002. He is buried in the garden of the home in Colla Micheri. Many years later, having achieved notability with other adventures and books on other subjects, the story of his time on Fatu Hiva and his side trip to Hivaoa and Mohotani is related in Green Was the Earth on the Seventh Day. The Kon-Tiki smashed into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands on August 7,1947, after a 101-day,4,300 nautical mile journey across the Pacific Ocean
The Kon-Tiki expedition was a 1947 journey by raft across the Pacific Ocean from South America to the Polynesian islands, led by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl. The raft was named Kon-Tiki after the Inca sun god, Heyerdahl believed that people from South America could have settled Polynesia in pre-Columbian times. The Kon-Tiki expedition was funded by loans, along with donations of equipment from the United States Army. The trip began on April 28,1947, Heyerdahl and five companions sailed the raft for 101 days over 6900 km across the Pacific Ocean before smashing into a reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands on August 7,1947. The crew made landfall and all returned safely. Thor Heyerdahls book about his experience became a bestseller and it was published in Norwegian in 1948 as The Kon-Tiki Expedition, By Raft Across the South Seas, reprinted as Kon-Tiki, Across the Pacific in a Raft. It appeared with success in English in 1950, in many other languages. A documentary motion picture about the expedition, called Kon-Tiki, was produced from a write-up and expansion of the crews filmstrip notes and it was directed by Thor Heyerdahl and edited by Olle Nordemar.
The voyage was chronicled in the documentary TV-series The Kon-Tiki Man, The Life and Adventures of Thor Heyerdahl. The original Kon-Tiki raft is now on display in the Kon-Tiki Museum at Bygdøy in Oslo, Kon-Tiki had a six-man crew, all of whom were Norwegian except for Bengt Danielsson, a Swede. Thor Heyerdahl was the expedition leader and he was the author of the book of the expedition and the narrator of the story. Heyerdahl had studied the ancient people of South America and Polynesia, erik Hesselberg was the navigator and artist. He painted the large Kon-Tiki figure on the rafts sail and his childrens book Kon-Tiki and I appeared in Norwegian in 1949 and has since been published in more than 15 languages. Bengt Danielsson took on the role of steward, in charge of supplies, Danielsson was a Swedish sociologist interested in human migration theory. He served as translator, as he was the member of the crew who spoke Spanish. He was a reader, his box aboard the raft contained many books. Haugland was the last surviving member, he died on Christmas Day,2009 at the age of 92.
Torstein Raaby was in charge of radio transmissions and he gained radio experience while hiding behind German lines during WWII, spying on the German battleship Tirpitz
University of Exeter
The University of Exeter is a public research university located in Exeter, South West England, United Kingdom. In post-nominals, the University of Exeter is abbreviated as Exon. and is the given to honorary. The university has four campuses, Streatham and St Lukes, and Truro, the university is centred in the city of Exeter, where it is the principal higher education institution. Streatham is the largest campus containing many of the administrative buildings. The Penryn campus is maintained in conjunction with Falmouth University under the Combined Universities in Cornwall initiative, the university was named the Sunday Times University of the Year in 2013 and was the Times Higher Education University of the Year in 2007. Exeter has maintained a top ten position in the National Student Survey since the survey was launched in 2005, for 2015-16, Exeter had a turnover of £371.5 million, including £61.4 million from research grants and contracts. Exeter is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive UK universities, the university is a member of Universities UK, the European University Association, and the Association of Commonwealth Universities and is an accredited institution of the Association of MBAs.
The universitys origins can be traced back to three educational institutions that existed in the city of Exeter and in Cornwall in the middle of the nineteenth century. To celebrate the educational and scientific work of Prince Albert, and inspired by the Great Exhibition of 1851, Exeter School of Art in 1855, in 1900 its official title was changed to the Royal Albert Memorial College and the college moved to Bradninch Place in Gandy Street. As was customary for new university institutions in England in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, alderman W H Reed, a former mayor of Exeter, donated Streatham Hall on the Streatham Estate to the new University College in 1922. Streatham Hall was renamed to Reed Hall after its benefactor, at the same time, the first principal of the University College, Sir Hector Hetherington, persuaded the Council of the College to buy a major portion of the Streatham Estate. A slow move to the Streatham Estate from the centre of the city occurred over time, the building was opened in 1931.
The first of the halls of residence, Mardon Hall. Roborough Library was completed around 1939, Queen Elizabeth II presented the Charter to the university on a visit to Streatham the following year. The university underwent a period of expansion in the 1960s. These included homes for the Chemistry and Physics departments, the Newman and Engineering Buildings, queens Building had been opened for the Arts Faculty in 1959 and the Amory Building, housing Law and Social Sciences, followed in 1974. In the following two decades, considerable investment was made in developing new self-catering accommodation for students, gifts from the Gulf States made it possible to build a new university library in 1983 and more recently have allowed for the creation of a new Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies. A further major donation enabled the completion of the Xfi Centre for Finance, since 2009, significant further investment has been made into new student accommodation, new buildings in The Business School, and the Forum, a new development for the centre of Streatham Campus
Butser Ancient Farm
Butser Ancient Farm is an archaeological open-air museum located near Petersfield in Hampshire, southern England. Containing reconstructions of prehistoric buildings such as Iron Age roundhouses. Founded in 1970 by the Council for British Archaeology, in 1972 they recruited experimental archaeologist Peter J. Reynolds to run the site as project director, the farm is open to the public and runs various events throughout the year. Butser Ancient Farm was founded in 1970 by the Council for British Archaeology, the farm was named after its original site at Little Butser, a northerly spur of Butser Hill, a few kilometres from Petersfield in Hampshire. In the original Bronze and Iron Ages, a farmstead had been found on Little Butser, whose occupants had farmed the valley to the north and east. In 1976 a second site, known as the Ancient Farm Demonstration Area, was opened at Hillscombe Down on the slopes of Butser Hill. The first Butser Farm site at Little Butser was subsequently closed down in 1989, in 1991 the project moved to Bascomb Copse on the slopes of Windmill Hill, Hampshire between Chalton and Clanfield, about 5 km from the original site.
Buildings at the farm include simulated pre-Roman roundhouses and a simulated Roman villa, the Longbridge Deverell House was the first full-sized roundhouse to be built at the latest site, and at the time one of the largest in Europe. After Peters death in 2001, the site was run by his partner, Christine Shaw and it was financed with the support of the Discovery Channel, and was filmed for a ten-part series for television. In 2006/7, a management team was assembled, and with Christines guidance, the management team consists of Simon Jay and Maureen Page, running the farm under the business Butser Education CIC. It was in 2006 that the Longbridge Deverell House started to collapse, a major re-assessment of the techniques of building was undertaken. It was decided to use the opportunity to examine the accumulated information of a further 20 years of excavation evidence, following the dismantling of the Longbridge Deverell House, the replacement is based on the excavations of the Little Woodbury House.
Under the leadership of David Freeman, construction started in February 2007 and finished in December, there is a reconstructed Roman villa at the site. The construction is based on the wing of Sparsholt Roman Villa which was excavated between 1965 and 1972. The building includes a functioning hypocaust system, the Doctor Who serial The Mysterious Planet was filmed at the farm. An episode of the 2005 BBC Television documentary series What the Ancients Did for Us examining the ideas, books Academic articles News articles Aston, Mick. Peter Reynolds, Archaeologist who showed us what the Iron Age was really like, Butser Ancient Farm A site showing period food preparation, with several examples from Butser Ancient Farm