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An explosive is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released usually accompanied by the production of light, heat and pressure. An explosive charge is a measured quantity of explosive material, which may either be composed of one ingredient or be a mixture containing at least two substances; the potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, be chemical energy, such as nitroglycerin or grain dust pressurized gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239Explosive materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate are said to be "high explosives" and materials that deflagrate are said to be "low explosives". Explosives may be categorized by their sensitivity. Sensitive materials that can be initiated by a small amount of heat or pressure are primary explosives and materials that are insensitive are secondary or tertiary explosives.

A wide variety of chemicals can explode. The remainder are too dangerous, toxic, unstable, or prone to decomposition or degradation over short time spans. In contrast, some materials are combustible or flammable if they burn without exploding; the distinction, however, is not razor-sharp. Certain materials—dusts, gases, or volatile organic liquids—may be combustible or flammable under ordinary conditions, but become explosive in specific situations or forms, such as dispersed airborne clouds, or confinement or sudden release. At its root, the history of chemical explosives lies in the history of gunpowder. During the Tang Dynasty in the 9th century, Taoist Chinese alchemists were eagerly trying to find the elixir of immortality. In the process, they stumbled upon the explosive invention of gunpowder made from coal and sulfur in 1044. Gunpowder was the first form of chemical explosives and by 1161, the Chinese were using explosives for the first time in warfare; the Chinese would incorporate explosives fired from bamboo or bronze tubes known as bamboo fire crackers.

The Chinese used inserted rats from inside the bamboo fire crackers to fire toward the enemy, creating great psychological ramifications—scaring enemy soldiers away and causing cavalry units to go wild. Though early thermal weapons, such as Greek fire, have existed since ancient times, the first used explosive in warfare and mining was black powder, invented in 9th century in China by Song Chinese alchemists; this material was sensitive to water, it produced copious amounts of dark smoke. The first useful explosive stronger than black powder was nitroglycerin, developed in 1847. Since nitroglycerin is a liquid and unstable, it was replaced by nitrocellulose, trinitrotoluene in 1863, smokeless powder, dynamite in 1867 and gelignite. World War I saw the adoption of TNT in artillery shells. World War II saw an extensive use of new explosives. In turn, these have been replaced by more powerful explosives such as C-4 and PETN. However, C-4 and PETN react with metal and catch fire yet unlike TNT, C-4 and PETN are waterproof and malleable.

The largest commercial application of explosives is mining. Whether the mine is on the surface or is buried underground, the detonation or deflagration of either a high or low explosive in a confined space can be used to liberate a specific sub-volume of a brittle material in a much larger volume of the same or similar material; the mining industry tends to use nitrate-based explosives such as emulsions of fuel oil and ammonium nitrate solutions, mixtures of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil and gelatinous suspensions or slurries of ammonium nitrate and combustible fuels. In Materials Science and Engineering, explosives are used in cladding. A thin plate of some material is placed atop a thick layer of a different material, both layers of metal. Atop the thin layer is placed an explosive. At one end of the layer of explosive, the explosion is initiated; the two metallic layers are forced together with great force. The explosion spreads from the initiation site throughout the explosive. Ideally, this produces a metallurgical bond between the two layers.

As the length of time the shock wave spends at any point is small, we can see mixing of the two metals and their surface chemistries, through some fraction of the depth, they tend to be mixed in some way. It is possible that some fraction of the surface material from either layer gets ejected when the end of material is reached. Hence, the mass of the now "welded" bilayer, may be less than the sum of the masses of the two initial layers. There are applications where a shock wave, electrostatics, can result in high velocity projectiles. An explosion is a type of spontaneous chemical reaction that, once initiated, is driven by both a large exothermic change and a large positive entropy change in going from reactants to products, thereby constituting a thermodynamically favorable process in addition to one that propagates rapidly. Thus, explosives are substances; the energetic stability of the gaseous products and hence their generation comes from the


CopyCamp is an international conference devoted to copyright, organized in Warsaw by the Modern Poland Foundation. Representatives of cultural institutions, the media, creative sectors, legal and non-governmental circles gather annually to discuss the influence of copyright on the circulation of cultural goods and social changes taking place all over the world. Strategic partners are Trust for Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe, Samsung Electronics and Stowarzyszenie Autorów ZAiKS. Among other partners supporting the first three editions of the conference were: Coalition for Open Education, Kronenberg Foundation, Copyright for Creativity and National Audiovisual Institute; every year, the event is organized under the honorary patronage of the Ministry of Administration and Digitization and academically supported by Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling. The third edition of CopyCamp was co-financed by the International Visegrad Fund; the speakers of the first edition organized in 2012 in kino Kultura were Nina Paley, Jan Błeszyński, Lidia Geringer de Oedenberg, Michał Kwiatkowski, Jarosław Lipszyc, Alek Tarkowski, Elżbieta Traple, Hieronim Wrona and Paweł Zalewski, among others.

In 2013 the conference took place on October 1 in kino Muranów with Eben Moglen as a special guest. Other speakers were Barbara Fatyga and Wojciech Orliński, among others. CopyCamp 2014 took place on November 6–7 in kino Praha with two keynote speakers: Cory Doctorow and Birgitta Jónsdóttir next to such figures as Michał Boni, Lucie Guibault, Yngve Slettholm, Piotr Waglowski, Attila Szervác and Michał Wiśniewski, among others. At the third edition of CopyCamp, special attention was paid to the perspective of the Visegrad Group countries. All artistic and scientific materials, photographs and video recordings are under CC-BY-SA or compatible licences. CopyCamp official website CopyCamp video recordings: CopyCamp 2012 on YouTube CopyCamp 2013 on YouTube CopyCamp 2014 on YouTube CopyCamp 2017 on YouTube CopyCamp audio recordings: CopyCamp 2012 CopyCamp 2013 audio recordings CopyCamp 2014: post-conference publication

Valentín Pimstein

Valentín Pimstein Weiner was a Chilean producer of telenovelas. Pimstein was the seventh child of nine in a Belarusian Jewish family, which owns a glass shop in Barrio Brasil in Santiago, his fondness for the romantic and melodramatic stories born under the eaves of his mother, a frequent consumer of Mexican films and soap operas, developed in parallel with his interest in theater. After fulfilling adulthood, Pimstein decided to leave his native country in search of adventure, he came to Mexico, where he became assistant director of a film studio assistant by day and a nightclub. There he met Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, at that time owner of Telesistema Mexicano. Pimstein died in Chile on June 27, 2017. Napoleoncito Bala perdida Vivir del cuento Las tres pelonas The Living Idol Valentín Pimstein on IMDb

62nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

The 62nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 62nd Pennsylvania Infantry was organized at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania beginning July 4, 1861 and mustered in August 31, 1861 as the 33rd Pennsylvania Regiment for a three year enlistment under the command of Colonel Samuel W. Black, its designation was changed to 62nd Pennsylvania Infantry on November 18, 1861. The regiment was attached to Morrell's Brigade, Fitz John Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps, to July 1864. The 62nd Pennsylvania Infantry mustered out August 15, 1864. Companies L and M were transferred to the 91st Pennsylvania Infantry. Veterans and recruits were transferred to the 155th Pennsylvania Infantry. Left Pennsylvania for Washington, D. C. August 31, 1861. Camp near Fort Corcoran, defenses of Washington, D. C. until October 1861, near Fall's Church, Va. until March 1862.

Moved to the Peninsula March 22-24. Reconnaissance to Big Bethel March 30. Howard's Mills, near Cockletown, April 4. Warwick Road April 5. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Hanover Court House May 27. Operations about Hanover Court House May 27-29. Seven Days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Battles of Mechanicsville June 26. At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Movement to Fort Monroe to Centreville August 16-28. Second Battle of Bull Run August 30. Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Shepherdstown Ford September 19. Blackford's Ford September 19. Reconnaissance to Smithfield October 16-17. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. Expedition to Richard's and Ellis' Fords, Rappahannock River, December 30-31. Burnside's second Campaign, "Mud March," January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Middleburg June 19. Upperville June 21. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Pursuit of Lee July 5-24. Duty on line of the Rappahannock until October.

Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Duty at Bealeton Station until May 1864. Rapidan Campaign May 4-June 12. Battle of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spotsylvania May 8-12. Spotsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 25. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg until July 3. Left front July 3; the regiment lost a total of 258 men during service. Colonel Samuel W. Black - killed in action at the Battle of Gaines's Mill Colonel Jacob B. Sweitzer Lieutenant Colonel James C. Hull Private Philip M. Shannon, Company C - oil tycoon List of Pennsylvania Civil War Units Pennsylvania in the Civil War Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908; the Sixty-Second Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union: Dedicatory Exercises at Gettysburg, September 11, 1889, 1889.

Spisak, Ernest D. Pittsburgh's Forgotten Civil War Regiment: A History of the 62nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry & the Men Who Served with Distinction, 2013. ISBN 1-5957-1919-9Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. 62nd Pennsylvania monument at Gettysburg

Chavez v. Martinez

Chavez v. Martinez, 538 U. S. 760, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court, which held that a police officerated in certain egregious circumstances and remanded the case to the lower court to decide this issue on the case's facts. A complex series of concurrences and dissents were filed, many joined by various justices. Justice Thomas announced the judgment of the court, finding that no constitutional rights were violated. However, the only opinion to gain the votes of a majority of the court was Part II of Souter's concurrence, which consisted of a direction to the lower court to consider the substantive due process claims on remand. In 1997, during an altercation with the police in Oxnard, the respondent Martinez was shot five times, he was seriously injured. The police officer's supervisor—the petitioner, Chavez—arrived at the scene around the same time as the paramedics, he accompanied him into the hospital. Throughout this time, Martinez was conscious but in great distress stating that he was dying and requesting treatment.

Without informing Martinez of his Miranda rights, Chavez sporadically interviewed Martinez about the incident over a period of 45 minutes. Martinez survived the incident, but was paralyzed and left blind, he was never charged with a crime and his answers were never used against him in any criminal prosecution. Martinez sued Chavez in a § 1983 action alleging; the district court found that Chavez had violated at least two of Martinez's established rights: the 5th Amendment right not to be compelled to be a witness against himself and his 14th Amendment right not to be subjected to coercive questioning. Because of this violation, the district court held that Chavez was not entitled to qualified immunity; the 9th Circuit affirmed this ruling. The Supreme Court granted certiorari. Justice Thomas delivered an opinion; the Fifth Amendment requires that “o person... shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.” We fail to see how, based on the text of the Fifth Amendment, Martinez can allege a violation of this right, since Martinez was never prosecuted for a crime, let alone compelled to be a witness against himself in a criminal case.

Although Martinez contends that the meaning of “criminal case” should encompass the entire criminal investigatory process, including police interrogations, we disagree. In our view, a “criminal case” at the least requires the initiation of legal proceedings. We need not decide today the precise moment. Statements compelled by police interrogations of course may not be used against a defendant at trial, but it is not until their use in a criminal case that a violation of the Self-Incrimination Clause occurs. Here, Martinez was never made to be a “witness” against himself in violation of the Fifth Amendment’s Self-Incrimination Clause because his statements were never admitted as testimony against him in a criminal case. Nor was he placed under oath and exposed to “`the cruel trilemma of self-accusation, perjury or contempt.'” The text of the Self-Incrimination Clause cannot support the Ninth Circuit’s view that the mere use of compulsive questioning, without more, violates the Constitution. Although our cases have permitted the Fifth Amendment’s self-incrimination privilege to be asserted in noncriminal cases, that does not alter our conclusion that a violation of the constitutional right against self-incrimination occurs only if one has been compelled to be a witness against himself in a criminal case.

Text of Chavez v. Martinez, 538 U. S. 760 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez

AK 47 Mayanja

AK 47, Akay 47, Ak Fortyseven, AkayFourtyseven birth name Emmanuel Mayanja was a Ugandan Dancehall artist, he rose to fame in 2012 with his song "Champion". He is said to be one of the best dancehall musicians Uganda has had, he died on 16 March 2015 in a mysterious death. Ak 47 was born to Gerald Mayanja, who hails from Busato Mityana but lives in Seguku Kampala, he was a biological brother to famous Ugandan musicians Chameleone and Weasel of Goodlyfe Crew. AK attended Kisubi high school for his secondary education, he started as a producer and diverted to singing. He started singing in Leone Island group, managed by his brother Chameleone with his first song Usiende in 2008 however this song did not get enough air play on Ugandan radios and TV, he came to limelight in 2011 when he made a remix of Bayuda with his brother Jose Chameleone; this gave him popularity and much fan base in Uganda. Since he continued with more other good songs such as Mbeera ya nsi and Champion which topped Ugandan music chats for so long, Kaleba with his brother Chameleone, Musajja watu with King Saha and many others.

In 2014 he joined the group Team No Sleep, managed and owned Jeff Kiwa. In 2012, AK 47 married they had two children. Usiende Bayunda Remix feat. Chameleone Champion Kidandali Mbera ya nsi Mussajja watu with King Saha Ndi Mulokole? AK 47 AK47 had recorded his latest song Ndi Mulokole, On 16 March, his last day, he went on and posted on his Facebook page saying "Nze Ndi Mulokole Nafuuka Mulokole AK Mulokole Naawe Fuuka Mulokole In God we trust" little did he know that it will be his last update to the public. Around 8:00PM, AK 47 went to the bar of his manager Jeff Kiwa, called Denjavu, found in Kampala, where he started drinking with friends. At around 10:PM, AK 47 was found lying on the floor of the bathrooms bleeding from the nose and with foam in his mouth, it was said that he went fainted. He was taken to the nearest clinic for first aid but the clinic was unable to deal with the difficult situation and instead referred him to a bigger hospital, they reached the doctors found it impossible to cure his complication.

He was announced dead five minutes after arriving in the hospital. They called his brothers Pallaso who arrived in a hurry, they at around 11PM news had started circulating all over social media. The nurses took it to the mortuary. Different versions came from witnesses. According to one girl, AK 47 had a quarrel with his manager Jeff Kiwa over a laptop: AK 47 wanted to play his new song Ndi Mulokole, a thing that Jeff Kiwa never wanted, claiming that the laptop had no battery. After exchanging some words, AK 47 went to the bathroom. After a few minutes the bouncer of the bar was seen coming out of the bathroom and when they couldn't see AK 47 coming out, they decided to check there and they found him lying on the floor half dead. Others said that AK 47 went outside to get in his car and go home. However, he was seen with blood in his nose which they believe that he had been beaten by the bouncer before; the bouncer followed him there again and after the bouncer came out of the bathroom, when they checked in the bathroom after several minutes, they found AK 47 lying on the bathroom helpless.

Both witnesses believe that after entering the bathroom, he was followed by the bouncer, so it is believed that the bouncer was the one who killed him. Many believe. Other StoriesImmediately after his death, some reports, came claiming that it is the ghost of Karamaji that strangled AK 47 to death, Karamaji is a boy who had died in 2012 and his death was related to the Mayanja Family since he burnt dead in the compound of AK 47's brother's house however, the claims were dismissed by the police since they had no source and authentication. Another group who claimed to be from Illuminati claimed to have been responsible for taking AK 47's family, according to them, AK 47 has been part of their team for so long and that they had helped him get fame and popularity and that he had betrayed them by declaring that he is saved, in his last Facebook post, so they had to punish him. However, police dismissed the claims too saying that they are trying to alter and divert the investigations of the police on the real cause of AK 47's death.

After AK 47's death, news spread everywhere on social media. Facebook and Twitter in Uganda were full of condolence messages, famous Ugandan radios and TV Stations interrupted their daily schedules to break the sad news about the fallen hero. Hundreds of fans had reached the place where he had died, mourning alongside his brothers Chameleone and Pallaso and Various artists including Bebe Cool, Diamond Oscar, Sheebah Karungi and many others. Bebe Cool posted a condolence message followed by Chameleone and Pallaso. Many other Ugandan celebrities and social bloggers posted their condolence messages including Eddy Kenzo, Juliana Kanyomozi, Bobi Wine, Sheebah Karungi, Nobert Mao and many others. Davido posted a condolence message, various Kenyan and Tanzanian celebs posted their condolence messages. Bobi Wine was on his South Africa tour but he cancelled all the remaining concerts and came back to Uganda, his death was equated to the death of great Ugandan musicians like Philly Lutaa