Expressionism is a modernist movement in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists have sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War, it remained popular during the Weimar Republic in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance and music; the term is sometimes suggestive of angst. In a historical sense, much older painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though the term is applied to 20th-century works; the Expressionist emphasis on individual and subjective perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and Impressionism.

While the word expressionist was used in the modern sense as early as 1850, its origin is sometimes traced to paintings exhibited in 1901 in Paris by obscure artist Julien-Auguste Hervé, which he called Expressionismes. An alternative view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself... immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures... Impressions and mental images that pass through... people's soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols."Important precursors of Expressionism were the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche his philosophical novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra. In 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden.

This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, though they did not use the word itself. A few years in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich; the name came from Wassily Kandinsky's Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903. Among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not establish itself until 1913. Though a German artistic movement and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910 and 1930, most precursors of the movement were not German. Furthermore, there have been expressionist writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German-speaking expressionist writers, while the movement had declined in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, there were subsequent expressionist works. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it "overlapped with other major'isms' of the modernist period: with Futurism, Cubism and Dadaism." Richard Murphy comments, “the search for an all-inclusive definition is problematic to the extent that the most challenging expressionists such as Kafka, Gottfried Benn and Döblin were the most vociferous `anti-expressionists.'

”What can be said, however, is that it was a movement that developed in the early twentieth century in Germany, in reaction to the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and the growth of cities, that "one of the central means by which expressionism identifies itself as an avant-garde movement, by which it marks its distance to traditions and the cultural institution as a whole is through its relationship to realism and the dominant conventions of representation." More explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to an "artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse within a person." It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are many examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Such art occurs during times of social upheaval and war, such as the Protestant Reformation, German Peasants' War, Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Netherlands, when extreme violence, much directed at civilians, was represented in propagandist popular prints.

These were unimpressive aesthetically but had the capacity to arouse extreme emotions in the viewer. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon and German philosopher Walter Benjamin. According to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that "Expressionism doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific'fuck yous', Baroque doesn't. Baroque is well-mannered." Some of the style's main visual artists of the early 20th century were: Armenia: Martiros Saryan Australia: Sidney Nolan, Charles Blackman, John Per

Rauf Hassan

Rauf Hassan is a Kurdish writer, born in 1945 in the city of Sulaymaniyah in the Iraqi Kurdistan. He was imprisoned during the rule of the Ba'ath Party regime, because of his critical articles he wrote against the Ba'ath Party regime in Iraq, he is conspired as one of the primary writers for revolution in Iraqi Kurdistan. An accomplished linguist, he founded the Kurdish Dialog Center, he has Shero Rauf. Gardoon... Universe Chakara... Short Story Sbaine Bawkt Detawa... Your father will be back tomorrow - Short Stories Darzi Azhni Khamakan... Preface - Critics Wenakai Khushkt.... Your sister's photo - Short StoriesKhori Tar or Kochi Sur.... The Darkness sun or Red Departuer - Novel Cheman… Koleltrin Shazadai Jihan.... Cheman… Saddest Princess in the World - Novel Alfa u Betay Rozhnamagari.... The Journalism Alphabet. Govary Rojnamawany u Halsangandnek... Journalism Magazine and a description. La bainman darnachet... Special lines in several magazines and newspaper that continue for more than 23 years. Hawalneri Telefizioni...

TV Journalist Janaby Mufatish... Translation - stageplay Aw Piawai bu ba Sag... The man who become a Dog Translation - stageplay Charanusi mrov... The destiny of a Human - Translation - stageplay Zyani Tutn... Danger of Tobacco stageplay Khwardngay Mimuni zindoo... Living monkeys Restaurant stageplay Paikar.... The Statue... stageplay Malai sar grdaka.... Mala from the top of the Hill... Translation TV Stageplay Didari Sarak Komar... Meeting with the President - Short Stories For stageplay1- Kaligola la awenay amro da... Caligula before today's mirror 2- Komediai bargi afsunawi... The Comedy of the magic costume 3- Hawaldz... The Spy 4- Mroveki assayi... Normal Human Being5- Nawrozi alkan 6- Didari sarok komar... Meeting of the president Tiori Nisbi... theory of relativity by Einstein - Translation Hunari Jang... The Art of War by Sun Tzu - Translation Sofigareti Nikos Kazantzakis - Culture - Translation Ktebi dwhami "Taw" - Second book of Taw - Translation Kurdnasi - Culture - Translation Marks u marksizmi Kurdi u Ayin...

Marx, Kurdish Marxism and Religion - Culture Keshai afratan u bzutnawai zhnan.. Female problems and women activity.. from P:673 to P:714 - Interview Krekar u Chiroki Kurdi... Workers and Kurdish Stories Andesha Jwanakani roh la Chiroki kurdida... The Beautiful fantasy of soul in Kurdish story - Culture Xulyay meymune spiyekan la chiroki kurdida... Habits of the white Monkeys in Kurdish stories - Culture Andesha Jwanakani roh la shieri kurdida... The Beautiful fantasy of soul in Kurdish poem - Culture Telefzioni Harem... Harem Television - Director Cameraman Manager Ktebi Hafta... Book of the week - television host program Govari Roshnbiry... Culture Magazin in Karkuk TV Haftay baseki hunari... Every week and an Art discussion

Arthur Plunkett, 8th Earl of Fingall

Arthur James Plunkett, 8th Earl of Fingall KP, styled Lord Killeen until 1793, was an Irish peer and prominent Roman Catholic, a leading supporter of the cause of Catholic Emancipation. He was his wife Henrietta Wollascot of Woolhampton, Berkshire, he became Earl of Fingall in 1793 after the death of Arthur James Plunkett, 7th Earl of Fingall and was appointed a Knight of the Order of St Patrick on 20 October 1821, on the occasion of the Royal Visit to Ireland of King George IV. His creation as Baron Fingall in 1831 made him a member of the United Kingdom House of Lords, he married in 1785 Frances Donelan, daughter of John Donelan of Ballydonnellan, County Galway and his wife Mabel Hore. They had a son, Arthur Plunkett, 9th Earl of Fingall, a daughter, who married James Jones of Llanarth and was the mother of Sir Arthur James Herbert. For many years he was a champion of the cause of Catholic Emancipation, for a time worked with Daniel O'Connell to secure it. In 1807 he obtained an interview with the 1st Duke of Wellington, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, who explained that Catholic Emancipation was not at that time practical politics, but that the remaining Penal Laws would be enforced with all possible moderation.

As one of the leaders of the Catholic Association in its original form, which the Government maintained was illegal, he was arrested, but never prosecuted. His role led to his being known by the unofficial title "head of the Irish Catholic laity". Lord Byron violently attacked Fingall in verse for accepting the Order of St. Patrick from George IV - wears Fingall thy trappings? - and for his deferential behaviour during the Royal Visit in 1821. However Fingall and his fellow Irish Catholic peers were not and did not pretend to be republicans: they sought equal rights under the Crown, not separation from it