Compaq was a company founded in 1982 that developed and supported computers and related products and services. Compaq produced some of the first IBM PC compatible computers, being the first company to reverse engineer the IBM Personal Computer, it rose to become the largest supplier of PC systems during the 1990s before being overtaken by HP in 2001. Struggling to keep up in the price wars against Dell, as well as with a risky acquisition of DEC, Compaq was acquired for US$25 billion by HP in 2002; the Compaq brand remained in use by HP for lower-end systems until 2013. The company was formed by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto former Texas Instruments senior managers. Murto departed Compaq in 1987, while Canion and Harris left under a shakeup in 1991, which saw Eckhard Pfeiffer appointed president and CEO. Pfeiffer served through the 1990s. Ben Rosen provided the venture capital financing for the fledgling company and served as chairman of the board for 17 years from 1983 until September 28, 2000, when he retired and was succeeded by Michael Capellas, who served as the last chairman and CEO until its merger with HP.
Prior to its takeover the company was headquartered in a facility in northwest unincorporated Harris County, that now continues as HP's largest United States facility. Compaq was founded in February 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto, three senior managers from semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments; the three of them had left due to lack of faith and loss of confidence in TI's management, considered but decided against starting a chain of Mexican restaurants. Each invested $1,000 to form the company, founded with the temporary name Gateway Technology; the name "COMPAQ" was said to be derived from "Compatibility and Quality" but this explanation was an afterthought. The name was chosen from many suggested by Mather, it being the name least rejected; the first Compaq PC was sketched out on a placemat by Ted Papajohn while dining with the founders in a Houston pie shop. Their first venture capital came from Benjamin M. Rosen and Sevin Rosen Funds who helped the fledgling company secure $1.5 million to produce their initial computer.
Overall, the founders managed to raise $25 million from venture capitalists, as this gave stability to the new company as well as providing assurances to the dealers or middlemen. Unlike many startups, Compaq differentiated its offerings from the many other IBM clones by not focusing on price, but instead concentrating on new features, such as portability and better graphics displays as well as performance—and all at prices comparable to those of IBM's PCs. In contrast to Dell Computer and Gateway 2000, Compaq hired veteran engineers with an average of 15 years experience, which lent credibility to Compaq's reputation of reliability among customers. Due to its partnership with Intel, Compaq was able to maintain a technological lead in the market place as it was the first one to come out with computers containing the next generation of each Intel processor. Under Canion's direction, Compaq sold computers only through dealers to avoid potential competition that a direct sales channel would foster, which helped foster loyalty among resellers.
By giving dealers considerable leeway in pricing Compaq's offerings, either a significant markup for more profits or discount for more sales, dealers had a major incentive to advertise Compaq. During its first year of sales, the company sold 53,000 PCs for sales of $111 million, the first start-up to hit the $100 million mark that fast. Compaq raised $67 million. In 1986, it enjoyed record sales of $329 million from 150,000 PCs, became the youngest-ever firm to make the Fortune 500. In 1987, Compaq hit the $1 billion revenue mark, taking the least amount of time to reach that milestone. By 1991, Compaq held the fifth place spot in the PC market with $3 billion in sales that year. Two key marketing executives in Compaq's early years, Jim D'Arezzo and Sparky Sparks, had come from IBM's PC Group. Other key executives responsible for the company's meteoric growth in the late 80s and early 90s were Ross A. Cooley, another former IBM associate, who served for many years as SVP of GM North America. In the United States, Brendan A. "Mac" McLoughlin led the company's field sales organization after starting up the Western U.
S. Area of Operations; these executives, along with other key contributors, including Kevin Ellington, Douglas Johns, Steven Flannigan, Gary Stimac, helped the company compete against the IBM Corporation in all personal computer sales categories, after many predicted that none could compete with the behemoth. The soft-spoken Canion was popular with employees and the culture that he built helped Compaq to attract the best talent. Instead of headquartering the company in a downtown Houston skyscraper, Canion chose a West Coast-style campus surrounded by forests, where every employee had similar offices and no-one had a reserved parking spot. At semi-annual meetings, turnout was high. In 1987, company co-founder Bill Murto resigned to study at a religious education program at the University of St. Thomas. Murto had helped to organize the company's marketing and authorized-dealer distribution strategy, held the post of senior vice president of sales since June
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one gigabyte is 1000000000bytes; the unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. This definition is used in all contexts of science, engineering and many areas of computing, including hard drive, solid state drive, tape capacities, as well as data transmission speeds. However, the term is used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote 1073741824 bytes for sizes of RAM; the use of gigabyte may thus be ambiguous. Hard disk capacities as described and marketed by drive manufacturers using the standard metric definition of the gigabyte, but when a 500-GB drive's capacity is displayed by, for example, Microsoft Windows, it is reported as 465 GB, using a binary interpretation. To address this ambiguity, the International System of Quantities standardizes the binary prefixes which denote a series of integer powers of 1024. With these prefixes, a memory module, labeled as having the size 1GB has one gibibyte of storage capacity.
The term gigabyte is used to mean either 10003 bytes or 10243 bytes. The latter binary usage originated as compromise technical jargon for byte multiples that needed to be expressed in a power of 2, but lacked a convenient name; as 1024 is 1000 corresponding to SI multiples, it was used for binary multiples as well. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission published standards for binary prefixes, requiring that the gigabyte denote 10003 bytes and gibibyte denote 10243 bytes. By the end of 2007, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, NIST, in 2009 it was incorporated in the International System of Quantities; the term gigabyte continues to be used with the following two different meanings: 1 GB = 1000000000 bytes Based on powers of 10, this definition uses the prefix giga- as defined in the International System of Units. This is the recommended definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission; this definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance.
The file manager of Mac OS X version 10.6 and versions are a notable example of this usage in software, which report files sizes in decimal units. 1 GiB = 1073741824 bytes. The binary definition uses powers of the base 2, as does the architectural principle of binary computers; this usage is promulgated by some operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous unit gibibyte. Since the first disk drive, the IBM 350, disk drive manufacturers expressed hard drive capacities using decimal prefixes. With the advent of gigabyte-range drive capacities, manufacturers based most consumer hard drive capacities in certain size classes expressed in decimal gigabytes, such as "500 GB"; the exact capacity of a given drive model is slightly larger than the class designation. All manufacturers of hard disk drives and flash-memory disk devices continue to define one gigabyte as 1000000000bytes, displayed on the packaging; some operating systems such as OS X express hard drive capacity or file size using decimal multipliers, while others such as Microsoft Windows report size using binary multipliers.
This discrepancy causes confusion, as a disk with an advertised capacity of, for example, 400 GB might be reported by the operating system as 372 GB, meaning 372 GiB. The JEDEC memory standards use IEEE 100 nomenclature; the difference between units based on decimal and binary prefixes increases as a semi-logarithmic function—for example, the decimal kilobyte value is nearly 98% of the kibibyte, a megabyte is under 96% of a mebibyte, a gigabyte is just over 93% of a gibibyte value. This means that a 300 GB hard disk might be indicated variously as 300 GB, 279 GB or 279 GiB, depending on the operating system; as storage sizes increase and larger units are used, these differences become more pronounced. Some legal challenges have been waged over this confusion such as a lawsuit against drive manufacturer Western Digital. Western Digital settled the challenge and added explicit disclaimers to products that the usable capacity may differ from the advertised capacity. Seagate was sued on similar grounds and settled.
Because of its physical design, the capacity of modern computer random access memory devices, such as DIMM modules, is always a multiple of a power of 1024. It is thus convenient to use prefixes denoting powers of 1024, known as binary prefixes, in describing them. For example, a memory capacity of 1073741824bytes is conveniently expressed as 1 GiB rather than as 1.074 GB. The former specification is, however quoted as "1 GB" when applied to random access memory. Software allocates memory in varying degrees of granularity as needed to fulfill data structure requirements and binary multiples are not required. Other computer capacities and rates, like storage hardware size, data transfer rates, clock speeds, operations per second, etc. do not depend on an inherent base, are presented in decimal units. For example, the manufacturer of a "300 GB" hard drive is claiming a capacity of 300000000000bytes, not 300x10243 bytes. One hour of SDTV video at 2.2 Mbit/s is 1 GB. Seven minutes of HDTV video at 19.39 Mbit/s is 1
A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one. It is thus a word created to differentiate between two types, whereas no clarification was required. Advances in technology are responsible for the coinage of retronyms. For example, the term "acoustic guitar" was coined at the advent of electric guitars and analog watches were thus renamed to distinguish them from digital watches once the latter were invented; the first bicycles with two wheels of equal size were called "safety bicycles" because they were easier to handle than the then-dominant style that had one large wheel and one small wheel, which became known as an "ordinary" bicycle. Since the end of the 19th century, most bicycles have been expected to have two equal sized wheels, the other type has been renamed "penny-farthing" or "high-wheeler" bicycle; the Atari Video Computer System platform was rebranded the "Atari 2600" in 1982 following the launch of its successor, the Atari 5200, all hardware and software related to the platform were released under this new branding from that point on.
The original Game Boy was referred to as "Game Boy Classic" after the release of Game Boy Color. Another gaming example is the original Xbox being referred to as the Xbox 1 prior to the release of the Xbox One today it is referred to as the "Xbox Classic" or "the original Xbox." The term retronym, a neologism composed of the combining forms retro- + -nym, was coined by Frank Mankiewicz in 1980 and popularized by William Safire in The New York Times Magazine. In 2000 The American Heritage Dictionary became the first major dictionary to include the word retronym. Back-formation Backronym Contrastive focus reduplication Markedness -onym Protologism
Olivetti S.p. A. is an Italian manufacturer of typewriters, tablets, smartphones and other such business products as calculators and fax machines. Headquartered in Ivrea, in the Metropolitan City of Turin, the company has been part of the Telecom Italia Group since 2003; the first commercial programmable "desktop computer", the Programma 101, was produced by Olivetti in 1964 and was a commercial success. The company was founded as a typewriter manufacturer by Camillo Olivetti in 1908 in Italy; the firm was developed by his son Adriano Olivetti. Olivetti opened its first overseas manufacturing plant in 1930, its Divisumma electric calculator was launched in 1948. Olivetti produced Italy's first electronic computer, the transistorised Elea 9003, in 1959, purchased the Underwood Typewriter Company that year. In 1964 the company sold its electronics division to the American company General Electric, it continued to develop new computing products on its own. In the 1970s and 1980s they were the biggest manufacturer for office machines in Europe and 2nd biggest PC vendor behind IBM in Europe.
In 1980, Olivetti began distributing in Indonesia through Dragon Communication. In 1981, Olivetti installed the electronic voting systems for the European Parliament in Strasburg and Luxembourg. In September 1994, the company launched. From 2003 is part of the TIM Group. Olivetti was famous for the attention it gave to design: preoccupation with design developed into a comprehensive corporate philosophy, which embraced everything from the shape of a space bar to the color scheme for an advertising poster. In 1952, the Museum of Modern Art held an exhibit titled "Olivetti: Design in Industry". Another major show, mounted by the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1969, toured five other cities. Olivetti was renowned for the caliber of the architects it engaged to design its factories and offices, including Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn, Gae Aulenti, Egon Eiermann, Figini-Pollini, Ignazio Gardella, Carlo Scarpa, BBPR, many others. From the 1940s to the 1960s, Olivetti industrial design was led by Marcello Nizzoli, responsible for the Lexicon 80 and the portable Lettera 22.
Mario Bellini and Ettore Sottsass directed design. Bellini designed the Programma 101, Divisumma 18 and Logos 68 calculators and the TCV-250 video display terminal, among others. Sottsass designed the Tekne 3 typewriter, Elea 9003 computer, the Praxis 48 typewriter, the Valentine portable typewriter, others. Michele De Lucchi designed the Gioconda calculator. During the 1970s Olivetti sold two ranges of minicomputers. The'A' series started with the typewriter-sized A4 through to the large A8, the desk-sized DE500 and DE700 series. George Sowden worked for Olivetti from 1970 until 1990, designed their first desktop computer, Olivetti L1, in 1978. In 1991, Sowden won the prestigious ADI Compasso d'Oro Award for the design of the Olivetti fax OFX420. Olivetti paid attention to more than the importance of product design. Giovanni Pintori was hired by Adriano Olivetti in 1936 to work in the publicity department. Pintori was the creator of the Olivetti logo and many promotional posters used to advertise the company and its products.
During his activity as Art Director from 1950, Olivetti's graphic design obtained several international awards, he designed works that created the Olivetti image and became emblematic Italian reference in the history of 20th-century design. Those designers created the Olivetti Synthesis office furniture series which were used to be installed in Olivetti's own headquarters, worldwide branch offices and show rooms. Olivetti produced some industrial production machinery, including metal working machines of the Horizon series. Olivetti began with mechanical typewriters when the company was founded in 1909, produced them until the mid 1990s; until the mid 1960s they were mechanical, models such as the portable Olivetti Valentine were designed by Ettore Sottsass. With the Tekne/Editor series and Praxis 48, some of the first electromechanical typewriters were introduced; the Editor series was used for speed typing championship competition. The Editor 5 from 1969 was the top model of that series, with proportional spacing and the ability to support justified text borders.
In 1972 the electromechanical typeball machines of the Lexicon 90 to 94C series were introduced, as competitors to the IBM Selectric typewriters, the top model 94c supported proportional spacing and justified text borders like the Editor 5, as well as lift-off correction. In 1978 Olivetti was one of the first manufacturers to introduce electronic daisywheel printer-based word processing machines called TES 401 and TES 501; the ET series typewriters without LCD and different levels of text editing capabilities were popular in offices. Models in that line were ET 121, ET 201, ET 221, ET 225, ET 231, ET 351, ET 109, ET 110, ET 111, ET 112, ET 115, ET 116, ET 2000, ET 2100, ET 2200, ET 2250, ET 2300, Et 2400 and ET 2500. For home users in 1982 the Praxis 35, Praxis 40 and 45D were some of the first portable electronic typewriters. Olivetti added the Praxis 20, ET Compact 50, ET Compact 60, ET Compact 70, ET Compact 65/66, the ET Personal series and Linea 101; the top models were 8 lines LCD based portables like Top 100 and Studio 8
NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus developed at MIT and standardized in 1987 as a part of the NuMachine workstation project. The first complete implementation of the NuBus was done by Western Digital for their NuMachine, for the Lisp Machines Inc. LMI Lambda; the NuBus was incorporated in Lisp products by Texas Instruments, used as the main expansion bus by Apple Computer and NeXT. It is no longer used outside the embedded market. Early microcomputer buses like S-100 were just connections to the pins of the microprocessor and to the power rails; this meant that a change in the computer's architecture led to a new bus as well. Looking to avoid such problems in the future, NuBus was designed to be independent of the processor, its general architecture and any details of its I/O handling. Among its many advanced features for the era, NuBus used a 32-bit backplane when 8- or 16-bit busses were common; this was seen as making the bus "future-proof", as it was believed that 32-bit systems would arrive in the near future while 64-bit buses and beyond would remain impractical and excessive.
In addition, NuBus was agnostic about the processor itself. Most buses up to this point conformed to the signalling and data standards of the machine they were plugged into. NuBus made no such assumptions, which meant that any NuBus card could be plugged into any NuBus machine, as long as there was an appropriate device driver. In order to select the proper device driver, NuBus included an ID scheme that allowed the cards to identify themselves to the host computer during startup; this meant that the user didn't have to configure the system, the bane of bus systems up to that point. For instance, with ISA the driver had to be configured not only for the card, but for any memory it required, the interrupts it used, so on. NuBus required no such configuration, making it one of the first examples of plug-and-play architecture. On the downside, while this flexibility made NuBus much simpler for the user and device driver authors, it made things more difficult for the designers of the cards themselves.
Whereas most "simple" bus systems were supported with a handful of input/output chips designed to be used with that CPU in mind, with NuBus every card and computer had to convert everything to a platform-agnostic "NuBus world". This meant adding a NuBus controller chip between the bus and any I/O chips on the card, increasing costs. While this is a trivial exercise today, one that all newer buses require, in the 1980s NuBus was considered complex and expensive; the NuBus became a standard in 1987 as IEEE 1196. This version used a standard 96-pin three-row connector, running the system on a 10 MHz clock for a maximum burst throughput of 40 MB/s and average speeds of 10 to 20 MB/s. A addition, NuBus 90, increased the clock rate to 20 MHz for better throughput, burst increasing to about 70 MB/s, average to about 30 MB/s; the NuBus was first developed commercially in the Western Digital NuMachine, first used in a production product by their licensee, Lisp Machines, Inc. in the LMI-Lambda, a Lisp Machine.
The project and the development group was sold by Western Digital to Texas Instruments in 1984. The technology was incorporated into their TI Explorer a Lisp Machine. In 1986, Texas Instruments used the NuBus in the S1500 multiprocessor UNIX system. Both Texas Instruments and Symbolics developed Lisp Machine NuBus boards based on their Lisp supporting microprocessors; these NuBus boards were co-processor Lisp Machines for the Apple Macintosh line. NuBus was selected by Apple Computer for use in their Macintosh II project, where its plug-n-play nature fit well with the Mac philosophy of ease-of-use, it was used in most of the Macintosh II series that made up the professional-level Mac lineup from the late 1980s. It was used into the mid-1990s. Early Quadras only supported the 20 MHz rate when two cards were talking to each other, since the motherboard controller was not upgraded; this was addressed in the NuBus implementation on the 660AV and 840AV models. This improved NuBus controller was used in the first generation Power Macintosh 6100, 7100 and 8100 models.
Power Mac models adopted Intel's PCI bus. Apple's NuBus implementation used pin and socket connectors on the back of the card rather than edge connectors with Phillips screws inside the case that most cards use, making it much easier to install cards. Apple's computers supplied an always-on +5 V "trickle" power supply for tasks such as watching the phone line while the computer was turned off; this was part of an unapproved NuBus standard. NuBus was selected by NeXT Computer for their line of machines, but used a different physical PCB layout. NuBus appears to have seen little use outside these roles, when Apple switched to PCI in the mid 1990s, NuBus disappeared. Amiga Zorro II Industry Standard Architecture Extended Industry Standard Architecture Micro Channel architecture VESA Local Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect Accelerated Graphics Port PCI Express List of device bandwidths NuBus specs Developing for the Macintosh NuBus Pictures of several NuBus cards at applefritter
Wyse is an American manufacturer of cloud computing systems. They are best known for their video terminal line introduced in the 1980s, which competed with the market leading Digital, they had a successful line of IBM PC compatible workstations in the mid-to-late 1980s, but were outcompeted by companies such as Dell starting late in the decade. Current products include thin client hardware and software as well as desktop virtualization solutions. Other products include cloud software-supporting desktop computers and mobile devices. Dell Cloud Client Computing is partnered with IT vendors such as Citrix, IBM, VMware. On April 2, 2012, Dell and Wyse announced. With this acquisition Dell surpassed their rival Hewlett-Packard in the market for thin clients. On May 25, 2012 Dell informed the market that it had completed the acquisition, renaming the company Dell Wyse. Wyse Technology was founded in 1981 by Garwing Wu, Bernard Tse, Grace Tse; the company became famous in the 1980s as a manufacturer of character terminals.
Most of these terminals can emulate several other terminal types in addition to their native escape sequences. These terminals were used with library card catalogs such as Dynix. In 1983, Wyse began shipping the WY50, a terminal, priced some 44 percent lower than its nearest competitor, it became their first big-selling product, had a larger screen and higher resolution than competitor products at the time. Following the WY50 was the WY60, the best-selling general purpose terminal of all time. In addition to standard character-mode operation, the WY60 supported box graphics that could be used to produce more attractive displays; the Wyse 99GT and 160 terminals added graphical capability through Tektronix 4014 emulation. The WY325 and 375 models added color support with Tektronix graphics. In 1984, Wyse entered the personal computer marketplace; the first of these was the Wyse 1000, a computer based on the Intel 80186. Next came the WYSEpc, an IBM-compatible computer based on the 8088 processor, which had a good following due to its slim-line design.
Wyse introduced personal computers compatible with the IBM PC/AT based on the 80286 and 80386, which were top sellers. Wyse sold through 2-tier distribution, which limited growth in the late 1980s as mail order companies like Dell and Gateway entered the marketplace. In 1984 Wyse became one of the leaders in the general purpose text terminal industry and on August 17, 1984 went public on the New York Stock Exchange. In the following years, Wyse added the PC product line Wyse pc3216; the Wyse 3216 was based on Intel’s newest 386 chip. It sold for $1,500 less than a comparable Compaq DeskPro, $2,000 less than an IBM System 80, performed at a higher speed than both. In 1989, Wyse developed LAN-attached communication devices. Wyse was an early innovator in off-shore electronics production, with its products being built in Taiwan in company owned facilities. In 1990 Dr. Morris Chang organized Channel International, a Taiwan consortium, which gathered business owners together and was a booster for Taiwanese individuals owning U.
S. companies. In 1990, Channel International acquired Wyse. From 1990 to 1994 Wyse focused on PCs with CPU upgradability. Wyse created a proprietary upgradability concept called Modular Systems Architecture, or MSA. In October 1992, Wyse became ISO 9001:2000 certified. In the mid-1990s Wyse Taiwan became the parent company of Wyse Technology; as the PC and server industry became more competitive, in 1994 Wyse management began to focus on making terminals. They worked on enabling them to support the graphics and capabilities needed to display Windows and Internet applications. In late 1994, the company developed two thin client prototypes, selected Citrix a small company, to provide the protocol and server side of the model; the machines differed from traditional text-mode terminals in that by supporting modern GUI applications using a mouse and windowing systems. The clients are able to access these applications using protocols that send drawing commands or raw pixel data over the data connection.
Because of the greater bandwidth this requires these machines use ethernet connections to the server, rather than the RS-232 links used in the past. In November 1995, Citrix and Wyse shared a booth at the Comdex tradeshow. Wyse introduced the Winterm windows terminal models 2000 and 2500. Citrix introduced the Windows NT-based "Windows mainframe" software it connected to. At the show, the Wyse Winterm was awarded the “Best of Comdex” award. Wyse secured a patent for the thin client design. In 1997, Microsoft released Windows NT Terminal Service Edition, which supported the Wyse thin clients. After the thin clients were well received by the market, Wyse introduced several additional models, including stand-alone, LCD monitor-integrated, the tablet-shaped mobile Winterm 2900 and 2930 models. In 1997, Wyse introduced the first thin-client remote management software system, Wyse Remote Administrator. In 1999, Wyse Technology once again went this time on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. In 2000 Wyse acquired Netier Technologies of Texas, turned Netier's Rapport thin device management software into the Wyse Device Manager.
In 2003 Wyse went private and company shareholders reorganized the company, selling assets such as real estate and company-owned manufacturing facilities in favor of contract manufacturing. In April 2005 the controlling interest of Wyse was acquired by Garnett & Helfrich Capital, a private equity f
The Intel 80386 known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985. The first versions had 275,000 transistors and were the CPU of many workstations and high-end personal computers of the time; as the original implementation of the 32-bit extension of the 80286 architecture, the 80386 instruction set, programming model, binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit x86 processors, termed the i386-architecture, x86, or IA-32, depending on context. The 32-bit 80386 can execute most code intended for the earlier 16-bit processors such as 8086 and 80286 that were ubiquitous in early PCs. Over the years, successively newer implementations of the same architecture have become several hundreds of times faster than the original 80386. A 33 MHz 80386 was measured to operate at about 11.4 MIPS. The 80386 was introduced in October 1985, while manufacturing of the chips in significant quantities commenced in June 1986. Mainboards for 80386-based computer systems were cumbersome and expensive at first, but manufacturing was rationalized upon the 80386's mainstream adoption.
The first personal computer to make use of the 80386 was designed and manufactured by Compaq and marked the first time a fundamental component in the IBM PC compatible de facto standard was updated by a company other than IBM. In May 2006, Intel announced that 80386 production would stop at the end of September 2007. Although it had long been obsolete as a personal computer CPU, Intel and others had continued making the chip for embedded systems; such systems using an 80386 or one of many derivatives are common in aerospace technology and electronic musical instruments, among others. Some mobile phones used the 80386 processor, such as BlackBerry 950 and Nokia 9000 Communicator; the processor was a significant evolution in the x86 architecture, extended a long line of processors that stretched back to the Intel 8008. The predecessor of the 80386 was the Intel 80286, a 16-bit processor with a segment-based memory management and protection system; the 80386 added a 32-bit architecture and a paging translation unit, which made it much easier to implement operating systems that used virtual memory.
It offered support for register debugging. The 80386 featured three operating modes: protected mode and virtual mode; the protected mode, which debuted in the 286, was extended to allow the 386 to address up to 4 GB of memory. The all new virtual 8086 mode made it possible to run one or more real mode programs in a protected environment, although some programs were not compatible; the ability for a 386 to be set up to act like it had a flat memory model in protected mode despite the fact that it uses a segmented memory model in all modes would arguably be the most important feature change for the x86 processor family until AMD released x86-64 in 2003. Several new instructions have been added to 386: BSF, BSR, BT, BTS, BTR, BTC, CDQ, CWDE, LFS, LGS, LSS, MOVSX, MOVZX, SETcc, SHLD, SHRD. Two new segment registers have been added for general-purpose programs, single Machine Status Word of 286 grew into eight control registers CR0–CR7. Debug registers DR0–DR7 were added for hardware breakpoints. New forms of MOV instruction are used to access them.
Chief architect in the development of the 80386 was John H. Crawford, he was responsible for extending the 80286 architecture and instruction set to 32-bit, led the microprogram development for the 80386 chip. The 80486 and P5 Pentium line of processors were descendants of the 80386 design; the following data types are directly supported and thus implemented by one or more 80386 machine instructions. 8-bit integer, either signed or unsigned. 16-bit integer, either signed or unsigned. 32-bit integer, either signed or unsigned. 64-bit integer, either signed or unsigned. Offset, a 16- or 32-bit displacement referring to a memory location. Pointer, a 16-bit selector together with a 16- or 32-bit offset. Character. String, a sequence of 8-, 16- or 32-bit words. BCD, decimal digits represented by unpacked bytes. Packed BCD, two BCD digits in one byte; the following 80386 assembly source code is for a subroutine named _strtolower that copies a null-terminated ASCIIZ character string from one location to another, converting all alphabetic characters to lower case.
The string is copied one byte at a time. The example code uses the EBP register to establish a call frame, an area on the stack that contains all of the parameters and local variables for the execution of the subroutine; this kind of calling convention supports reentrant and recursive code and has been used by Algol-like languages since the late 1950s. A flat memory model is assumed that the DS and ES segments address the same region of memory. In 1988, Intel introduced the 80386SX, most referred to as the 386SX, a cut-down version of the 80386 with a 16-bit data bus intended for lower-cost PCs aimed at the home and small-business markets, while the 386DX would remain the high-end variant used in workstations and other demanding tasks; the CPU remained 32-bit internally, but the 16-bit