Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Central Casting is an American casting company with offices in Los Angeles, New York and Louisiana that specializes in the casting of extras, body doubles, stand-ins. In popular usage the term "central casting" has come to denote an unspecified source of stereotypical types for film or television, as in a character being "straight out of central casting". Central Casting was established on December 4, 1925 as the Central Casting Bureau by Will H. Hays and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in an effort to regulate the thousands who sought employment as extras in the film industry. Hays had four main goals for Central Casting: to do away with the high fees extras were charged by private employment agencies, to ensure extras were paid to discourage the influx of people flocking to Hollywood to seek employment as extras, to provide steady employment to qualified extras. To carry out his vision, Hays hired Fred Beetson as president and on January 25, 1926, Central Casting opened its office in the Hollywood & Western Building in Hollywood.
For the estimated 30,000 aspiring extras in Hollywood, Central Casting became the only source of extra work. In the first six months of operation, the agency registered more than 18,000 extras and made 113,873 placements. Many Hollywood legends started their careers with Central Casting, including Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, Gary Cooper. In 1944, the agency introduced a second phone line, GArfield 3621 for men and GArfield 3711 for women. Though registration decreased due to World War II, the switchboard received up to 4,000 calls an hour from extras looking for work. In 1976, the Motion Picture Association of America sold Central Casting to Production Payment, Inc. a subsidiary of Talent & Residuals, making the agency owned for the first time. When the agency’s parent company International Digitronics Corporation merged with Draney Information Services Corporation in 1991, Central Casting merged with Richmar Casting to become part of the newly formed Entertainment Partners. During this process, Central Casting overhauled their digital casting system, making it easier for casting directors to search through their 15,000 registered extras.
Around this time, extras begin to refer to themselves as background actors. In April 2006, Central Casting New York opened in Manhattan, the first Central Casting office to open outside of Los Angeles; some early projects cast by the New York office included Law & Order, The Sopranos, Spider-Man 3. In April 2018, the office moved to its new location on the 10th floor of 5 Pennsylvania Plaza. After casting thousands of background actors for Jurassic World, Central Casting Louisiana opened an office in Benson Tower in New Orleans on September 23, 2014; the office's first television casting project was The Astronauts Wives Club. In 2016, Central Casting Georgia opened in Atlanta after the on-location background casting for American Made. Official Web site
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Epic films are a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, spectacle. The usage of the term has shifted over time, sometimes designating a film genre and at other times synonymous with big-budget filmmaking. Like epics in the classical literary sense it is focused on a heroic character. An epic's ambitious nature helps to set it apart from other types of film such as the period piece or adventure film. Epic historical films would take a historical or a mythical event and add an extravagant setting and lavish costumes, accompanied by an expansive musical score with an ensemble cast, which would make them among the most expensive of films to produce; the most common subjects of epic films are royalty, important figures from various periods in world history. The term "epic" came from the poetic genre exemplified by such works as the Iliad, Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Odyssey. In classical literature, epics are considered works focused on deeds or journeys of heroes upon which the fate of a large number of people depend.
Films described as "epic" take a historical character, or a mythic heroic figure. Common subjects of epics are royalty, great military leaders, or leading personalities from various periods in world history. However, there are some films described as "epic" solely on the basis of their enormous scope and the sweeping panorama of their settings such as How the West Was Won or East of Eden that do not have the typical substance of classical epics but are directed in an epic style; when described as "epic" because of content, an epic movie is set during a time of war or other societal crisis, while covering a longer span of time sometimes throughout entire generations coming and passing away, in terms of both the events depicted and the running time of the film. Such films have a historical setting, although fantasy or science fiction settings have become common in recent decades; the central conflict of the film is seen as having far-reaching effects changing the course of history. The main characters' actions are central to the resolution of the societal conflict.
In its classification of films by genre, the American Film Institute limits the genre to historical films such as Ben-Hur. However, film scholars such as Constantine Santas are willing to extend the label to science-fiction films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey and Star Wars. Lynn Ramey suggests that "Surely one of the hardest film genres to define is that of the "epic" film, encompassing such examples as Ben-Hur, Gone with the Wind....and more 300 and the Star Wars films...none of these comes from literary epics per se, there is little that links them with one another. Among those who espouse film genre studies, epic is one of the most despised and ignored genres" Finally, although the American Movie Channel formally defines epic films as historical films, they nonetheless state the epic film may be combined with the genre of science-fiction and cite Star Wars as an example. Stylistically, films classed as epic employ spectacular settings and specially designed costumes accompanied by a sweeping musical score, an ensemble cast of bankable stars.
Epics are among the most expensive of films to produce. They use on-location filming, authentic period costumes, action scenes on a massive scale. Biographical films may be less lavish versions of this genre. Many writers may refer to any film, "long" as an epic, making the definition epic a matter of dispute, raise questions as to whether it is a "genre" at all; as Roger Ebert put it, in his "Great Movies" article on Lawrence of Arabia: The word epic in recent years has become synonymous with big budget B picture. What you realize watching Lawrence of Arabia is that the word epic refers not to the cost or the elaborate production, but to the size of the ideas and vision. Werner Herzog's Aguirre: The Wrath of God didn't cost as much as the catering in Pearl Harbor, but it is an epic, Pearl Harbor is not; the comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail had the joking tagline "Makes Ben-Hur look like an epic." The epic is among the oldest of film genres, with one early notable example being Giovanni Pastrone's Cabiria, a three-hour silent film, about the Punic Wars, that laid the groundwork for the subsequent silent epics of D. W. Griffith.
The genre reached a peak of popularity in the early 1960s, when Hollywood collaborated with foreign film studios to use exotic locations in Spain and elsewhere for the production of epic films such as El Cid or Lawrence of Arabia. This boom period of international co-productions is considered to have ended with Cleopatra, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Doctor Zhivago. Films in this genre continued to appear, with one notable example including War and Peace, released in the former Soviet Union during 1967-1968 and, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk, said to be the most expensive film made. In the 1980s Reds revived the epic genre after getting 12 Academy Award nominations. Epic films continue to be produced, although since the development of CGI they use computer effects instead of an actual cast of thousands. Since the 1950s, such films have been shot with a wide aspect ratio for a more immersive and panoramic theatrical experience. Epic films were recognized in a montage at the 2006 Academy Awards.
The enduring popularity of the epic is accredited to their ability to appeal to a wide audience. Many of the highest-grossing films of all-time have been epics; the 1997 film Titanic, cited as helping to revive the genre, grossed $658 million domestic
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode. Acting involves a broad range of skills, including a well-developed imagination, emotional facility, physical expressivity, vocal projection, clarity of speech, the ability to interpret drama. Acting demands an ability to employ dialects, improvisation and emulation, stage combat. Many actors train at length in specialist colleges to develop these skills; the vast majority of professional actors have undergone extensive training. Actors and actresses will have many instructors and teachers for a full range of training involving singing, scene-work, audition techniques, acting for camera. Most early sources in the West that examine the art of acting discuss it as part of rhetoric. One of the first known actors is believed to have been an ancient Greek called Thespis of Icaria. Writing two centuries after the event, Aristotle in his Poetics suggests that Thespis stepped out of the dithyrambic chorus and addressed it as a separate character.
Before Thespis, the chorus narrated. When Thespis stepped out from the chorus, he spoke. To distinguish between these different modes of storytelling—enactment and narration—Aristotle uses the terms "mimesis" and "diegesis". From Thespis' name derives the word "thespian". A professional actor is someone, paid to act. Professional actors sometimes undertake unpaid work for a variety of reasons, including educational purposes or for charity events. Amateur actors are those. Not all people working as actors in film, television, or theatre are professionally trained. Bob Hoskins, for example, had no formal training before becoming an actor. Conservatories and drama schools offer two- to four-year training on all aspects of acting. Universities offer three- to four-year programs, in which a student is able to choose to focus on acting, whilst continuing to learn about other aspects of theatre. Schools vary in their approach, but in North America the most popular method taught derives from the'system' of Konstantin Stanislavski, developed and popularised in America as method acting by Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, Sanford Meisner, others.
Other approaches may include a more physically based orientation, such as that promoted by theatre practitioners as diverse as Anne Bogart, Jacques Lecoq, Jerzy Grotowski, or Vsevolod Meyerhold. Classes may include psychotechnique, mask work, physical theatre and acting for camera. Regardless of a school's approach, students should expect intensive training in textual interpretation and movement. Applications to drama programmes and conservatories involve extensive auditions. Anybody over the age of 18 can apply. Training may start at a young age. Acting classes and professional schools targeted at under-18s are widespread; these classes introduce young actors to different aspects of acting and theatre, including scene study. Increased training and exposure to public speaking allows humans to maintain calmer and more relaxed physiologically. By measuring a public speaker’s heart rate maybe one of the easiest ways to judge shifts in stress as the heart rate increases with anxiety; as actors increase performances, heart rate and other evidence of stress can decrease.
This is important in training for actors, as adaptive strategies gained from increased exposure to public speaking can regulate implicit and explicit anxiety. By attending an institution with a specialization in acting, increased opportunity to act will lead to more relaxed physiology and decrease in stress and its effects on the body; these effects can vary from hormonal to cognitive health that can impact quality of life and performance Some classical forms of acting involve a substantial element of improvised performance. Most notable is its use by the troupes of the commedia dell'arte, a form of masked comedy that originated in Italy. Improvisation as an approach to acting formed an important part of the Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski's'system' of actor training, which he developed from the 1910s onwards. Late in 1910, the playwright Maxim Gorky invited Stanislavski to join him in Capri, where they discussed training and Stanislavski's emerging "grammar" of acting.
Inspired by a popular theatre performance in Naples that utilised the techniques of the commedia dell'arte, Gorky suggested that they form a company, modelled on the medieval strolling players, in which a playwright and group of young actors would devise new plays together by means of improvisation. Stanislavski would develop this use of improvisation in his work with his First Studio of the Moscow Art Theatre. Stanislavski's use was extended further in the approaches to acting developed by his students, Michael Chekhov and Maria Knebel. In the United Kingdom, the use of improvisation was pioneered by Joan Littlewood from the 1930s onwards and by Keith Johnstone and Clive Barker. In the United States, it was promoted by Viola Spolin, after working with Neva Boyd at a Hull House in Chicago, Illinois. Like the British practitioners, Spolin felt that playing games was a useful means of training actors and helped to improve an actor's performance. With improvisation, she argued, people may find expressive freedom, since they do not know how an improvised situation will turn out.
Improvisation demands an open mind
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan