Prophecy is not limited to any one culture. It is a property to all known ancient societies around the world. Many systems and rules about prophecy have been proposed over several millennia, the related meaning thing spoken or written by a prophet dates from c. 1300, while the verb to prophesy is recorded by 1377, the former closely relates to the definition by Al-Fârâbî who developed the theory of prophecy in Islam. According to Western esotericist Rosemary Guiley, clairvoyance has been used as an adjunct to divination, Modern research in prophecy is a pseudoscience. In general, a diviners foretelling or a prophetic prediction of the future does not adhere to the scientific method, from a skeptical point of view, there is a Latin maxim, prophecy written after the fact vaticinium ex eventu. The Jewish Torah already deals with the topic of the false prophet, the Haedong Kosung-jon records that King Beopheung of Silla had desired to promulgate Buddhism as the state religion. However, officials in his court opposed him, in the fourteenth year of his reign, Beopheungs Grand Secretary, devised a strategy to overcome court opposition.
Ichadon schemed with the king, convincing him to make a proclamation granting Buddhism official state sanction using the royal seal, Ichadon told the king to deny having made such a proclamation when the opposing officials received it and demanded an explanation. Instead, Ichadon would confess and accept the punishment of execution, Ichadon prophesied to the king that at his execution a wonderful miracle would convince the opposing court faction of Buddhisms power. Ichadons scheme went as planned, and the officials took the bait. The omen was accepted by the court officials as a manifestation of heavens approval. In ancient Chinese, prophetic texts are known as Chen, the most famous Chinese prophecy is the Tui bei tu The New Testament refers to prophecy as one of the spiritual gifts given by the indwelling Holy Spirit. From this, many Christians believe that the gift of prophecy is the ability to receive. The purpose of the message may be to edify and comfort the members of the Church, in this context, not all prophecies contain predictions about the future.
The Apostle Paul teaches in First Corinthians that prophecy is for the benefit of the whole Church, a recognized form of Christian prophecy is the prophetic drama which Frederick Dillistone describes as a metaphorical conjunction between present situations and future events. The gift of prophecy was acknowledged in the Church after the death of the apostles, in his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr argued that prophets were no longer among Israel but were in the Church. The Shepherd of Hermas, written around the mid-2nd century - John A. T. Robinson dates it before 85 AD, irenaeus confirms the existence of such spiritual gifts in his Against Heresies
Railway Mania was an instance of speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s. It followed a pattern, as the price of railway shares increased. It reached its zenith in 1846, when no fewer than 272 Acts of Parliament were passed, setting up new companies. Britains first recognisably modern inter-city railway, the Liverpool and Manchester, opened in 1830, the late 1830s and early 1840s saw the British economy slow down. By the mid-1840s, the economy was improving vastly and the industries were once again growing. Crucially, there were investors in British business. The Industrial Revolution was creating a new, increasingly affluent middle class, with these limits removed anyone could invest money on a new company and railways were heavily promoted as a foolproof venture. New media such as newspapers and the emergence of the stock market made it easy for companies to promote themselves. Shares could be purchased for a 10% deposit with the company holding the right to call in the remainder at any time.
The railways were so heavily promoted as a venture that thousands of investors on modest incomes bought large numbers of shares whilst only being able to afford the deposit. The British government promoted an almost totally laissez-faire system of non-regulation in the railways, anyone could form a company, gain investment and submit a Bill to Parliament. Magnates like George Hudson developed routes in the North and Midlands by amalgamating small railway companies and he was an MP, but ultimately failed owing to his fraudulent practices of, for example, paying dividends from capital. As with other bubbles, the Railway Mania became a cycle based purely on over-optimistic speculation. Coupled to this, in late 1845 the Bank of England put up interest rates, as banks began to re-invest in bonds, the money began to flow out of railways, under-cutting the boom. The share prices of railways slowed in their rise, levelled out, as they began to fall, investment stopped virtually overnight, leaving numerous companies without funding and numerous investors with no prospect of any return on their investment.
The larger railway companies such as the Great Western Railway and the nascent Midland began to buy up strategic failed lines to expand their network. Many middle class families on modest incomes had sunk their entire savings into new companies during the Mania, the boom-and-bust cycle of early-industrial Britain was still in effect, and the boom that had created the conditions for Railway Mania began to cool and a decline set in. The number of new railway companies fell away to almost nothing in the late 1840s and early 1850s, unlike some stock market bubbles, there was a net tangible result from all the investment, a vast expansion of the British railway system, though perhaps at an inflated cost
He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing. He tried persistently but without success to achieve recognition of his theories. The theory attracted numerous followers in Europe and the United States and was popular into the 19th century, practitioners were often known as magnetizers, rather than mesmerists. For about 75 years from its beginnings in 1779 it was an important specialty in medicine, hundreds of books were written on the subject between 1766 and 1925. Today it is almost entirely forgotten, the terms magnetizer and mesmerizer have been applied to people who study and practice animal magnetism. The magnetiser and the hypnotist is, the first uses animal magnetism, the etymology of the word magnetizer comes from the French magnetiseur, which in turn is derived from the French verb magnetiser. The term refers to an individual who has the power to manipulate the magnetic fluid with effects upon other people present that were regarded as analogous to magnetic effects.
This sense of the term is found, for example, in the expression of Antoine Joseph Gorsas, at the time, some magnetizers attempted to channel what they thought was a magnetic fluid, and sometimes they attempted this with a laying on of hands. Reported effects included various feelings, intense heat, trances, many practitioners took a scientific approach, such as Joseph Philippe François Deleuze, a French physician, anatomist and physicist. One of his pupils was Théodore Léger, who wrote that the label mesmerism was most improper, the commission included Majault, Benjamin Franklin, Jean Sylvain Bailly, J. B. Le Roy, Jean Darcet, de Borey, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, Antoine Lavoisier, Caille, Mauduyt de la Varenne, and de Jussieu. The report says, Among the conclusions were, Abbé Faria was one of the disciples of Franz Anton Mesmer who continued with Mesmers work following the conclusions of the Royal Commission. Hypnotism, a designation coined by the Scottish surgeon, James Braid, originates in Braids the response to an exhibition of animal magnetism, by Charles Lafontaine, in Manchester.
The purpose of the treatment was to shock the body into convulsion in order to remove obstructions in the system that were causing sicknesses. A patient under crisis was believed to be able to see through the body and find the cause of illness, the Marquis of Puységurs miraculous healing of a young man named Victor in 1784 was attributed to, and used as evidence in support of, this crisis treatment. The Marquis was allegedly able to hypnotize Victor and, while hypnotized, Victor was said to have been able to speak articulately, jacob Melo discusses in his books some mechanisms by which the perceived effects of animal magnetism have been claimed to operate. The study of animal magnetism spurred the creation of the Societies of Harmony in France, doctor John Bell was a member of the Philosophical Harmonic Society of Paris, and was certified by the society to lecture and teach on animal magnetism in England. Popularization of animal magnetism was denounced and ridiculed by newspaper journals, many deemed animal magnetism to be nothing more than a theatrical falsity or quackery.
”The novelist and playwrighter Elizabeth Inchbald wrote the farce Animal Magnetism in the late 1780s
The Mississippi Company of 1684 became the Company of the West in 1717, and expanded as the Company of the Indies from 1719. This corporation, which held a monopoly in French colonies in North America. In May 1716, the Banque Générale Privée, which developed the use of money, was set up by John Law. It was a bank, but three quarters of the capital consisted of government bills and government-accepted notes. In August 1717, he bought the Mississippi Company to help the French colony in Louisiana, in the same year Law conceived a joint-stock trading company called the Compagnie dOccident. Law was named the Chief Director of this new company, which was granted a monopoly of the West Indies. The bank became the Banque Royale in 1718, meaning the notes were guaranteed by the king, Louis XIVs long reign and wars had nearly bankrupted the French monarchy. Rather than reduce spending, the Regency of Louis XV of France endorsed the monetary theories of Scottish financier John Law, in 1716, Law was given a charter for the Banque Royale under which the national debt was assigned to the bank in return for extraordinary privileges.
The key to the Banque Royale agreement was that the debt would be paid from revenues derived from opening the Mississippi Valley. The Bank was tied to other ventures of Law—the Company of the West, all were known as the Mississippi Company. The Mississippi Company had a monopoly on trade and mineral wealth, Law was given the title Duc dArkansas. Bernard de la Harpe and his party left New Orleans in 1719 to explore the Red River, in 1721, he explored the Arkansas River. At the Yazoo settlements in Mississippi he was joined by Jean Benjamin who became the scientist for the expedition, in 1718, there were only 700 Europeans in Louisiana. The Mississippi Company arranged ships to move 800 more, who landed in Louisiana in 1718, John Law encouraged Germans, particularly Germans of the Alsatian region who had recently fallen under French rule, and the Swiss to emigrate. Prisoners were set free in Paris in September 1719 onwards, under the condition that they marry prostitutes, the newly married couples were chained together and taken to the port of embarkation.
In May 1720, after complaints from the Mississippi Company and the concessioners about this class of French immigrants, there was a third shipment of prisoners in 1721. Law exaggerated the wealth of Louisiana with a marketing scheme. The scheme promised success for the Mississippi Company by combining investor fervor, the popularity of company shares were such that they sparked a need for more paper bank notes, and when shares generated profits the investors were paid out in paper bank notes
Trial by ordeal
Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience. The test was one of life or death and the proof of innocence was survival, in some cases, the accused was considered innocent if they escaped injury or if their injuries healed. In medieval Europe, like trial by combat, trial by ordeal was considered a judicium Dei, the practice has much earlier roots, attested to as far back as the Code of Hammurabi and the Code of Ur-Nammu. In pre-modern society, the ordeal typically ranked along with the oath, the term ordeal, Old English ordǣl, has the meaning of judgment, from Proto-Germanic *uzdailjam that which is dealt out. Priestly cooperation in trials by fire and water was forbidden by Pope Innocent III at the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, trials by ordeal became rarer over the Late Middle Ages, but the practice was discontinued only in the 16th century.
Ordeal by combat took place between two people in a dispute and they or, under certain conditions, a designated champion would fight, and the loser of the fight or the party represented by the losing champion was deemed guilty or liable. A notable case was that of Gero, Count of Alsleben, whose daughter married Siegfried II, Ordeal by fire was one form of torture. Ordeal of fire typically required that the walk a certain distance. One famous story about the ordeal of ploughshares concerns Edward the Confessors mother, according to legend, she was accused of adultery with Bishop Ælfwine of Winchester, but proved her innocence by walking barefoot unharmed over burning ploughshares. Another form of the ordeal required that an accused remove a stone from a pot of boiling water, the assessment of the injury and the consequences of a miracle or lack of one, followed a similar procedure to that described above. An early example of the test was described by Gregory of Tours in the late 6th century and he describes how a Catholic saint, bested an Arian rival by plucking a stone from a boiling cauldron.
Gregory said that it took Hyacinth about an hour to complete the task and he died as a result of his injuries. It was used to prove the innocence of the accused in cases of treason, the Byzantines viewed trial of ordeal with disgust and considered it a barbarian innovation at odds with Byzantine law and ecclesiastical canons. Angold notes, Its abolition by Michael Paliologos was universally acclaimed. The first of its kind for over 400 years, the trial was a fiasco for Savonarola, since a sudden rain doused the flames, canceling the event, and was taken by onlookers as a sign from God against him. The Holy Inquisition arrested him shortly thereafter, with Savonarola convicted of heresy, Ordeal by fire was used for judiciary purposes in ancient Iran. Persons accused of cheating in contracts or lying might be asked to prove their innocence by ordeal of fire as an ultimate test, two examples of such an ordeal include the accused having to pass through fire, or having molten metal poured on his chest.
There were about 30 of these kinds of tests in all
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of forms of Buddhism, Islam, Shamanism. Relic derives from the Latin reliquiae, meaning remains, and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to leave behind, a reliquary is a shrine that houses one or more religious relics. In ancient Greece, a city or sanctuary might claim to possess, without necessarily displaying, the sanctuary of the Leucippides at Sparta claimed to display the egg of Leda. The bones were not regarded as holding a power derived from the hero, with some exceptions. Miracles and healing were not regularly attributed to them, their presence was meant to serve a tutelary function, the bones of Orestes and Theseus were supposed to have been stolen or removed from their original resting place and reburied. Plutarch says that the Athenians were likewise instructed by the oracle to locate, the body of the legendary Eurystheus was supposed to protect Athens from enemy attack, and in Thebes, that of the prophet Amphiaraus, whose cult was oracular and healing.
As with the relics of Theseus, the bones are sometimes described in sources as gigantic. On the basis of their size, it has been conjectured that such bones were those of prehistoric creatures. The head of the poet-prophet Orpheus was supposed to have transported to Lesbos. The 2nd-century geographer Pausanias reported that the bones of Orpheus were kept in a stone vase displayed on a pillar near Dion, his place of death and these too were regarded as having oracular power, which might be accessed through dreaming in a ritual of incubation. The accidental exposure of the bones brought a disaster upon the town of Libretha, according to the Chronicon Paschale, the bones of the Persian Zoroaster were venerated, but the tradition of Zoroastrianism and its scriptures offer no support of this. In Hinduism, relics are less common than in other religions since the remains of most saints are cremated. The veneration of corporal relics may have originated with the movement or the appearance of Buddhism.
In Buddhism, relics of the Buddha and various sages are venerated, after the Buddhas death, his remains were divided into eight portions. Afterward, these relics were enshrined in stupas wherever Buddhism was spread, some relics believed to be original remains of the body of the Buddha still survive, including the much-revered Sacred Relic of the tooth of the Buddha in Sri Lanka. A stupa is a building created specifically for the relics, many Buddhist temples have stupas and historically, the placement of relics in a stupa often became the initial structure around which the whole temple would be based. Today, many hold the ashes or ringsel of prominent/respected Buddhists who were cremated
Thuggee or tuggee were the acts of Thugs, an organised gang of professional robbers and murderers. Thugs travelled in groups across the Indian sub-continent for six hundred years and they were first mentioned in Ẓiyā-ud-Dīn Baranīs History of Fīrūz Shāh, dated around 1356. During the 1830s, the Thugs were targeted for eradication by Governor-General of India William Bentinck and his chief captain, Thugs were apparently destroyed by this effort. To take advantage of their victims, the Thugs would join travellers and gain their confidence and they would rob and bury their victims. This led to the Thugs being called Phansigar, a more commonly used in southern India. The word Thuggee derives from the Hindi ठग, which means deceiver, related words are the verb thugna, from the Sanskrit स्थग and स्थगति. This term, describing the murder and robbery of travellers, is popular in South Asia, but not one of these did the sultan have killed. He gave orders for them to be put into boats and to be conveyed into the country, to the neighbourhood of Lakhnauti.
The Thugs would thus have to dwell about Lakhnauti and would not trouble the neighbourhood of Delhi any more, membership was sometimes passed from father to son, as part of a criminal underclass. The leadership of established Thug groups tended to be hereditary, as the group evolved into a criminal tribe. Other men would become acquainted with a Thug band and hope to be recruited, as Thugs were respected by the community and had a camaraderie of numbers. Robbery became less a question of solving problems associated with poverty and more a profession, sometimes young children of travellers would be spared and groomed to become Thugs themselves, since children would help allay suspicion. A fourth way of becoming a Thug was by training with a guru, during which the candidate could be assessed for reliability, courage and discipline. The Thugs modus operandi was to join a caravan as fellow travellers, depending on the size of the target group, it might take hundreds of miles to reach a suitable place and time.
There were variations on this method, the killing place needed to be remote from local observers, with no escape. Thugs had favoured places of execution, known as beles, attacks were conducted at night or during a rest break, when travellers would be busy with chores and background noises would mask any sounds of alarm. A quick, quiet method, leaving no stains and requiring no specialised weapon, was strangulation and this method, associated with Thuggee, led to the Thugs being called phansigars or stranglers by British troops. Usually two or three Thugs would strangle one traveller, they needed to dispose of the bodies, either burying them or throwing them into a well, the leader of a Thugee gang was known as a jemadar
Tulip mania or tulipomania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and suddenly collapsed. At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the income of a skilled craftsworker. The term tulip mania is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values, the 1637 event was popularized in 1841 by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According to Mackay, at one point 12 acres of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb, Mackay claims that many such investors were ruined by the fall in prices, and Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackays book is a classic, his account is contested, many modern scholars feel that the mania was not as extraordinary as Mackay described and argue that not enough price data are available to prove that a tulip bulb bubble actually occurred.
Research is difficult because of the economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased. Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the rise, for example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, had high initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. The high asset prices may have driven by expectations of a parliamentary decree that contracts could be voided for a small cost—thus lowering the risk to buyers. Tulip bulbs were soon distributed from Vienna to Augsburg, Antwerp and he planted his collection of tulip bulbs and found they were able to tolerate the harsher conditions of the Low Countries, shortly thereafter the tulip began to grow in popularity. The tulip was different from other flower known to Europe at that time. The appearance of the tulip as a status symbol at this time coincides with the rise of newly independent Hollands trade fortunes. No longer the Spanish Netherlands, its resources could now be channeled into commerce.
Amsterdam merchants were at the center of the lucrative East Indies trade, as a result, tulips rapidly became a coveted luxury item, and a profusion of varieties followed. They were classified in groups, the tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, the multicolored Rosen and the rarest of all. The multicolor effects of intricate lines and flame-like streaks on the petals were vivid and spectacular, growers named their new varieties with exalted titles. Many early forms were prefixed Admirael, often combined with the growers names, generael was another prefix used for around thirty varieties. Later varieties were given even more extravagant names, derived from Alexander the Great or Scipio, or even Admiral of Admirals, naming could be haphazard and varieties highly variable in quality. Most of these varieties have now died out, tulips grow from bulbs, and can be propagated through both seeds and buds
An economic bubble or asset bubble is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly deviates from the corresponding assets intrinsic value. It could be described as a situation in which asset prices appear to be based on implausible or inconsistent views about the future, Asset bubbles date back as far as the 1600s and are now widely regarded as a recurrent feature of modern economic history. Because it is difficult to observe intrinsic values in real-life markets, bubbles are often conclusively identified only in retrospect. Such a drop is known as a crash or a bubble burst, prices in an economic bubble can fluctuate erratically, and become impossible to predict from supply and demand alone. While some economists deny that bubbles occur, the cause of bubbles remains disputed by those who are convinced that asset prices often deviate strongly from intrinsic values. Many explanations have suggested, and research has recently shown that bubbles may appear even without uncertainty, speculation.
In such cases, the bubbles may be argued to be rational and these approaches require that the timing of the bubble collapse can only be forecast probabilistically and the bubble process is often modelled using a Markov switching model. Similar explanations suggest that bubbles might ultimately be caused by processes of price coordination, more recent theories of asset bubble formation suggest that these events are sociologically driven. For instance, explanations have focused on emerging social norms and the role that culturally-situated stories or narratives play in these events and this was one of the earliest modern financial crises, other episodes were referred to as manias, as in the Dutch tulip mania. The metaphor indicated that the prices of the stock were inflated and fragile – expanded based on nothing but air, and vulnerable to a sudden burst, as in fact occurred. The impact of economic bubbles is debated within and between schools of thought, they are not generally considered beneficial, but its debated how harmful their formation.
Political economist Robert E. Wright argues that bubbles can be identified before the fact with high confidence. A protracted period of low risk premiums can simply prolong the downturn in asset price deflation as was the case of the Great Depression in the 1930s for much of the world and the 1990s for Japan. Not only can the aftermath of a crash devastate the economy of a nation, another important aspect of economic bubbles is their impact on spending habits. Market participants with overvalued assets tend to spend more because they feel richer, many observers quote the housing market in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and parts of the United States in recent times, as an example of this effect. In an economy with a bank, the bank may therefore attempt to keep an eye on asset price appreciation. This is usually done by increasing the interest rate, in the 1970s, excess monetary expansion after the U. S. came off the gold standard created massive commodities bubbles. These bubbles only ended when the U.
S, central Bank finally reined in the excess money, raising federal funds interest rates to over 14%
National Film Board of Canada
The National Film Board of Canada is Canadas public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes films, web documentaries. In total, the NFB has produced over 13,000 productions which have won over 5,000 awards, the NFB reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. It has English-language and French-language production branches,1939, The government of Canada proposed the creation of a National Film Commission to complement the activities of the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau. ”Legislation stated that the NFB would co-ordinate the film activities of federal departments. This act stipulates that the NFB is to engage in film research,2008, The NFB announces a Strategic Plan that includes its first digital strategy. The National Film Board currently maintains its office in Saint-Laurent. The NFB HQ building is named for McLaren, and is home to much of its production activity. The NFB will occupy the first four floors of the structure, which allow the NFB to closer contact with the public.
In addition to the English and French-language studios in its Montreal HQ, English-language production occurs at centres in Toronto, Edmonton and Halifax. As of October 2009, the Atlantic Centre operates an office in St. Johns, Newfoundland, in June 2011, the NFB appointed a producer to work with film and digital media makers across Saskatchewan, to be based in Regina. Outside Quebec, French language productions are made in Moncton. The NFB offers programs for independent filmmakers, in English, via the Filmmaker Assistance Program. The organization has a hierarchical structure headed by a Board of Trustees and it is overseen by the Board of Trustees Secretariat and Legal Affairs. Funding is derived primarily from government of Canada transfer payments, and these revenues are from print sales, film production services and royalties, and total up to $10 million yearly, the NFB lists this as Respendable Revenues in its financial statements. As a result of cuts imposed by 2012 Canadian federal budget, by 2015 the NFBs public funding will be reduced by $6.7 million, to $60.3 million.
As part of the 2016 Canadian federal budget, the NFB will receive an additional $13.5 million in funding, spread out over a five-year period. In 1938, the Government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British documentary film pioneer who coined the term documentary. Up to that date, the Government Motion Picture Bureau, established in 1918, had been the major Canadian film producer