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Extravehicular activity

Extravehicular activity is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere. The term most applies to a spacewalk made outside a craft orbiting Earth. On March 18, 1965, Alexei Leonov became the first human to perform a spacewalk, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for 12 minutes and 9 seconds; the term applied to lunar surface exploration performed by six pairs of American astronauts in the Apollo program from 1969 to 1972. On July 21, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to perform a moonwalk, outside his lunar lander on Apollo 11 for 2 hours and 31 minutes. On the last three Moon missions astronauts performed deep-space EVAs on the return to Earth, to retrieve film canisters from the outside of the spacecraft. Astronauts Pete Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, Paul Weitz used EVA in 1973 to repair launch damage to Skylab, the United States' first space station. A "Stand-up" EVA is when an astronaut does not leave a spacecraft, but is reliant on the spacesuit for environmental support.

Its name derives from the astronaut "standing up" in the open hatch to record or assist a spacewalking astronaut. EVAs may be untethered. Untethered spacewalks were only performed on three missions in 1984 using the Manned Maneuvering Unit, on a flight test in 1994 of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue, a safety device worn on tethered U. S. EVAs; the Soviet Union/Russia, the United States, China have conducted EVAs. NASA planners invented the term extravehicular activity in the early 1960s for the Apollo program to land men on the Moon, because the astronauts would leave the spacecraft to collect lunar material samples and deploy scientific experiments. To support this, other Apollo objectives, the Gemini program was spun off to develop the capability for astronauts to work outside a two-man Earth orbiting spacecraft. However, the Soviet Union was fiercely competitive in holding the early lead it had gained in crewed spaceflight, so the Soviet Communist Party, led by Nikita Khrushchev, ordered the conversion of its single-pilot Vostok capsule into a two- or three-person craft named Voskhod, in order to compete with Gemini and Apollo.

The Soviets were able to launch two Voskhod capsules before U. S. was able to launch its first crewed Gemini. The Voskhod's avionics required cooling by cabin air to prevent overheating, therefore an airlock was required for the spacewalking cosmonaut to exit and re-enter the cabin while it remained pressurized. By contrast, the Gemini avionics did not require air cooling, allowing the spacewalking astronaut to exit and re-enter the depressurized cabin through an open hatch; because of this, the American and Soviet space programs developed different definitions for the duration of an EVA. The Soviet definition begins when the outer airlock hatch is open and the cosmonaut is in vacuum. An American EVA began; the USA has changed its EVA definition since. The first EVA was performed on March 18, 1965, by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, who spent 12 minutes and 9 seconds outside the Voskhod 2 spacecraft. Carrying a white metal backpack containing 45 minutes' worth of breathing and pressurization oxygen, Leonov had no means to control his motion other than pulling on his 15.35 m tether.

After the flight, he claimed this was easy, but his space suit ballooned from its internal pressure against the vacuum of space, stiffening so much that he could not activate the shutter on his chest-mounted camera. At the end of his space walk, the suit stiffening caused a more serious problem: Leonov had to re-enter the capsule through the inflatable cloth airlock, 1.2 m in diameter and 2.5 m long. He improperly got stuck sideways, he could not get back in without reducing the pressure in his suit, risking "the bends". This added another 12 minutes to his time in vacuum, he was overheated by 1.8 °C from the exertion. It would be four years before the Soviets tried another EVA, they misrepresented to the press how difficult Leonov found it to work in weightlessness and concealed the problems encountered until after the end of the Cold War. The first American spacewalk was performed on June 3, 1965, by Ed White from the second crewed Gemini flight, Gemini IV, for 21 minutes. White was tethered to the spacecraft, his oxygen was supplied through a 25-foot umbilical, which carried communications and biomedical instrumentation.

He was the first to control his motion in space with a Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit, which worked well but only carried enough propellant for 20 seconds. White found his tether useful for limiting his distance from the spacecraft but difficult to use for moving around, contrary to Leonov's claim. However, a defect in the capsule's hatch latching mechanism caused difficulties opening and closing the hatch, which delayed the start of the EVA and put White and his crewmate at risk of not getting back to Earth alive. No EVAs were planned on the next three Gemini flights; the next EVA was planned to be made by David Scott on Gemini VIII, but that mission had to be aborted due to a critical spacecraft malfunction before the EVA could be conducted. Astronauts on the next three Gemini flights, performed several EVAs, but none was able to work for long periods outside the spacecraft without ti

Silverhill, Alabama

Silverhill is a town in Baldwin County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 706, it is part of the Daphne–Fairhope–Foley Micropolitan Statistical Area. Silverhill is located in southern Baldwin County at 30°32'42.950" North, 87°45'1.861" West, 3 miles west of Robertsdale. Alabama State Route 104 runs through the center of the town, connecting Robertsdale to the east with Fairhope to the west. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 616 people, 241 households, 178 families residing in the town. The population density was 517.5 people per square mile. There were 266 housing units at an average density of 223.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.05% White, 0.16% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 1.14% from two or more races. 1.46 % of the population were Latino of any race. 24.8% were of American, 14.8% German, 10.2% Swedish, 9.0% English and 6.4% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 241 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families.

20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.97. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,083, the median income for a family was $51,964. Males had a median income of $30,417 versus $25,938 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,723. About 3.8% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Silverhill was founded in 1897 by Oscar Johnson, C. O. Carlson and C. A. Valentin of Chicago, Illinois. Oscar Johnson was an immigrant from Sweden.

The Svea Land Company in Chicago, which advertised land for sale in Silverhill, was founded by Oscar Johnson. Land was acquired by purchase from a Mr. Harford, the first block of land being 1,500 acres, added to from time to time as the colonization work progressed. Scandinavian settlers came to Silverhill from every state in the Union and began the development of what is now the Silverhill district; the Wales West Light Railway, a replica of a Welsh mountain railway, is located 5 miles southwest of town. Silverhill is a part of the Baldwin County Public Schools system. Silverhill has one school, Silverhill Elementary School, which serves grades kindergarten through 6. Silverhill students continue on to Central Baldwin Middle School and Robertsdale High School, both of which are in Robertsdale. Central Baldwin Baldwin County Express, historical society located near Silverhill

Bilkees I. Latif

Bilkees Idrees Latīf was an social worker/activist and artist from Telangana, known for her work in the slums of India. She was a founding member of INTACH, she is the author of several articles and five books, including Essential Andhra Cookbook, Fragrance of Forgotten Years and The Ladder of His Life: Biography of Air Chief Marshal Idris Latif. The Government of India awarded her the fourth-highest civilian honour of the Padma Shri, in 2009, for her contributions to society. Bilkees Latif was born into an affluent Muslim family of Hyderabad State in India, the daughter of Ali Yavar Jung, a nobleman of Hyderabad State, by his first wife Alys Iffrig, her mother Alys, daughter of a French father and German mother, was raised a Catholic in France. She came to India upon marrying Ali Yavar Jung and Bilkees was born to them soon afterwards, but the marriage fell apart shortly afterwards. Bilkees's parents were divorced when she was still a child, both of them went on to marry other people. Shortly after the divorce, Bilkees's mother married Ali Mohammad Akbar Hyderi, another nobleman of Hyderabad State, became famous under the name "Alys Hyderi" as a hostess and a socialite.

Bilkees Latif's father, Ali Yavar Jung, hailed from a landed, aristocratic family of Hyderabad State, one that had served the Nizam of Hyderabad for several generations. He was a diplomat and educationist, was appointed vice chancellor of Osmania University by the last Nizam in 1946, as vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University by the Congress party's government under Indira Gandhi in the 1960s, he served at various times as the Indian ambassador to Argentina, Yugoslavia, Greece and the United States, ended his blemishless career as Governor of Maharashtra, again appointed by Indira Gandhi, holding that office for a record seven years until his death in December 1976. Some time after his divorce from Alys, he had married Zehra Ali Yavar Jung, a lady of background similar to his own, a social worker, honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 1973; when she was still in her early teens, Ali Yavar Jung arranged in the usual Indian way for his daughter Bilkees to marry into a family of background similar to his own.

The groom, Idris Latif, was the son of Hasan Latif, Chief Engineer of Hyderabad State and the scion of a wealthy, landed Hyderabadi Muslim family. Idris, nine years older than Bilquees, was a commissioned officer in the Air Force of the British Raj; the wedding was held when Bilquis was still in her teens, the marriage proved to be happy and harmonious. The couple were blessed with three children, two sons and Asad, a daughter, Mariam. Bilquees's husband was destined to have a career every bit as distinguished as her father's had been. In 1946, when the partition of India took place, Idris opted to stay with India, he would rise to become India's first Muslim Chief of Air Staff. After retiring from the Air Force, he would be appointed Governor of Maharashtra and Indian ambassador to France under the patronage of Indira Gandhi and her Congress party. Bilquess complemented her husband's career by taking up social work and networking on a level, rare in India at that time, she owed her networking skills to her mother, a socialite, her reach in high places to her father.

Bilquees came into her own after her husband was appointed governor of Maharashtra in 1982, an office which her father had held for seven years until 1976. During her father's stint, Bilquees had developed a set of social projects, now, after she returned to the Raj Bhavan in Bombay, she pursued them with renewed vigour. Residents of a certain age will recollect the regularity with which she was featured on television during those years, a time when there was only one TV network in India, the government-owned Doordarshan, it must be said that she made hardworking efforts to improve the lives of the poor. She took up only a few projects, but those were works in which she was genuinely interested, she put a lot of effort in pursuing them, her most important social welfare projects was the uplift of the poor in Dharavi, the largest slum in the world. She documented her experiences in O Dharavi. Bilkees wrote several books apart from Oh Dharavi, her first book, Essential Andhra Cookbook, is a study of the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh.

This was followed by Fragrance of Forgotten Years, an autobiographical account of her early years, published in 2010. The same year, she published another book, which narrates the lives of a six notable women from Indian history; the latest of her publications, The Ladder of His Life, is the biography of her husband, I. H. Latif, through his Air Force and gubernatorial days. Bilquees Latif was awarded the Padma Shri in 2009, the citation mentions her work during the 1980s in the slums of Mumbai. Bilquees Latif died in October 2017 at the age of 86, she was survived by her husband, who died a few months in May 2018 aged 95, by her three children, two sons Asghar and Asad, a daughter, Mariam. Bilkees I Latif. Essential Andhra Cookbook. Penguin. P. 330. ISBN 978-0140271843. Bilkees I Latif. Fragrance of Forgotten Years. Rupa and Co. p. 248. ISBN 978-8186413401. Bilkees I Latif. Forgotten. Penguin UK. p. 200. ISBN 9789352141487. Bilkees I Latif; the Ladder of His Life: Biography of Air Chief Marshal Idris Latif.

KW PUblishers. P. 384. ISBN 978-93-81904855. I. H. Latif Ali Yavar Jung "Begum Bilkees Latif felicitated in Hyderabad". News report. Times of India. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2016. "Bilkees I. Latif on Penguin". Author profile. Penguin India. 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016. "The Everlasting Spirit Of Begum Bil

1991 Speedway World Team Cup

April 22, 1991 DDR Leipzig ROUND 1April 28, 1991 YUG Krsko ROUND 2Yugoslavia to Group C. May 19, 1991 ITA Lonigo ROUND 1May 26, 1991 POL Tarnów ROUND 2Norway to Group B. July 7, 1991 GER Diedenbergen ROUND 1July 14, 1991 HUN Debrecen ROUND 2 M - exclusion for exceeding two-minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell Hungary to Group A. August 24, 1991 CSK Pardubice M - exclusion for exceeding two-minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell Sweden to Final. September 14, 1991 DEN Vojens, Speedway Center M - exclusion for exceeding two-minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell

Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser

Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser was a German physician who discovered the causative agent of gonorrhea, a strain of bacteria, named in his honour. Neisser was born in the Silesian town of Schweidnitz, the son of a well-known Jewish physician, Moritz Neisser. After he completed the elementary school in Münsterberg, Neisser enrolled in the St. Maria Magdalena School in Breslau. In this school, he was a contemporary of another great name in the history of medicine, Paul Ehrlich, he obtained the Abitur in 1872. Neisser began to study medicine at the University of Breslau, but moved to Erlangen, completing his studies in 1877. Neisser wanted to be an internist, but did not find a suitable place, he found work, however as an assistant of the dermatologist Oskar Simon, concentrating on sexually transmitted diseases and leprosy. During the following two years he studied and obtained experimental evidence about the pathogen for gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neisser was the co-discoverer of the causative agent of leprosy.

In 1879 the Norwegian physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen gave to young Neisser some tissue samples of his patients. Neisser stained the bacteria and announced his findings in 1880, claiming to have discovered the pathogenesis of leprosy. There was some conflict between Neisser and Hansen, because Hansen had failed to culture the organism and demonstrate unequivocally its link to leprosy, although he had observed the bacterium since 1872. In 1882 Neisser was appointed professor extraordinarius by the University at the age of 29, worked as a dermatologist in the university hospital of Breslau, he was promoted to the head of the hospital. In the following year he married née Kauffmann. In 1898 Albert Neisser published clinical trials on serum therapy in patients with syphilis, he injected cell free serum from patients with syphilis into patients who were admitted for other medical conditions. Most of these patients were prostitutes, who were neither informed about the experiment nor asked for their consent.

When some of them contracted syphilis Neisser argued that the women did not contract syphilis as a result of his serum injections but contracted the disease because they worked as prostitutes. In 1905 and 1906 Neisser travelled to Java, in order to study the possible transmission of syphilis from apes to humans, he cooperated with August Paul von Wassermann to develop the famous diagnostic test for detecting Treponema pallidum infections, in the testing of the first chemotherapeutic agent for syphilis, discovered by his former school fellow Paul Ehrlich in 1910. In 1907, Neisser was promoted to professor ordinarius of dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases at Breslau; as a scientific leader, Neisser was very active. In the field of public health, he promoted vigorously preventive and educational measures to the public, the better sanitary control of prostitutes, in order to combat venereal diseases, he was one of the founder of the Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten in 1902, of the Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft in 1888.

Neisser died of sepsis on 30 July 1916, in Breslau. The Albert Neisser Lectureship has been awarded since 2005 by the Department of Dermatology at the University of Wrocław to dermatologists who have made significant clinical and research contributions to the field. Past awardees include: Albert Neisser. WhoNamedIt

Chinese Grand Prix

The Chinese Grand Prix is a round of the Formula One World Championship. It is held at the Shanghai International Circuit, Shanghai, designed by Hermann Tilke; when completed in 2004, it was the most expensive Formula One circuit facility, costing US$240 million. Abu Dhabi became the most expensive at US$6 billion when it opened in 2009; the track is 5.451 km long and features one of the trickiest corners combinations on the Formula One calendar, comparable to that of Istanbul Park's turn 8 designed by Tilke. Turn 1 and 2 are a demanding 270-degree, right-handed corner combination that requires considerable speed, in addition to a significant radius increase as the corner progresses; the race is scheduled to remain on the Formula One calendar until at least 2020. The vision of a Chinese Grand Prix started in the early 1990s; the Chinese government had planned for an F1 circuit to be located in the city of Zhuhai in Guangdong Province, southern China. The Zhuhai International Circuit was designed and built and was provisionally added to the 1999 F1 World Championship calendar, but the track failed to meet certain standards set by the FIA.

However, the Chinese government did not give up and with assistance from the organizers of the Macau Grand Prix, held the first Formula One race in China in 2004. In 2002, it was announced that the management of the Shanghai International Circuit had signed a seven-year contract with Formula One Management to host the Chinese Grand Prix starting from the 2004 season until the 2011 season; the Chinese Grand Prix debuted on 26 September 2004, was won by Ferrari's Rubens Barrichello. The following year, it hosted the final round of the Formula One championship, in which the newly crowned world champion Fernando Alonso won and claimed the constructor's title for Renault. In 2006, the Chinese Grand Prix was won by his last victory in Formula One. In November 2008 the BBC reported a senior race official, Qiu Weichang, as suggesting that the loss-making race might be cancelled. Following a similar announcement about the French Grand Prix, Qiu Weichang said that the race's future was under consideration, a decision would be made in 2009.2010 came and went with no formal announcement of an extension to the initial seven-race deal struck in 2004.

However after the 2010 Shanghai race Bernie Ecclestone, who manages the contracts with the various circuits, said of the 2011 calendar, "We are not dropping anything. 20 races – getting ready for 25". It was only in February 2011 that a deal was agreed between F1 and the organisers of the Chinese round of the world championship. Reasons for the delay appear to have been over the fee paid to F1 to host the race. After racking up losses year after year, the organisers of the race refused to pay the fee required, reported to be amongst the highest paid to host an F1 race. F1 bosses appear to have reduced the fee and the new agreement to host an F1 race ran to 2017. In September 2017, a new three-year contract to host the race was announced, keeping the race on the calendar until 2020. In 2019 it hosted the 1000th round of the Formula One World Championship; the 2020 Chinese Grand Prix was scheduled to take place on 19 April but it was postponed due to the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak. 2004–2008: Sinopec Chinese Grand Prix 2009–2010, 2015: Chinese Grand Prix 2011–2014: UBS Chinese Grand Prix 2016: Pirelli Chinese Grand Prix 2017–present: Heineken Chinese Grand Prix Drivers in bold are competing in the Formula One championship in the current season.

Teams in bold are competing in the Formula One championship in the current season. Manufacturers in bold are competing in the Formula One championship in the current season. All Chinese Grands Prix have been held at Shanghai International Circuit. Formula BMW Asia and Porsche Carrera Cup Asia have both supported the Chinese Grand Prix since 2004. In 2008, the GP2 Asia Series raced the same weekend. In 2015, the TCR International Series supported the Chinese Grand Prix. Shanghai International Circuit