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Extraversion and introversion

The traits of extraversion and introversion are a central dimension in some human personality theories. The terms introversion and extraversion were popularized by Carl Jung, although both the popular understanding and psychological usage differ from his original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved and solitary behavior. Rather than focusing on interpersonal behavior, Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterised by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents", extraversion as "an attitude-type characterised by concentration of interest on the external object". Extraversion and introversion are viewed as a single continuum, so to be high in one necessitates being low in the other. Jung and the developers of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator provide a different perspective and suggest that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other.

All comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms. Examples include the Big Five model, Jung's analytical psychology, Hans Eysenck's three-factor model, Raymond Cattell's 16 personality factors, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator. William McDougall discussed Jung's conception, reached this conclusion: "the introverts are those in whom reflective thought inhibits and postpones action and expression: the extroverts are those in whom the energies liberated upon the stirring of any propensity flow out in outward action and expression." Extraversion is the state of obtaining gratification from outside oneself. Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative and gregarious. Extraverts thrive off being around other people, they take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, business or political groups. They tend to work well in groups.

An extraverted person is to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone. They tend to be energized when around other people, they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves. Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one's own mental self. Introverts are perceived as more reserved or reflective; some popular psychologists have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection and dwindle during interaction. This is similar to Jung's view. Few modern conceptions make this distinction. Introverts take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, or meditating. An introvert is to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people. Introverts are overwhelmed by too much stimulation from social gatherings and engagement, introversion having been defined by some in terms of a preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating external environment, they prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate observed in developing children and adolescents.

They are more analytical before speaking. Mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introversion is a preference. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not fear social encounters like shy people do. Susan Cain, author of the book Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking, argues that modern Western culture misjudges the capabilities of introverted people, leading to a waste of talent and happiness. Cain describes how society is biased against introverts, that, with people being taught from childhood that to be sociable is to be happy, introversion is now considered "somewhere between a disappointment and pathology". In contrast, Cain says that introversion is not a "second-class" trait but that both introverts and extraverts enrich society, with examples including the introverts J. K. Rowling, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Seuss, W. B. Yeats, Steven Spielberg, Larry Page. Although many people view being introverted or extraverted as mutually exclusive, most contemporary trait theories measure levels of extraversion-introversion as part of a single, continuous dimension of personality, with some scores near one end, others near the halfway mark.

Ambiversion is falling less directly in the middle. An ambivert is moderately comfortable with groups and social interaction, but relishes time alone, away from a crowd. In simpler words, an ambivert is a person whose behaviour changes according to the situation they are in. In the face of authority or in the presence of strangers, the person may be introverted. However, in the presence of family or close friends, the person may be energetic or extraverted. Cain further reports. Particular subpopulations have higher prevalence, with a 6,000-subject MBTI-based survey indicating that 60% of attorneys, 90% of intellectual property attorneys, are introverts; the extent of extraversion and introversion is most assessed through self-report measures, although peer-reports and third-party observation can be used. Self-report measures are either lexical or based on statements; the type of measure is determined by an assessment of psychometric properties, the time and space constraints of the research being undertaken.

Lexical measures use individual adjectives that reflect ext

Nikolai Nissen Paus

Nikolai Nissen Paus was a Norwegian surgeon, hospital director and humanitarian. He served as President of the Norwegian Red Cross 1945–1947, as Vice President 1930–1945 and acting President 1939–1940, he was President of the Norwegian Florence Nightingale Committee and chaired several governmental committees. After graduating from Aars and Voss School, Paus entered the Royal Frederick University, where he graduated as a medical doctor in 1903, he became a second lieutenant in 1896 and a first lieutenant in 1905. He was conferred the degree in 1916, with a dissertation on tuberculosis. Between 1903 and 1918, he visited several foreign hospitals, he was a deputy consultant in surgery at the National Hospital 1912–1917. In 1916 he was appointed senior consultant and managing director of the Jarlsberg and Larvik Hospital, but did not assume his position before 1918, he served as director of Vestfold Hospital until 1947, building and decisively shaping the institution. He participated in humanitarian work in Finland during the Winter War.

He served two terms on the executive board of the Norwegian Medical Association. He was described by Aftenposten as "one of the country's preeminent physicians" on his death. A member of the Paus family, Nikolai Nissen Paus was a son of the theologian Bernhard Cathrinus Pauss and Anna Henriette Wegner, he was a grandson of the industrialist Benjamin Wegner and his grandmother was a member of the Berenberg banking family of Hamburg. His paternal grandfather Nicolai Nissen Pauss was a ship-owner in Drammen, he was named for his 6th great grandfather, Danish estate owner and high court judge Nikolaj Nissen, he was a brother of the barrister and Director at the Norwegian Employers' Confederation George Wegner Paus and of the hydropower executive Augustin Paus. In 1907, he married Sofie Amalie Brandt Ødegaard, daughter of colonel and freemason leader Vilhelm Ødegaard and granddaughter of timber merchant and Member of Parliament Frederik J. Holst, they were the parents of Inger-Helvig Ødegaard Paus, who married barrister and employer representative Jens Christian Rogstad, surgeon and Grand Master of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons Bernhard Paus, who married humanitarian Brita Collett, barrister and managing director of Press Paper, Ltd. in London Vilhelm Paus, who married Anne Collett.

His daughters-in-law Brita and Anne Collett were daughters of estate owner Axel Collett and Lucie Trozelli Krefting, nieces of the noted pediatrician Arthur Collett. Nikolai Nissen Paus was a freemason of the XI and second highest degree, held the third highest office in the Norwegian Order of Freemasons, he has been portrayed in a drawing and an oil painting by Erik Werenskiold and busts by sculptors Wilhelm Rasmussen and Carl E. Paulsen; the bust by Rasmussen is displayed outside Vestfold Hospital. Belgian order Order of the Cross of Liberty with Sword of Finland Croix de l'Ordre de la Santé publique of France Finnish order Honorary member of the Norwegian Red Cross Knight First Class of the Order of St. Olav of Norway, for "long and distinguished humanitarian work" Badge of Honour of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons


Katso is a Finnish weekly television magazine published by Aller Media Oy in Finland. The Finnish word katso means "look!". Katso started in 1960 in 2003 extended to entertainment and celebrity gossip. For a short period after its 2003 renovation, the magazine was known as Katso! and was issued two times a week. In 2008 it reverted to being a TV guide abandoning all gossip journalism and focusing on inside views on television programs. Katso is published weekly by Aller Media Oy; the company acquired the magazine in 2006. The weekly is based in Helsinki. In the 1960s the magazine was influential in shaping the early Finnish television context. Katso presents the annual Telvis television award. In 2002 the circulation of Katso was 70,388 copies, its circulation was 72,741 copies in 2006 and 63,000 copies in 2007. The 2011 circulation of the weekly was 27,979 copies. In 2013 Katso had a circulation of 27,543 copies. Official website

SpongeBob SquarePants 4-D

SpongeBob SquarePants 4-D is a cel-shaded 4-D film simulator ride based upon the popular television series SpongeBob SquarePants. It can be found at many aquariums and theme parks across the world; the ride consists of a pre-show which leads into a stadium seated auditorium. The ride is in 4-D; the effects on the ride vary at different parks. Water spray, wind, leg ticklers and smells are found; the ride once appeared at Camp Snoopy in Mall of America as a film rotation of The Mystery Mine Ride. Instead of being in 4-D with special effects, the ride was in 3-D, the seats would move. In fall 2007, the Mystery Mine Ride, which once housed SpongeBob SquarePants: The Ride, was demolished to make way for SpongeBob SquarePants Rock Bottom Plunge roller coaster, part of the park's transformation into Nickelodeon Universe. In 2008, SpongeBob SquarePants 4-D came to Nickelodeon Family Suites. On April 19, 2013, Nickelodeon Family Suites premiered a sequel called SpongeBob SquarePants 4D: The Great Jelly Rescue.

The film begins with Painty the Pirate about to sing the television series theme as usual, but he instead pops out of the painting and throws the riders into Bikini Bottom. The audience ends up in The Krusty Krab, where SpongeBob SquarePants welcomes them and shows them how to make a Krabby Patty by pointing at the ingredients with his spatula; when preparing the Krabby Patty, SpongeBob accidentally loses a pickle. The pickle bounces out of the restaurant into Patrick Star's hand on a pogo stick. Patrick steals the pickle. SpongeBob, not knowing why, tells the riders to find Patrick on his bubble bike, destroying half of Bikini Bottom. While going through Jellyfish Fields, SpongeBob plummets down the vertical road into Rock Bottom, where a fish pops the bubble bike by biting it; the force of the pop hurdles SpongeBob into the air, landing in the Chum Bucket where Plankton is holding the real Patrick hostage, revealing that the pickle thief was a robotic version of Patrick. The robot pursues SpongeBob, only to be unplugged by Patrick.

Plankton is crushed by his robot, SpongeBob recovers the pickle. Sandals enters the Chum Bucket to eat his patty, he says that he is allergic to pickles and walks away. SpongeBob says, "Well, pickle-culiar," and laughs again. Tom Kenny as SpongeBob SquarePants and The Jellyfish Bill Fagerbakke as Patrick Star Rodger Bumpass as Squidward Tentacles Clancy Brown as Mr. Krabs Mr. Lawrence as Plankton Dee Bradley Baker as Sandals Patrick Pinney as Painty the Pirate List of 3D films List of amusement rides based on television franchises Official Production Website Behind the Voice Actors page


Balambha is a village in Jodiya taluka of Jamnagar District of Gujarat in India. The taluka headquarters of Jodiya is at a distance of 15 km and Jamnagar city at a distance of 47 km; the Dadhiari Dam on Aji river is at a distance of only 1 km. Balambha has a strong inner citadel; this is said in the Tarikh-i-Sorath by Ranchhodji Diwan to have been built by Rao Deshalji I of Cutch State in 1714, but its construction is popularly ascribed to Meraman Khavas. The Rao first built a small citadel in 1714, afterwards strengthened and enlarged by Meraman Khavas in 1784; the river Aji, which flows by Rajkot, falls into the Little Rann of Kutch at a distance of about six miles from Balambha. There is a hillock in the lands of Balambha called Bina where there is a Chapter spring of fresh water called the Navghan Kui, it is said that when Ra Navghan of Junagadh was marching to Cutch to avenge Jaasal, he halted here and was athirst and the men that were with him. In his distress he called on his tutelary goddess to aid him.

She directed him to plunge his spear into the hillock. In the rains of 1881, Balambha was at the centre of the cyclone which visited the north-west of the peninsula. Much damage was done by this storm, many cattle died from the damp and exposure; the village is having all the facilities including a Government Higher Secondary School. Balambha is 14th Village in list of smart village project; the project started and it will may be done in 1000 days. The population is of Kadia Kshatriyas, Sathvara, etc; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kathiawar. VIII. Printed at the Government Central Press, Bombay. 1884. Pp. 376–377

James Goff

James Frederick "Pim" Goff was an American football and baseball player and coach. He was and the 11th head football coach at Eastern Illinois State Teachers College—now known as Eastern Illinois University—serving for one season in 1945 season and compiling a record of 2–3–2. Goff was the head basketball coach at Millikin University in 1942–1943, at Eastern Illinois from 1944 to 1946, at Illinois State Normal University—now known as Illinois State University—from 1949 to 1957, at Quincy College and Seminary—now known as Quincy University, compiling a career college basketball coaching record of 168–168, he was the head baseball coach at Millikin in 1943, tallying a mark of 5–2. Goff, whose hometown was Normal, attended Illinois State University, where he lettered in football, basketball and track, he played professional baseball and professional basketball. He died in 1980 while vacationing in Arizona. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference James Goff at Find a Grave