A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food. The word "bean" and its Germanic cognates have existed in common use in West Germanic languages since before the 12th century, referring to broad beans and other pod-borne seeds; this was long. After Columbian-era contact between Europe and the Americas, use of the word was extended to pod-borne seeds of Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, the related genus Vigna; the term has long been applied to many other seeds of similar form, such as Old World soybeans, chickpeas, other vetches, lupins, to those with slighter resemblances, such as coffee beans, vanilla beans, castor beans, cocoa beans. Thus the term "bean" in general usage can mean a host of different species. Seeds called "beans" are included among the crops called "pulses", although a narrower prescribed sense of "pulses" reserves the word for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain; the term bean excludes legumes with tiny seeds and which are used for forage and silage purposes.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization the term "BEANS, DRY" should include only species of Phaseolus. One is that in the past, several species, including Vigna angularis, mungo and aconitifolia, were classified as Phaseolus and reclassified. Another is that it is not surprising that the prescription on limiting the use of the word, because it tries to replace the word's older senses with a newer one, has never been followed in general usage. Unlike the related pea, beans are a summer crop that need warm temperatures to grow. Maturity is 55–60 days from planting to harvest; as the bean pods mature, they turn yellow and dry up, the beans inside change from green to their mature colour. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of special "bean cages" or poles. Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash, with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans. In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously.
This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. In a form improved from occurring types, they were grown in Thailand since the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics, they were deposited with the dead in ancient Egypt. Not until the second millennium BCE did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean and transalpine Europe. In the Iliad is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor. Beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, still are today; the oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, dated to around the second millennium BCE. However, genetic analyses of the common bean Phaseolus shows that it originated in Mesoamerica, subsequently spread southward, along with maize and squash, traditional companion crops.
Most of the kinds eaten fresh or dried, those of the genus Phaseolus, come from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, lima and sieva beans, as well as the less distributed teparies, scarlet runner beans and polyanthus beans One famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people as far north as the Atlantic seaboard is the "Three Sisters" method of companion plant cultivation: In the New World, many tribes would grow beans together with maize, squash; the corn would not be planted in rows as is done by European agriculture, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, in separate patches of one to six stalks each. Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, would vine their way up as the stalks grew.
All American beans at that time were vine plants, "bush beans" having been bred only more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, the beans would provide much-needed nitrogen for the corn. Squash would be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field, they would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, would shade the soil and reduce evaporation, would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals such as deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, etc. Dry beans come from both Old World varieties of New World varieties. Beans are a heliotropic plant. At night, they go into a folded "sleep" position; the world genebanks hold about 40,000 bean varieties, although on
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares are classified in the same family as rabbits, they are similar in size and form to rabbits and have similar herbivorous diets, but have longer ears and live solitarily or in pairs. Unlike rabbits, their young are able to fend for themselves shortly after birth rather than emerging blind and helpless. Most are fast runners. Hare species are native to Africa, North America, the Japanese archipelago. Five leporid species with "hare" in their common names are not considered true hares: the hispid hare, four species known as red rock hares. Conversely, jackrabbits are hares, rather than rabbits. A hare less than one year old is called a leveret. A group of hares is called a "drove". Hares are swift animals: The European hare can run up to 56 km/h; the five species of jackrabbits found in central and western North America are able to run at 64 km/h, can leap up to 3 m at a time. A shy animal, the European brown hare changes its behavior in spring, when they can be seen in daytime chasing one another.
This appears to be competition between males to attain dominance for breeding. During this spring frenzy, animals of both sexes can be seen "boxing", one hare striking another with its paws; this notable behavior gives rise to the idiom, mad as a March hare. This is present not only in intermale competition, but among females toward males to prevent copulation. Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of physical protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born furred and with eyes open, they are hence precocial, are able to fend for themselves soon after birth. By contrast, rabbits are altricial, having young that are born hairless. All rabbits live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares live in simple nests above the ground, do not live in groups. Hares are larger than rabbits, with longer ears, have black markings on their fur.
Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are kept as house pets. The domestic pet known as the "Belgian Hare" is a rabbit, selectively bred to resemble a hare. Hares have jointed, or kinetic, unique among mammals, they have 48 chromosomes while rabbits have 44. The 32 species listed are: Genus LepusSubgenus Macrotolagus Antelope jackrabbit, Lepus alleni Subgenus Poecilolagus Snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus Subgenus Lepus Arctic hare, Lepus arcticus Alaskan hare, Lepus othus Mountain hare, Lepus timidus Subgenus Proeulagus Black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus White-sided jackrabbit, Lepus callotis Cape hare, Lepus capensis Tehuantepec jackrabbit, Lepus flavigularis Black jackrabbit, Lepus insularis Scrub hare, Lepus saxatilis Desert hare, Lepus tibetanus Tolai hare, Lepus tolai Subgenus Eulagos Broom hare, Lepus castroviejoi Yunnan hare, Lepus comus Korean hare, Lepus coreanus Corsican hare, Lepus corsicanus European hare, Lepus europaeus Granada hare, Lepus granatensis Manchurian hare, Lepus mandschuricus Woolly hare, Lepus oiostolus Ethiopian highland hare, Lepus starcki White-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus townsendii Subgenus Sabanalagus Ethiopian hare, Lepus fagani African savanna hare, Lepus microtis Subgenus Indolagus Hainan hare, Lepus hainanus Indian hare, Lepus nigricollis Burmese hare, Lepus peguensis Subgenus Sinolagus Chinese hare, Lepus sinensis Subgenus Tarimolagus Yarkand hare, Lepus yarkandensis Incertae sedis Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus Abyssinian hare, Lepus habessinicus Hares and rabbits are plentiful in many areas, adapt to a wide variety of conditions, reproduce so hunting is less regulated than for other varieties of game.
In rural areas of North America and in pioneer times, they were a common source of meat. Because of their low fat content, they are a poor choice as a survival food. Hares can be prepared in the same manner as rabbits — roasted or parted for breading and frying. Hasenpfeffer is a traditional German stew made from marinated hare. Pfeffer here means not only the obvious spicing with pepper and other spices, but means a dish in which the animal's blood is used as a thickening agent for the sauce. Wine or vinegar is a prominent ingredient, to lend a sourness to the recipe. Lagos Stifado — hare stew with pearl onions, red wine and cinnamon — is a much-prized dish enjoyed in Greece and Cyprus and communities in the diaspora in Australia where the hare is hunted as a feral pest. Jugged hare, known as civet de lièvre in France, is a whole hare, cut into pieces and cooked with red wine and juniper berries in a tall jug that stands in a pan of water, it traditionally is served with the hare's port wine.
Jugged hare is described in the influential 18th-century cookbook, The Art of Cookery by Hannah Glasse, with a recipe titled, "A Jugged Hare", that begins, "Cut it into little pieces, lard them here and there..." The recipe goes on to describe cooking the pieces of hare in water in a jug set within a bath of boiling water to cook for three hours. Beginning in the 19th century, Glasse has been credited with having started the recipe with the words "First, catch your hare," as in this citation; this attribution is apocryphal. Having a freshly caught hare enables one to obtain its blood. A freshly killed hare is prepared for jugging by removing its entrails and hanging it in a l
The chicken is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of more than 19 billion as of 2011. There are more chickens in the world than domesticated fowl. Humans keep chickens as a source of food and, less as pets. Raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period. Genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From ancient India, the domesticated chicken spread to Lydia in western Asia Minor, to Greece by the 5th century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, according to the annals of Thutmose III; the chicken used for regular egg and meat production worldwide are corn-ply Broilers with white feathers, yellowish skin and faster growth rate invented in United States of America In the UK and Ireland, adult male chickens over the age of one year are known as cocks, whereas in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, they are more called roosters.
Males less than a year old are cockerels. Castrated roosters are called capons. Females over a year old are known as hens, younger females as pullets, although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs, at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand, there is a generic term chook to describe all both sexes; the young are called chicks. "Chicken" referred to young domestic fowl. The species as a whole was called domestic fowl, or just fowl; this use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea. The word "chicken" is sometimes erroneously construed to mean females despite the term "hen" for females being in wide circulation, the term “rooster” for males being that most used. In the Deep South of the United States, chickens are referred to by the slang term yardbird. Chickens are omnivores. In the wild, they scratch at the soil to search for seeds and animals as large as lizards, small snakes, or young mice.
The average chicken may live depending on the breed. The world's oldest known chicken was a hen which died of heart failure at the age of 16 years according to the Guinness World Records. Roosters can be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage of long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks and backs, which are of brighter, bolder colours than those of females of the same breed. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright chicken, the rooster has only pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's; the identification can be made by looking at the comb, or from the development of spurs on the male's legs. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Collectively and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males. A muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chicken's face, giving the appearance of a beard.
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees. Chickens may fly to explore their surroundings, but do so only to flee perceived danger. Chickens live together in flocks, they have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order", with dominant individuals having priority for food access and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens younger birds, to an existing flock can lead to fighting and injury; when a rooster finds food, he may call other chickens to eat first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as dropping the food; this behaviour may be observed in mother hens to call their chicks and encourage them to eat. A rooster's crowing is a loud and sometimes shrill call and sends a territorial signal to other roosters.
However, roosters may crow in response to sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, to call their chicks. Chickens give different warning calls when they sense a predator approaching from the air or on the ground. To initiate courting, some roosters may dance in a circle around or near a hen lowering the wing, closest to the hen; the dance triggers a response in the hen and when she responds to his "call", the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the mating. More matin
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
Anise called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise and liquorice, it is cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks around the Mediterranean. It served as a carminative in herbal medicine; the name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, referring to dill. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall; the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels; the fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long called "aniseed". Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.
Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon; because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes and candies; the word is used for both the species of its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China called star anise used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, East Asian dishes. Star anise is less expensive to produce, has displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise; as with all spices, the composition of anise varies with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.
Moisture: 9–13% Protein: 18% Fatty oil: 8–23% Essential oil: 2–7% Starch: 5% N-free extract: 22–28% Crude fibre: 12–25%In particular, the anise seeds products should contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice. Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide; the yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anise is sweet and aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour; the seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes, as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, Peruvian picarones.
It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, similar to hot chocolate, it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India. The Ancient Romans served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive; this tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings. Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo. Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Mexican Xtabentún; these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States; the main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine: The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine maketh abundance of milke, stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske, the white flux in women.
In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as appetizer and diuretic drug. Anise has been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic. In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic; this method was found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites. In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi in doses of 5–20 minims. Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
La Mancha is a natural and historical region located on an arid but fertile elevated plateau of central Spain, south of Madrid, from the mountains of Toledo to the western spurs of the hills of Cuenca, bordered to the south by the Sierra Morena and to the north by the Alcarria region. La Mancha includes portions of the modern provinces of Cuenca and Albacete, most of the Ciudad Real province. La Mancha historical comarca constitutes the southern portion of Castilla-La Mancha autonomous community and makes up most of the present-day administrative region; the name "La Mancha" is derived from the Arab word المنشا al-mansha, meaning "the dry land" or "wilderness". The name of the city of Almansa in Albacete has the same origin; the word mancha in Spanish means spot, stain, or patch, but no apparent link exists between this word and the name of the region. The largest plain in Spain, La Mancha is made up of a plateau averaging 500 to 600 metres in altitude, centering on the province of Ciudad Real.
The region is watered by the Guadiana, Jabalón, Záncara, Cigüela, Júcar rivers. The climate is cold semi-arid, with strong fluctuations. Farming and cattle raising are the primary economic activities, but they are restricted by the harsh environmental conditions. Culturally, La Mancha includes the Sierra de Alcaraz, northern Sierra Morena, Montes de Toledo and Serranía de Cuenca, parts of Tajo river valley, it is administratively divided among the comarcas of Campo de Montiel and Campo de ras de Ocaña y Manchuela to the north; the inhabitants are called Manchegos. La Mancha has always been an important agricultural zone. Viticulture is important in Tomelloso, Alcázar de San Juan, Socuéllamos, Valdepeñas, La Solana and Manzanares, in Ciudad Real and Villarrobledo in Albacete. Other crops include cereals and saffron. Sheep are raised and bred, providing the famous Manchego cheese, as are goats, including the La Mancha goat, one of the assumed progenitors of the American La Mancha goat. La Mancha includes two National Parks, Las Tablas de Daimiel and Cabañeros, one Natural Park, Las Lagunas de Ruidera.
Famous Spaniards like the cinema directors Pedro Almodóvar and José Luis Cuerda, painters Antonio López and his uncle Antonio López Torres, footballer Andrés Iniesta, music band Angelus Apatrida and actress Sara Montiel were born in La Mancha. Miguel de Cervantes described its windmills in his novel Don Quixote de La Mancha. Cervantes was making fun of the region. Translator John Ormsby believed that Cervantes chose it because it was the most ordinary, anti-romantic, therefore unlikely place from which a chivalrous, romantic hero could originate, making Quixote seem more absurd. However, due to the fame of Cervantes' character, the name of La Mancha did become associated worldwide with romantic chivalry. Several film versions of Don Quixote have been filmed in La Mancha. However, including the 1957 Russian film version, the screen version of Man of La Mancha, were not; the 1957 film was shot in Crimea. G. W. Pabst's 1933 version of Cervantes's novel was shot in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; the 2000 made-for-TV Don Quixote, starring John Lithgow as Don Quixote and Bob Hoskins as Sancho Panza, was shot on several locations in Spain, but not in La Mancha.
Manchuela "Mancha, La". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Folk music from La Mancha