Fastnet Rock, or Fastnet is a small islet in the Atlantic Ocean and the most southerly point of Ireland. It lies 6.5 kilometres southwest of Cape Clear Island and 13 kilometres from County Cork on the Irish mainland. Fastnet is known as "Ireland's Teardrop", because it was the last part of Ireland that 19th-century Irish emigrants saw as they sailed to North America. Fastnet Rock is a small clay-slate islet with quartz veins, it rises to about 30 metres above low water mark and is separated from the much smaller southern Little Fastnet by a 10-metre wide channel. Fastnet gives its name to the sea area used by the Shipping Forecasts on BBC Radio 4; the current lighthouse is the second to be is the highest in Ireland. Fastnet Rock is used as the midpoint of one of the world's classic offshore yachting races, the Fastnet Race, a 1,126 kilometres round trip from Cowes on the Isle of Wight, round the rock and back to Plymouth, it is sometimes used as a mark for yacht races from local sailing centres such as Schull and Crookhaven.
Construction of the first lighthouse began in 1853, it first produced a light on 1 January 1854. The lighthouse replaced an early one built on Cape Clear Island in 1818 motivated by the loss of an American sailing packet, Stephen Whitney, in thick fog during November 1847 on nearby West Calf Island causing the death of 92 of her 110 passengers and crew; the new lighthouse was constructed of cast iron with an inner lining of brick and was designed by George Halpin. Costing £17,390, the tower was 63 feet 9 inches high with a 27 feet 8 inches high lantern structure on top, giving a total height of around 91 feet, it had an oil burning lamp of 38 kilocandelas. In 1883 an explosive fog signal was installed, which electrically detonated a small charge of guncotton every five minutes; the tower proved to be too weak, since gales shook it to the point that crockery was sometimes thrown off tables, a 60 imperial gallon cask of water lashed to the gallery 133 feet above high water was washed away. Various steps were taken to strengthen the tower, including fitting a casing around the bottom section up to the second floor and filling it with stone, the surrounding rock smoothed over.
In 1865 the lower floors were filled in with solid material. In 1891 the Commissioners of Irish Lights had resolved that the light was not sufficiently powerful for the first landfall for many ships crossing the Atlantic; the replacement was constructed of stone, cast iron now being considered unsatisfactory – the whole of the nearby Calf tower above its strengthening casing had been carried away during a gale on 27 November 1881, although without loss of life. On the same day, the sea had broken the glass of the Fastnet Rock lantern; the new lighthouse was designed by William Douglass and built under the supervision of James Kavanagh. Construction started in 1897 with the levelling of the site, the first of 2,047 Cornish granite dovetailed blocks was laid in June 1899; as well as these blocks, weighing 4,300 tons in total and with a volume of 58,093 cubic feet, a further 4,100 cubic feet of granite was used to fill the inside of the tower up to the level of the entrance floor 58 feet above high-water mark.
A small steamship, the Ierne, was specially constructed for carrying the blocks out to the island, Kavanagh set every stone, which weighed between 1¾ and 3 tons. The new lighthouse entered service on 27 June 1904 having cost nearly £90,000; the masonry tower is 146 feet high, but the focal point of the light is 159 feet above high-water mark. The base of the lighthouse is 52 feet in diameter with the first course of stone 6 inches below high-water mark, the first ten of the 89 courses built into the rock; the first floor of the original tower remains, on the highest part of the rock, having been left when it was demolished and converted into an oil store. The fog signal was changed to one report every three minutes in 1934 and from 1965 accompanied by a brilliant flash when operated during darkness; the original vaporised paraffin light was replaced with an electric one on 10 May 1969. At the end of March 1989 the lighthouse was converted to automatic operation, it is monitored and controlled using a UHF telemetry link to Mizen Head Lighthouse and onwards by landline to the control centre at Dún Laoghaire.
It produces a 0.14 second white flash every five seconds, with a nominal range of 27 nautical miles and power of 2,500 kilocandelas. Since April 1978 in addition to being operated during darkness, the light is used during poor visibility. In 1974 the explosive fog signal was replaced with an electric fog horn producing four blasts every minute at 300 hertz with a nominal range of 3.9 nautical miles. Following a review of navigational aids, the fog signal was permanently shut down on 11 January 2011; the Racon—radar transponder beacon—has been a morse G on the radar display since its installation in 1994. In 1985, the lighthouse was struck by a rogue wave about 157 feet high. On 16 October 2017, a wind gust of 191 kilometres per hour was recorded at the lighthouse, during a tropical storm, the downgraded Hurricane Ophelia; this is an Irish record, based on measurements going back to the 1860s. The previous record was 181 kilometres per hour at Malin Head during Hurricane Debbie in 1961. List of lighthouses in Ireland List of islands of Ireland Morrissey, James (200
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Crookhaven is a village in County Cork, Ireland, on the most southwestern tip of the island of Ireland. An out-of-season population of about sixty swells in the summer season to about four hundred, with the occupants of the seasonal holiday homes arriving; the village name is attributed to an association with the Crooke family, with Sir Thomas Crooke, 1st Baronet who founded Baltimore, County Cork about 1610. The Crooke family were granted large estates in West Cork in the early 17th century, but their association with the area ended around 1665, on the death of Sir Thomas's son and heir Sir Samuel. In the late 1500s and early 1600s the village was used as a base for piracy - where not only the local justices but the broader population were involved; these activities were unaffected by official discouragement under King James VI and I, but the Dutch attack on Crookhaven in 1614 did significant damage and English piracy in the region declined thereafter. The village was an important port of call for shipping between Europe and the United States, many inhabitants were in the business of supplying the ships as they sheltered in Crookhaven after or before a long voyage.
In 1959 Crookhaven was the subject of a film by English film maker James Clarke in his film Irish Village. At that time the film records the population of the town and local farms as being 69. Crookhaven was used by Guglielmo Marconi as a location for experiments in wireless communication and ship-to-shore communication; some of these tests and experiments took place between the Fastnet lighthouse and Cape Clear Island - since they were so connected. The area was useful for these purposes as a fixed telegraph line connected Crookhaven and Cape Clear Island - located eight miles away. Marconi worked here from 1901 until 1914; the station was destroyed in 1922. The village has three pubs. O'Sullivans faces the harbour and its walls are adorned with historical pictures of the village and notes about the area. Nottages is only open during the summer; the pub was once owned by a Mr Nottage, who came to the village from England to work at the Marconi signal station. The third pub is The Crookhaven Inn.
The pub building today was once the bottle store for the larger pub and hotel located across the road. When the original building was converted to flats, the bottle store was converted; the village has a shop and post office located next to O'Sullivans. As with certain other amenities, the Crookhaven Harbour Sailing Club only opens in the summer; the road to the village curves around the harbour. As one drives from Goleen, one passes a road to the left leading onto Rock Island; this was the site of a coast guard station - which replaced an earlier station to its south. The "new" station was occupied from 1907 until 1921. During the height of the War of Independence, British Marines were stationed there to protect the station and Brow Head War Signal Station. During their occupation, the IRA destroyed Brow Head. On Rock Island was a fishery plant. From here most of the shellfish of Ireland was exported to Europe; the ponds were open until the late 1970s it became a food processing plant packaging garlic butter and mussels - but since fell derelict.
The village is located in south-western Ireland, 132 kilometres from Cork and 383 kilometres from Dublin. The nearest airport to Crookhaven is Cork Airport, the closest regional road is the R591. Lighthouses in Ireland List of towns and villages in Ireland
The North Slob is an area of mud-flats at the estuary of the River Slaney at Wexford Harbour, Ireland. The North Slob is an area of 1,000 hectares, reclaimed in the mid-19th century by the building of a sea wall.200 hectares of this reclaimed land is a nature reserve, jointly owned and managed by BirdWatch Ireland and the National Parks and Wildlife Service as the Wexford Wildfowl Reserve. The reserve is open to the public; the North Slob provides the winter home for 10,000 white-fronted geese, about one third of the world population, which migrate to Greenland for the summer months. The Wexford Wildfowl Reserve was designated a Ramsar site in 1984; the North Slob is part of the Wexford Harbour Special Protection Area of 2,734 ha. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records has its origins in the North Slob. On 4 May 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver the managing director of the Guinness Breweries, was on a shooting party in the North Slob when he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe, the koshin golden plover or the grouse.
That evening at Castlebridge House he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. He knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs in Britain and Ireland, but there was no book with which to settle arguments about records, he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove popular. The North Slob featured on the Open University and BBC's Coast Programme
Carrauntoohil is the highest mountain on the island of Ireland at 1,038.6 metres. Located in County Kerry, Carrauntoohil is the central peak of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, Ireland's highest mountain range. Carrauntoohil is composed of sandstone particles of various sizes which are collectively known as Old Red Sandstone. Old Red Sandstone has a purple–reddish colour, has no fossils. Carrauntoohil was subject to significant glaciation the result of which are deep fracturing of the rock, the surrounding of Carrauntoohil by U-shaped valleys, sharp arêtes, deep corries. Carrauntoohil is the central peak of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, has three major ridges. A narrow rocky ridge, or arête, to the north, known as the Beenkeragh Ridge, summits The Bones, leads to Ireland's second-highest peak, Beenkeragh at 1,008 m; the ridge westward, called the Caher Ridge an arête, leads to Ireland's third-highest peak, Caher at 1,000 m. A third and much wider, but unnamed, south-easterly ridge, or spur, leads down to a col where sits the top of the Devil's Ladder, but rises back up to Cnoc na Toinne 845 m, from which the long easterly ridge section of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks is accessed.
Carrauntoohil overlooks each with their own lakes. To the east is Hag's Glen, to the west is Coomloughra and to the south is Curragh More. Carrauntoohil has a deep corrie, known as the Eagle's Nest, at its north-east face, accessed from the Hag's Glen, rises up through three levels. At the top, the third level, is Lough Cummeenoughter, Ireland's highest lake; the Eagle's Nest gives views of the gullies on Carrauntoohil's north-east face: Curved Gully, Central Gully, Brother O'Shea's Gully. Sometimes the term Eagle's Nest is used to refer to the small stone Mountain Rescue Hut that sits on the first level of the corrie, where the Heavenly Gates descent gully meets the Eagle's Nest corrie. Carrauntoohil is the highest mountain in Ireland on all classification scales, it is the 133rd–highest mountain, 4th most prominent mountain, in Britain and Ireland, on the Simms classification. Carrauntoohil is regarded by the Scottish Mountaineering Club as one of 34 Furths, a mountain above 3,000 ft in elevation, meets the other SMC criteria for a Munro, but, outside of Scotland.
Carrauntoohil's larger prominence qualifies it to meet the P600 classification and the Britain and Ireland Marilyn classification. Carrauntoohil is the highest mountain in the MountainViews Online Database, 100 Highest Irish Mountains. A wooden cross was erected on the summit, a owned commonage, in the 1950s by the local community. In 1976 it was replaced by a 5 m steel cross. In 2014, the cross was cut down by unknown persons in protest against the Catholic Church, but it was re-erected shortly after; because of the dangers of the steep north-east and east faces of Carrauntoohil, Kerry Mountain Rescue have placed danger signs on the summit, above the Howling Ridge sector, whose initial section can be mistaken for a hill-walkers descent route.'Carrauntoohil' is the common spelling and used by Ordnance Survey Ireland. Others include'Carrantoohil','Carrantouhil','Carrauntouhil' and'Carrantuohill', which are an anglicisations of an Irish placename. Paul Tempan's Irish Hill and Mountain Names notes that "its name is shrouded in uncertainty", that "Unlike some lesser peaks, such as Mangerton or Croagh Patrick, it is not mentioned in any surviving early Irish texts".
The official Irish name is Corrán Tuathail, which Tempan notes is interpreted as "Tuathal's sickle", Tuathal being a male first name. Patrick Weston Joyce interpreted it as "inverted sickle". However, one of the earliest written accounts of the mountain, by Isaac Weld in 1812, calls it'Gheraun-Tuel', Samuel Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland calls it'Garran Tual'; this suggests that the first element was géarán —which is found in the names of other Kerry mountains—and that the earlier name may have been Géarán Tuathail. Climber and author Jim Ryan noted in his 2006 book and MacGillycuddy’s Reeks, that the actual mountain of Carrauntoohil, including most of the Hag's Glen, is in private ownership; the freehold is owned by four families: Donal Doona, John O'Shea, John B. Doona, James Sullivan, their great-grandfathers bought the land from the Irish Land Commission, "paying the sum of eleven shillings and two cents, twice a year for many decades". Ryan's book commended the owners despite damage to their farms.
A State–sponsored report into access for the range in December 2013 titled MacGillycuddy Reeks Mountain Access Development Assessment, mapped the complex network of land titles. Unlike many other national mountain ranges, the MacGillycuddy's Reeks are not part of a national park or a trust structure, are instead privately owned; the straightforward route is via the Devil's Ladder, which starts at Cronin's Yard in the north-east, moves into the Hag's Glen, continues along between Lough Gouragh and Lough Calee, until the Devil's Ladder, a worn path from the glen to the col between Carrauntoohil and Cnoc na Toinne 845
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665, it is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest. In the east of the county is Strangford Lough and the Ards Peninsula; the largest town is Bangor, on the northeast coast. Three other large towns and cities are on its border: Newry lies on the western border with County Armagh, while Lisburn and Belfast lie on the northern border with County Antrim. Down contains both the easternmost point of Ireland, it was one of two counties of Northern Ireland to have a Protestant majority at the 2001 census. The other Protestant majority County is County Antrim to the North. In March 2018, The Sunday Times published its list of Best Places to Live in Britain, including five in Northern Ireland.
The list included three in County Down: Holywood and Strangford. County Down takes its name from dún, the Irish word for dun or fort, a common root in Gaelic place names; the fort in question was in the historic town of Downpatrick known as Dún Lethglaise. During the Williamite War in Ireland the county was a centre of Protestant rebellion against the rule of the Catholic James II. After forming a scratch force the Protestants were defeated by the Irish Army at the Break of Dromore and forced to retreat, leading to the whole of Down falling under Jacobite control; the same year Marshal Schomberg's large Williamite expedition arrived in Belfast Lough and captured Bangor. After laying siege to Carrickfergus Schomberg marched south to Dundalk Camp, clearing County Down and much of the rest of East Ulster of Jacobite troops. Down contains two significant peninsulas: Lecale peninsula; the county has a coastline along Carlingford Lough to the south. Strangford Lough lies between the mainland. Down contains part of the shore of Lough Neagh.
Smaller loughs include Lough Island Reavy. The River Lagan forms most of the border with County Antrim; the River Bann flows through the southwestern areas of the county. Other rivers include the Quoile. There are several islands off the Down coast: Mew Island, Light House Island and the Copeland Islands, all of which lie to the north of the Ards Peninsula. Gunn Island lies off the Lecale coast. In addition there are a large number of small islands in Strangford Lough. County Down is where, in the words of the famous song by Percy French, "The mountains of Mourne sweep down to the sea", the granite Mourne Mountains continue to be renowned for their beauty. Slieve Donard, at 849 m, is the highest peak in the Mournes, in Northern Ireland and in the province of Ulster. Another important peak is Slieve Croob, at 534 m, the source of the River Lagan. An area of County Down is known as the Brontë Homeland, after Patrick Brontë, father of Anne, Charlotte and Branwell. Patrick Brontë was born in this region.
The city of Newry in the south of the county contains St Patrick's, overlooking the city centre from Church street, on the east side of the city, considered to be Ireland's first Protestant church. The Newry Canal is the first summit-level canal to be built in the British Isles. Castlewellan Forest Park. Down is home to Exploris, the Northern Ireland Aquarium, located in Portaferry, on the shores of Strangford Lough, on the Ards Peninsula; the Old Inn in Crawfordsburn is one of Ireland's oldest hostelries, with records dating back to 1614. It is predated however by Donaghadee's Grace Neill's, opened in 1611; the Old inn claims that people who have stayed there include Jonathan Swift, Dick Turpin, Peter the Great, Lord Tennyson, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, former US president George H. W. Bush, C. S. Lewis, who honeymooned there. Tollymore Forest Park. Scrabo Tower, in Newtownards, was built as a memorial to Charles Stewart, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. Saint Patrick is reputed to be buried at Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, reputedly alongside St. Brigid and St. Columcille.
Saul, County Down – where Saint Patrick said his first eucharist in Ireland Baronies Ards Lower Ards Upper Castlereagh Lower Castlereagh Upper Dufferin Iveagh Lower, Lower Half Iveagh Lower, Upper Half Iveagh Upper, Lower Half Iveagh Upper, Upper Half Kinelarty Lecale Lower Lecale Upper Lordship of Newry Mourne Parishes Townlands Belfast - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Lisburn - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Antrim Newry - the eastern suburbs of the city lie in County Down but County Armagh Bangor Dundonald Newtownards Banbridge Downpatrick Holywood Carryduff (Population of 4,500 or more and under 10,000 at
Lambay, sometimes referred to as Lambay Island lies in the Irish Sea off the coast of north County Dublin in Ireland. It is four kilometres offshore from the headland at Portrane and is the easternmost point of the province of Leinster. Named places are Lamba in the Faroe Islands and Lamba in Shetland. Ptolemy's Geography described an island called Εδρου. PIE *sed- ‘to sit, settle’ had descendants in many languages, including Greek ἑδρα ‘sitting place’ whose many specific uses included ‘base for ships’. Lambay Island is the largest island off the east coast of Ireland and is about 2.5 square kilometres in size. Its highest point rises to 127 metres. There are steep cliffs on the northern and southern sides of the island, with a more low-lying western shore; the geology is dominated with shales and limestones. There streams. There is a private harbour on the western shore, there are a small number of buildings nearby including a bothy, coastguard cottages and a real tennis court. A small late 16th-century fort with battlemented gables incorporating a 15th-century blockhouse, on the island was transformed by Sir Edwin Lutyens into a romantic castle for the Hon. Cecil Baring, afterwards 3rd Lord Revelstoke.
Baring had been working in the USA. She married Baring, he bought the island for £5,250 in 1904 as a place to escape to with his beautiful young wife, Maude Louise Lorillard, the daughter of Pierre Lorillard, the first American to win The Derby. The story of their early life on the island inspired Julian Slade’s musical Free as Air. Lutyens made the old fort habitable and built a quadrangle of kitchens and extra bedrooms adjoining it, with roofs of grey Dutch pantiles sweeping down to the ground, he built a circular curtain wall or enceinte surrounding the castle and its garden, with an impressive bastioned gateway. Everything is of a silvery grey stone; the rooms in the castle have vaulted ceilings and stone fireplaces. According to the Revelstoke records on the island, Lambay Castle is the location where Michael Powell wrote his screenplay for Black Narcissus. Lutyens designed the approach from the harbour, with curved step-like terraces reminiscent of the now-vanished Ripetta in Rome and a series of ellipses, circles being a long-standing symbol of welcome and of wholeness.
Characteristically, having ascended those Baroque steps, one has to cross an open field to come to the curtain wall, the entrance gateway not being at first visible. Close to the harbour is the White House, a horse-shoe shaped house with high roofs and whitewashed walls, which Lutyens designed in the 1930s for Lord Revelstoke's daughters Daphne and Calypso and their families, while the castle and island were left to his only son Rupert Baring. On a small cliff-top near the White House is an old Catholic chapel, with a portico of tapering stone columns and a barrel vaulted ceiling. Inside are various religious symbols and artefacts made by members of the family, including the little stain-glass window; the island supports one of the largest and most important seabird colonies in Ireland, with over 50,000 common guillemots, 5,000 kittiwakes, 3,500 razorbills, 2,500 pairs of herring gulls, as well as smaller numbers of puffins, Manx shearwaters, greylag geese and many other species. Among the mammals of the island are Atlantic Great grey seals, which pup on the island itself.
There is a herd of farmed cattle on the island. Rockabill and Lambay islands are the best places in County Dublin to see harbour porpoises; the island is still owned by the Baring family trust. The medieval castle is the only Lutyens-designed home, together with the Liria Palace in Madrid, still in the occupation and ownership of the original family that commissioned it. Alex Baring is in occupation; the farm has accepted WWOOFers as volunteers in the past. The estate includes domestic extensions to the old Castle, a row of Coastguard cottages, the Bothy, the White House, a harbour and boathouse and a distinctive open-air real tennis court, the only one remaining in Ireland. There is the farm with cottages, the Chapel is located on an isolated promontory. All architecture was either renovated by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Due to its deep surrounding waters, the island attracts scuba divers and fishermen, as well as lobster-potters; the island is accessible by invitation only from Malahide Marina and Rogerstown Pier and Skerries Harbour all north of Dublin.
The island was important in the Neolithic period in Ireland as a ground stone axe quarrying and production site. Two outcrops of andesite, or Lambay porphyry as it is more known, were utilised; the quarry site is unusual in Ireland for being the only Neolithic stone axe quarry with evidence for all stages of production, from quarrying to