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Exudate

An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding or exudation. Exudate is derived from exude, "to ooze," from the Latin exsūdāre, "to sweat". An exudate is any fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation, it can be a clear fluid. When an injury occurs, leaving skin exposed, it leaks out of the blood vessels and into nearby tissues; the fluid is composed of serum and white blood cells. Exudate may ooze from areas of infection or inflammation. Purulent or suppurative exudate consists of plasma with both active and dead neutrophils and necrotic parenchymal cells; this kind of exudate is consistent with more severe infections, is referred to as pus. Fibrinous exudate is composed of fibrinogen and fibrin, it is characteristic of rheumatic carditis, but is seen in all severe injuries such as strep throat and bacterial pneumonia. Fibrinous inflammation is difficult to resolve due to blood vessels growing into the exudate and filling space, occupied by fibrin.

Large amounts of antibiotics are necessary for resolution. Catarrhal exudate is characterized by a high content of mucus. Serous exudate is seen in mild inflammation, with low protein, its consistency resembles that of serum, can be seen in certain disease states like tuberculosis. Malignant pleural effusion is effusion, it is classified as exudate. There is an important distinction between exudates. Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or colloid osmotic pressure, not by inflammation, they have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the measurement of the specific gravity of extracted fluid. Specific gravity is used to measure the protein content of the fluid; the higher the specific gravity, the greater the likelihood of capillary permeability changes in relation to body cavities. For example, the specific gravity of the transudate is less than 1.012 and a protein content of less than 2 g/100 mL. Rivalta test may be used to differentiate an exudate from a transudate.

It is not clear if there is a distinction in the difference of exudates in plants. Plant exudates include saps, gums and resin. Sometimes nectar is considered an exudate. Plant roots and seeds exudate a variety of molecules into the rhizosphere, including acids, sugars and ectoenzymes. Exudation of these compounds has various benefits to the plant and to the microorganisms of the rhizosphere. Pleural effusion Scarless wound healing Media related to Exudate at Wikimedia Commons

Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge

Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge is located in Cameron and Evangeline Parishes in southwestern Louisiana, was established in 1937 by Executive Order No. 7780 as "a refuge and breeding ground for migratory birds and other wildlife." The refuge is nearly 35,000 acres in size, including 653 acres leased from the Cameron Parish School Board. The Evangeline Parish unit is called Duralde Prairie and is being developed, it is located north of the city of Eunice. The refuge, along with Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge, East Cove National Wildlife Refuge, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, the Shell Keys National Wildlife Refuge was included in the forming of Southwest Louisiana National Wildlife Refuge Complex in 2004; the refuge was formed with 13,000 acres purchased from The Lacassane Company. The land had been part of two plantations, the Illinois Plantation and the Lowery Plantation, purchased for $51,774.00. The mineral rights were reserved but included in the consideration and were subjugated to a mineral servitude by covenant.

Easement was established as well as a timeline. A 2003 Third Circuit court decision led to a 2006 decision, Waterfowl Limited Liability Company v. United States, in the United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, resulted in a reversal and the case remanded. In 1976 the United States Congress designated 3,345.6 acres of the southern portion as the Lacassine Wilderness. The vegetation types occurring on the refuge are water-tolerant grasses and shrubs. Vegetation in the undeveloped marshes is dominated by maidencane; the habitat is divided into 16,500 acres of natural, freshwater marsh and open water, 16,000 acres of managed, freshwater marsh, 2,200 acres of rice, wheat and natural moist soil fields, 350 acres of flooded gum and cypress trees, 350 acres of restored tallgrass prairie. Most wildlife species found on the refuge are those indigenous to the marshes of coastal Louisiana. Nesting colonies of wading birds such as ibis, roseate spoonbills, egrets and furbearers such as mink and raccoon and nutria are found on the refuge.

Threatened and endangered species that have used the refuge include bald eagles, peregrine falcons, Louisiana black bear. Several hundred thousand ducks and geese use the refuge as wintering habitat while wood ducks and black-bellied whistling ducks, mottled ducks nest on the refuge during the breeding season; the refuge offers fishing, boating, wildlife observation, hiking. Lacassine NWR, known for attracting thousands of pintails each winter, has seen the effects of the decreasing populations; the refuge hosted numbers well over 100,000 until the mid-1980s saw the peaks reduced by half in the 1990s. Drought years in the mid-2000s caused a decline from 30,000 down to around 18,000; the birds are concentrated in the northeast sections of the Pool. Lacassine NWR is managed intensively for other Louisiana coastal wetland species; the refuge has a wetland management program in which water levels are manipulated for managing occurring marsh and moist soil plants and a Copeland management program where crops are planted to provide food for wintering waterfowl that migrate down the Mississippi and Central Flyways.

Habitat is made more attractive to waterfowl and shorebirds by mechanical methods and flooding with costs reimbursed to the landowner or farmer. The refuge has an active coastal prairie restoration program and a prescribed burning program. Native prairies and marshes are periodically burned on a 3-5 year rotational basis to invigorate native grasses and forbs and to set back cool season plant growth or to reduce the fuel load and organic accumulations in the marshes. Lacassine has a Wilderness Management program to help in managing the 3,445-acre wilderness area found on the refuge and an oil and gas program to help minimize disturbance from mineral owner's activities. An alligator trapping program is used to manage the refuge's American alligator population; the refuge has an active volunteer/intern program. Hunting and fishing are two of the most popular refuge activities. Bird watching is very popular, with a bird list available at the refuge or online. A nature drive, foot trails, observation towers are available year-round.

An active volunteer program provides additional opportunities and students are able to earn college credits through an internship at the refuge. List of National Wildlife Refuges: Louisiana This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge - Southwest Louisiana National Wildlife Refuge Complex

Mizrahi Jews in Israel

Mizrahi Jews in Israel, or Mizrachim, constitute one of the largest Jewish ethnic divisions among Israeli Jews. Israeli Mizrahim are descended from Jews in the Middle East and Central Asia, from Babylonian and Persian heritage, who had lived for many generations under Muslim rule during the Middle Ages; the vast majority of them left the Muslim-majority countries during the Arab–Israeli conflict, in what is known as the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. Some 607,900 Jews are immigrants and first-generation descendants by paternal lineage of Iraqi, Yemenite, Egyptian and Indian Jewish communities, traditionally associated with the Mizrahi Jews. Many more Israeli Jews are second and third generation Mizrahi descendants or have a partial Mizrahi origin; the other dominant sub-groups are Sephardic Jews. Mizrahi and North African Sephardic Jews in Israel are grouped together due to the similarity of their history under Muslim rule and an overwhelming migration out of their countries of residence during the 20th century.

As of 2005, 61 % of Israeli Jews were of partial Mizrahi ancestry. After the establishment of the State of Israel and subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War, most Mizrahi Jews were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and emigrated to Israel. According to the 2009 Statistical Abstract of Israel, 50.2% of Israeli Jews are of Mizrahi or Sephardic origin. Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, in the context of the founding of the State of Israel, led to the departure of large numbers of Mizrahi Jews from the Middle East. 25,000 Mizrahi Jews from Egypt left after the 1956 Suez Crisis, led to the overwhelming majority of Mizrahim leaving Arab countries. They most went to Israel. Today, as many as 40,000 Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world in Iran, but Uzbekistan and Turkey. Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "in a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified in its diversity," had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat.

The trauma of rupture from their countries of origin was further complicated by the difficulty of the transition upon arrival in Israel. Settlement in Moshavim was only successful, because Mizrahim had filled a niche as craftsmen and merchants and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork; as the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status aggravated by their cultural and political differences with the dominant Ashkenazi community. Furthermore, a policy of austerity was enforced at that time due to economic hardships. Mizrahi immigrants arrived with many mother tongues. Many those from North Africa and the fertile crescent, spoke Arabic dialects. Hebrew had been a language only of prayer for most Jews not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim. Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture and language distinct from their Ashkenazi counterparts; the cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, sometimes the divide between Eastern European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp.

Segregation in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the years. Intermarriage between Ashkenazim and Mizrahim is common in Israel and by the late 1990s 28% of all Israeli children had multi-ethnic parents, it has been claimed that intermarriage does not tend to decrease ethnic differences in socio-economic status, however that does not apply to the children of inter-ethnic marriages. Although social integration is improving, disparities persist. A study conducted by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, Mizrahi Jews are less to pursue academic studies than Ashkenazi Jews. Israeli-born Ashkenazim are up to twice more to study in a university than Israeli-born Mizrahim. Furthermore, the percentage of Mizrahim who seek a university education remains low compared to second-generation immigrant groups of Ashkenazi origin, such as Russians; the average income of Ashkenazim was 36 percent higher than that of Mizrahim in 2004. Aryeh Bibipolitician, Iraqi Jewish member of Knesset for Kadima.

Born in Baghdad. Robert Tiviaev – politician, Mountain Jew, current member of Knesset for Kadima. Born in Daghestan. Dalya Itzik – politician who serves as a member of the Knesset for Kadima Yitzhak Mordechai – former general and former politician Michael Ben-Ari – Israeli politician and current member of the Knesset Mordechai Zar – Israeli politician and former member of the Knesset Moshe Katsav – Former President of Israel Shaul Mofaz – Former Israeli Minister of Defense number two on the Kadima list in the Knesset Gila Gamliel – Member of the Knesset for Likud and minister Pe'er Tasi – singer Yitzhak Tshuva - business magnate Zadik Bino - businessman Haim Saban - businessman, philanthropist Moshe Kahlon - politician and current Minister of Finance Aryeh Deri - politician, Minister of I

Bill Green IV

William Joseph Green IV is the former chair of the School Reform Commission of the School District of Philadelphia and a former Democratic Councilman-at-Large on the City Council of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While in office, he prioritized accountability and fiscal discipline, constituent service, quality of life for city residents. Green grew up a block from Frankford High School, graduated from Penn Charter and attended Saint Joseph's University before graduating from Auburn University, he obtained his law degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Law. Green's father, William J. Green III, was a member of the U. S. House, Chairman of Philadelphia's Democratic City Committee, Mayor of Philadelphia, his grandfather, William J. Green, Jr. was a Congressman and Chairman of Philadelphia's Democratic City Committee. In 1991, Green wrote policy papers for Ed Rendell's successful campaign for Mayor, he worked on numerous Democratic campaigns attempting to elect candidates to Congress, attorney general posts, state legislative seats, local offices.

Prior to first seeking office in 2007, Green traded options and futures in New York and Amsterdam. After obtaining his law degree, he founded several businesses, represented top Fortune 500 companies and start-ups as a corporate lawyer, served as president of VistaScape Security Systems, he left his position as a City Council member in February 2014 and was sworn in as the chair of the School Reform Commission. He was nominated by Governor Tom Corbett, he was fired from his role as Chair of the SRC by Governor Wolf for approving a new Charter School against the expressed wishes of the Governor. Councilman Bill Green official city website

Chinaman, Laundryman

"Chinaman, Laundryman" is a song composed by Ruth Crawford Seeger. The song depicts the exploitation of an immigrant Chinese laundry worker. In 1932 Ruth Crawford Seeger composed two songs for a commission from the Society of Contemporary Music in Philadelphia, which she called Two Ricercari; the first, Vanzetti is a tribute to the infamous executions of the two Italian Anarchists after whom the piece is named, in Massachusetts. The second, Laundryman, depicts the exploitation of an immigrant Chinese laundry worker. Both are settings of politically militant poems written in 1928 by a young Chinese author, H. T. Tsiang; when she wrote the songs, Crawford was a member of the Composer’s Collective in New York City, a group under the control of the American Communist Party, which sought to enlist art in the service of politics. Chinaman, Laundryman was premiered at the MacDowell Club in 1933, it was performed two more times, once in Philadelphia for the Society of Contemporary Music, again at the First American Worker’s Music Olympiad for a large audience of leftist workers.

It was not performed again during the composer’s life. The text of “Chinaman” contains two characters, a boss who verbally assaults his employee, the laundryman himself who delivers a recitation describing the harsh working conditions he endures and spurring his fellow men to work for a better world. Crawford’s heterophonic setting is for a solo mezzosoprano with piano accompaniment; the singer employs Sprechstimme, or speech voice, a technique in which notes are indicated as approximations rather than definite tones, in order to give primacy to the text. The piano accompaniment is a monotonous series given in octaves that transmits the remorseless oppression of the capitalist boss and the inhuman conditions in which the exploited worker exists; the pitch material in the piano part is ordered and based on a process of rotation and transposition, typical of Crawford. A nine note tone row, T0, one measure in duration, is presented rotated so that it begins its second iteration on the second note of the original row and ends on the first, the third iteration on the third note of the original ending on the second, so on.

After nine measures, each beginning on a new pitch of T0, the original row is transposed down a semitone, to begin on the second note of the original row, T11, rotated as before for nine measures. Crawford continues the pattern, transposing the original row so that it starts on successive pitches of T0 and rotating the transpositions until she has done this nine times presents the original row and its rotations one last time; this pattern is depicted in figure 1, in which numbers under notes indicate measures in which that note begins the row. The rhythm is serialized. Three rhythmic patterns, x, y, z, made up of different combinations of pentuplets, sixteenth notes and eighth notes organize the nine notes. With minor variation, the three patterns are played in groups as some permutation of xyz until each permutation has been used before any one permutation is repeated. In this way, the three measure groupings are organized into groups of six, as in part B of figure 2; the designation of this song as a Ricercar, a term which traditionally describes “work employing learned contrapuntal devices” derives from this formulaic serialization of pitch and rhythmic content.

The vocal line includes motivic contours characteristic of the laundryman. The boss’ signature motive is an ascending tritone or a phrase that outlines one, as in measures one and two of part A in figure 2, the laundryman’s motive begins on the highest and end on the lowest note in the phrase and contains tones that lie within those boundaries in predominantly descending order, as in measures 4 through 6 of the same figure; the majority of utterances by the two characters throughout the song follow these contours. In the final fifteen measures of the song, the laundryman turns from lamenting his circumstances and implores his fellow workers to unite, a passage in which he alternates singing his descending motive and the bosses ascending tritone; the piano accompaniment returns to the original row in the same measure that this passage begins, reflecting that the laundryman is changed from the opening of the piece and is ready to do something more to change his situation than articulate it. Hisama, Ellie M..

Gendering Musical Modernism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Straus, Joseph N.. The Music of Ruth Crawford Seeger, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tick, Judith.. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer’s Search for American Music, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc

Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics

The Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics is an Indian Biotechnology research centre, located in Hyderabad, operated by the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. CDFD is Sun Microsystems Centre of Excellence in Medical Bio-informatics, supported with a strong bioinformatics facility, is the India node of the EMBnet. In addition, DNA fingerprinting and diagnostics services provided by the centre support some of the activities; the centre utilises the Combined DNA Index System for DNA profile Matching. The CDFD and the U. S. FBI had signed an MoU early this year for the acquisition of CODIS. CDFD receives funding from other agencies like the Wellcome Trust on specific collaborative projects; the Centre is recognised by the University of Hyderabad and Manipal University for pursuing doctor of philosophy in Life Sciences. Research at CDFD has focused on molecular epidemiology of bacterial pathogens, structural genetics, molecular genetics and computational biology.

CDFD was conceptualised by CCMB director Lalji Singh. It evolved into its current form of a modern institution encompassing both basic and applied research in diverse areas of modern biology under its founder director, Seyed E. Hasnain, who pursued this aim aggressively during his tenure from 1999 to 2005; the centre is equipped with instrumentation and computing infrastructure to facilitate working in frontier areas of research in Life Sciences. There are twenty two groups working on diverse research areas and the centre continues to attract leaders in related disciplines. CDFD started its operations at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research organisation, was housed in an interim building in Nacharam from early 1999 to December 2008. In 2009, it was moved to a sprawling new building in Gandipet locality at the outskirts of Hyderabad. But, due to some of the governmental objections pertaining to the proximity of the new campus to Osman Sagar lake, any of the wet-lab work was not allowed.

As a result, the building raised at Gandipet was vacated by CDFD in early 2009 and institute operated from its rented building in Nampally and with an MoU for the diagnostic screening with the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences. Following the appointment of Dr. Debashis Mitra as its new Director w.e.f. 1 November 2017, CDFD commenced its move to its permanent campus in Uppal, as of 15 March 2018 the institute is housed in its permanent building next to Nagole Metro Station. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Seyed E. Hasnain Shekhar C. Mande Veena Parnaik Genome Valley Maddika Subha Reddy