The Eye of Providence is a symbol, having its origin in Christian iconography, showing an eye surrounded by rays of light or a glory and enclosed by a triangle. It represents the eye of God watching over humanity. In the modern era, a notable depiction of the eye is the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, which appears on the United States one-dollar bill. In 1782, the Eye of Providence was adopted as part of the symbolism on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States, it was first suggested as an element of the Great Seal by the first of three design committees in 1776 and is thought to be the suggestion of the artistic consultant, Pierre Eugene du Simitiere. In his original proposal to the committee, Du Simitiere placed the Eye over shields symbolizing each of the original thirteen states of the Union. On the version of the seal, approved, the Eye is positioned above an unfinished pyramid of thirteen steps; the symbolism is explained by the motto that appears above the Eye: Annuit Cœptis, meaning "He approves undertakings".
Due to its use in the design of the Great Seal, the Eye has made its way into other American seals and logos, for example: the Seal of Colorado and DARPA's Information Awareness Office. The Eye of Providence was part of the flag and coat of arms adopted by the Confederation of the Equator, a short lived 1824 secessionist revolt in the Northeastern provinces of Brazil. Today the Eye of Providence is associated with Freemasonry, although it is a Christian symbol; the Eye first appeared as part of the standard iconography of the Freemasons in 1797, with the publication of Thomas Smith Webb's Freemasons Monitor. Here, it represents the all-seeing eye of God and is a reminder that humanity's thoughts and deeds are always observed by God; the Masonic Eye of Providence has a semi-circular glory below it. Sometimes this Masonic Eye is enclosed by a triangle. Popular among conspiracy theorists is the claim that the Eye of Providence shown atop an unfinished pyramid on the Great Seal of the United States indicates the influence of Freemasonry in the founding of the United States.
However, common Masonic use of the Eye dates to 14 years after the creation of the Great Seal. Furthermore, among the members of the various design committees for the Great Seal, only Benjamin Franklin was a Mason. Various Masonic organizations have explicitly denied any connection to the creation of the Seal; the association of an eye with the concept of Divine Providence did not emerge until well into the Christian era. In Renaissance European iconography, the eye surrounded by a triangle was an explicit image of the Christian Trinity. Seventeenth-century depictions of the Eye of Providence sometimes show it surrounded by clouds or sunbursts; the Eye of God in a triangle is still used in church architecture and Christian art to symbolise the Trinity and God's omnipresence and divine Providence. The Eye of Providence appears on many other coats of arms and official seals, such as: The Coat of Arms of Brasłaŭ, Belarus The Coat of Arms of Kalvarija, Lithuania The Coat of Arms and Flag of Plungė, Lithuania The Coat of Arms and Flag of Šiauliai, Lithuania The Coat of Arms of Alovė, Lithuania The Coat of Arms of Baisiogala, Lithuania The Coat of Arms of Wilamowice, Poland Several college fraternities use the Eye of Providence in their coats of arms or badges, notably Delta Tau Delta, Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Delta Theta and Delta Kappa Epsilon The seal of the State of Colorado The seal of The University of Mississippi The seal of The University of Chile The seal of the city of Kenosha, Wisconsin.
The Eye appears on the following currency: United States one-dollar bill, as part of the Great Seal The 50 Estonian krooni note, as part of a depiction of the pipe organ of the Käina church The 500 Ukrainian hryvnia note The Vermont Copper The Nova Constellatio patterns of 1783 The Nova Constellatio coppers of 1783 and 1785 Some Immune Columbia issues On the original publication of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which borrows iconography of the Ten Commandments On the front page of the Constitution of Serbia from 1835 The Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Russia The Salt Lake Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah Jesuit Church, Germany Insignia of the UK Guards Division created in 1915 Numerous video games, TV shows, films and websites contain depictions of the eye. A common occurrence is in the context of a reference to the Illuminati. Caodaism Eye of Horus Eye of Ra Third eye Media related to Eye of Providence at Wikimedia Commons
William Koopmans Summers is an independent neuroscientist and was the inventor of Tacrine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Tacrine was the first FDA approved anti-dementia drug. Today there are five FDA approved anti-dementia drugs. Summers was born in Missouri, he graduated from Jefferson City Public High School in 1962. He began college at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri in 1962 and transferred to the University of Missouri where he received a Bachelor of Science in 1966. Summers attended Washington University School of Medicine, graduating in 1971 after an elective year of basic research in nephrology; this effort led to a continued interest in medical research. Summers’ post graduate education was at Washington University, he did a combined residency in internal psychiatry. Summers was in the last group of ‘ward internal medicine internships’ at Barnes Hospital under Carl V. Moore. In psychiatry he was influenced by pioneers in biological psychiatry such as Eli Robbins, George Winokur, George Murphy, John Feigner, John William Olney, Paula J. Clayton, Robert Woodruff, Ferris N. Pitts, many other founders of the medical basis of psychiatry.
Summers served as an Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine and Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh and at the Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center. During this time Summers did a pilot intravenous, trial of tacrine in Alzheimer's disease and found measurable acute improvement in the memory performance of the subjects. In 1981, Summers began private medical practice in California, he soon joined the clinical faculty of UCLA where he began working further on the development of tacrine as a practical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. He discovered that tacrine was absorbed by oral administration and did enter the central nervous system, An intravenous treatment for a chronic disease is not a practical treatment. An oral preparation of tacrine was a practical treatment for Alzheimer's. Safety experiments were done in animal models. In 1984, it was inconceivable that a dementia patient could improve on a long term basis. Thus, psychometric scales had to be validated; the oral tacrine study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine on November 13, 1986.
The accompanying editorial was positive, but the scientific community of the time was not prepared to accept that Alzheimer's could be treated. Criticism by researchers associated with the Alzheimer's Association was sharp; the US Food and Drug Administration investigated Dr. Summers from November 18, 1986 through May 4, 1989. Additionally, Dr. Summer's work was investigated by UCLA. Considerable publicity occurred. Summers was defended by Robert L. Bartley and Daniel Henninger by a series of Wall Street Journal editorials. On March 28, 1989 U. S. Patent 4,816,456 was issued to Dr. Summers. With no findings to support allegations and concerns, Frances Oldham Kelsey closed the FDA Office of Compliance investigation, in May, 1989; the Office for Drug Evaluation I, placed Summers on a secret "black list" without informing him. Once discovered by Summers, in 2007, the citation was removed; when Summers initiated his research, it was accepted that Alzheimer's disease was a progressive unremitting neurodegenerative disease that could not be improved.
Today, there are five FDA approved medications for the treatment of Alzheimer's or Dementia of other types. In 2011, there are 842 Clinical trials on over 100 drugs under investigation for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Since the 1980s, the majority of research effort was focused on the genetics and toxicity of beta amyloid protein as the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Summers developed alternative hypothesis based on oxidative brain injury, he hypothesized that brain insults create a smoldering inflammation which produces free radicals and distant sites of inflammation. These areas of inflammation cause the deposition of beta amyloid and tau protein. Based on this theory, Summers created a complex, potent antioxidant, classified as a health supplement; this antioxidant combination has been shown to improve memory in normal aging people. Personal site
The Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians in the United States is a federally recognized confederation of more than 27 Native American tribes and bands who once inhabited a range from northern California to southwest Washington and between the summit of the Cascades and the Pacific Ocean. The tribes spoke at least 11 distinct languages, including Tillamook, the Clatsop dialect of Chinook, Takelma, Alsea-Yaquina, Coos, the Plateau Penutian languages Molala and Klickitat, several Oregon Athabaskan languages. After the Rogue River Wars, these tribes were removed to the Coast Indian Reservation, now known as the Siletz Reservation; the confederation takes its name from the Siletz River. The word "siletz" translates into "coiled like a snake," describing the route of the river winding around the land and mountains to the ocean, it includes remnants of the Siletz, a Coast Salish people who inhabited the area up until the middle 19th century but who are no longer counted separately in the larger confederation.
The confederation is made up of the following bands. Tillamook Siletz Salmon River Nestucca Nehalem Tillamook Bay Alsea, including Yaquina Chinook, including Clatsop Coos, including Hanis and Miluk Kalapuya, including Santiam, Yamhill, Marys River band, others Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Molalla Shasta, including Klamath River people Rogue River peoples, including Shasta, Upper Rogue River Athapaskan peoples: Applegate and Galice Creek, or any of the tribes of Lower Rogue River Athapaskan people Klickitat Takelma, including Dagelma and Cow Creek Oregon Athabaskans, including all Athabaskan bands from southwestern Oregon, such as the following: Lower Rogue River Athabaskan peoples Upper Coquille Chasta Costa Tututni Euchre Creek Flores Creek Mikonotunne Naltunnetunne Pistol River Port Orford band of Kwatami Sixes Yashute and others Upper Rogue River Athabaskan peoples Applegate River Galice Creek Chetco-Tolowa Tolowa Chetco Upper Umpqua The Confederated Tribes emerged from the remnants of around 28 different tribes of coast Indians.
Table Rock Indian Reservation After the Rogue River Wars of 1855-56, most of the peoples were forced onto the Coast Indian Reservation, which split into the Siletz and Alsea reservations, where they were to form a single unified tribe. The Coast Reservation comprised 1.1 million acres, established by the executive order of President Franklin Pierce on November 9, 1855, only weeks after the start of the Rogue River Wars. In 1894, 551 individuals received federal allotments and at one point, the tribes occupied 225,000 acres of land that constituted the Siletz Reservation in Oregon; the reservation was established via an executive order, which entailed the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the coastal region of the Oregon Territory. The Western Oregon Indian Termination Act of 1954, Public Law 588, came into effect on August 13, 1954; this new law severed Bureau of Indian Affairs supervision of trust lands and BIA regulation of services to the Indian peoples. All of the remaining Siletz lands were sold except for the 39 acres called Government Hill.
The proceeds of the sale of the timberland property were distributed to enrolled tribal members in two installments: $250 per person in December 1954, a final payment of $542.50 per person in August 1956. Other inherited allotments were held in trusts but were sold off at the request of the owners. During the 1960s, several members of the Siletz tribe began to restore common bonds, their initiatives included the restoration of the tribal cemetery on Government Hill and an aggressive lobbying of Congress and the office of the President to recognize Siletz as a federal Native American tribe. In June 1974, Rep. Wendell Wyatt introduced a first restoration bill. On December 17, 1975, Senator Mark Hatfield introduced restoration bill S. 2801. At the time Senator Hatfield presented his restoration bill he was quoted as saying that the Siletz People were "ill-prepared to cope with the realities of American society" when the Termination act went to effect and that they had been "tossed abruptly from a state of total dependency to a state of total independence... to leave the only way of life they had known."
The bill included wording to restore hunting and fishing rights. This bill did not pass. Senator Hatfield and Senator Bob Packwood introduced a new bill, S. 1560, in the month of May 1977. Unlike its 1975 predecessor, it did not include that the fishing rights be restored. On August 5, 1977, the United States Senate passed the restoration bill and on November 1, 1977, so did the House; the bill was sent to President Jimmy Carter on November 3 and approved November 18. Today about 5,100 of their descendants are enrolled members of this tribe, based on the Siletz Reservation along the Siletz River in the Central Oregon Coast Range, about 15 miles northeast of Newport, Oregon. On November 18, 1977, the Confederated Tribes became the second tribe in the U. S. to have its federal status restored, returned to being a sovereign g
Siwan Davies is a Welsh professor of Physical Geography in the department of science at Swansea University. Davies' research focus is to reconstruct past climate changes. Together with a team of lecturing staff, technicians, PhD students and post doctoral researchers Davies is looking at rapid climatic changes. One of the challenges to understand why these changes occur is understanding where these events happen, are there triggers in the oceans or are there triggers in the atmosphere? By analyzing ash layers that have been spread across and therefore incorporated into ice and terrestrial matter from erupted volcanoes. By analyzing the microscopic ash particles in these matters Davies and her team can measure differences and similarities in changes that have occurred; these findings explain when these changes happened and why. By understanding what happened in the past will give them insight into what may happen in the future. Davies and her team are working with the ice and climate group at the University of Copenhagen as well as UK institutions such as Bangor and the University of Saint Andrews.
Davies is working in collaboration with scientists from 14 different countries to excavate ice from the northwest of Greenland as part of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling project. The ice will be retrieved in layers as far down as 8000 ft; the findings within this excavation will include evidence of organic materials as well as air bubbles that will be an indication of greenhouse gases that could have been found in the atmosphere over 100,000 years ago. Davies research on minuscule ash particles within the layers of ice, will help create a timeline of volcanic eruptions, which will help compare and analyze climatic evidence recorded in the Greenland ice with that preserved in the deep sea. S4C filmed a series'Her yr Hinsawdd' documenting Davies experience in meeting communities in Greenland and the Maldives affected by climate changes and in particular the ice caps melting. Siwan Davies is an advocate for promoting women in STEM, speaking at events like soapbox science in Swansea, 2014..
She is a founding committee member of Swansea Science Grll and SwanStemWomen. Fogwill C, Turney C, Golledge N, Etheridge D, Rubino M, Thornton D, Baker A, Woodward J, Winter K, Van Ommen T, Moy A, Curran M, Davies S, Weber M, Bird M, Munksgaard N, Menviel L, Rootes C, Ellis B, et al.. "Antarctic ice sheet discharge driven by atmosphere-ocean feedbacks at the Last Glacial Termination". Scientific Reports. 7: 39979. Doi:10.1038/srep39979. Jones G, Davies S, Farr G, Bevan J. "Identification of the Askja-S Tephra in a rare turlough record from Pant-y-Llyn, south Wales". Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 128: 523-530. Doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2017.05.010. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Jones G, Lane C, Brauer A, Davies S, de Bruijn R, Engels S, Haliuc A, Hoek W, Merkt J, Sachse D, Turner F, Wagner-Cremer F. "The Lateglacial to early Holocene tephrochronological record from Lake Hämelsee, Germany: a key site within the European tephra framework". Boreas. 47: 28–40. Doi:10.1111/bor.12250. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk.
Smedley R, Scourse J, Small D, Hiemstra J, Duller G, Bateman M, Burke M, Chiverrell R, Clark C, Davies S, Fabel D, Gheorghiu D, Mccarroll D, Medialdea A, Xu S. "New age constraints for the limit of the British-Irish Ice Sheet on the Isles of Scilly". Journal of Quaternary Science. 32: 48-62. Doi:10.1002/jqs.2922. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Abbott P, Bourne A, Purcell C, Davies S, Scourse J, Pearce N. "Last glacial period cryptotephra deposits in an eastern North Atlantic marine sequence: Exploring linkages to the Greenland ice-cores". Quaternary Geochronology. 31: 62-76. Doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2015.11.001. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Bourne A, Abbott P, Albert P, Cook E, Pearce N, Ponomareva V, Svensson A, Davies S. "Underestimated risks of recurrent long-range ash dispersal from northern Pacific Arc volcanoes". Scientific Reports. 6: 29837. Doi:10.1038/srep29837. Holmes N, Langdon P, Caseldine C, Wastegard S, Leng M, Croudace I, Davies S. "Climatic variability during the last millennium in Western Iceland from lake sediment records".
The Holocene. 26: 756-771. Doi:10.1177/0959683615618260. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Macleod A, Davies S. "Caution in cryptotephra correlation: resolving Lateglacial chemical controversies at Sluggan Bog, Northern Ireland". Journal of Quaternary Science. 31: 406-415. Doi:10.1002/jqs.2858. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Zawalna-Geer A, Lindsay J, Davies S, Augustinus P, Davies S. "Extracting a primary Holocene crytoptephra record from Pupuke maar sediments, New Zealand". Journal of Quaternary Science. 31: 442-457. Doi:10.1002/jqs.2866. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Bourne A, Cook E, Abbott P, Seierstad I, Steffensen J, Svensson A, Fischer H, Schüpbach S, Davies S. "A tephra lattice for Greenland and a reconstruction of volcanic events spanning 25–45 ka b2k". Quaternary Science Reviews. 118: 122-141. Doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.07.017. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Davies S. "Cryptotephras: the revolution in correlation and precision dating". Journal of Quaternary Science.
30: 114-130. Doi:10.1002/jqs.2766. PMC 4959123. PMID 27512240. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Griggs A, Davies S, Abbott P, Coleman M, Palmer A, Rasmussen T, Johnston R. "Visualizing tephra deposits and sedimentary processes in the marine environment: The potential of X-ray microtomography". Geochemistry, Geosystems. 16: 4329–4343. Doi:10.1002/2015GC006073. PMC 4951705. PMID 27478414. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via swan.ac.uk. Ponomareva V, Portnyagin M, Davies S. "Te
K47DF-D, virtual channel 47, branded on-air as "KAJA", is a low-powered Telemundo-affiliated television station licensed to Corpus Christi, United States. Owned by the E. W. Scripps Company, it is sister to NBC affiliate KRIS-TV and low-power independent station K22JA-D; the four stations share studios on Artesian Street in Downtown Corpus Christi. The station is simulcast in high definition on KZTV's second digital subchannel to increase its broadcasting radius. On cable, K47DF-D is available on Charter Spectrum channel 16. From December 13, 2011 to May 2012, then-owner Cordillera Communications and the cable company were under a dispute regarding carriage fees, leaving TWC's Corpus Christi area customers without Telemundo, it carried programming from the Telemundo network. As of September 26, 2010, it carried programming from Azteca América. However, on September 30 it flipped back to Telemundo. K68DJ had applied to the Federal Communications Commission for permission to move to UHF channel 43.
As a low-power station, K68DJ was not required to broadcast digitally. On February 20, 2013, the FCC cancelled the station's license, citing operating on an out-of-core channel; as a result of this notice KAJA had ceased transmissions on K68DJ on January 2013 and went digital on a new channel with new call letters of K22JA-D. In 2014, K22JA-D became the digital companion channel for K47DF as K47DF-D. KAJA can now be seen on K47DF-D 47.1 in 720p. K22JA-D had an analog repeater, K38EB in Kingsville, but due to arrival of KUQI on UHF 38, the repeater in Kingsville can now be seen on K49DV in Beeville. Official website Query the FCC's TV station database for K47DF Query the FCC's TV station database for K20EK Query the FCC's TV station database for K30EG Query the FCC's TV station database for K48LL-D Query the FCC's TV station database for K49DV
Witold Czesław Spirydowicz is a Polish civil servant and diplomat, serving as an ambassador to Morocco and Algeria. Witold Spirydowicz has graduated from Law Faculty at the University of Warsaw, he was member of the Independent Students' Union at that time. He has gained postgraduate diplomas at the Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, UW, Centre Européen Universitaire de Nancy and Diplomatic Academy – Polytechnic School of Central London. In 1992 he defended his Ph. D. thesis on criminology. Besides Polish, he speaks English, French and Italian languages. Between 1984 and 1990 he has been working for the Institute of Justice of Warsaw, the Institute for Juvenile Research. In September 1990 he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Firstly, he was head of section at the Consular Department. Following working on a post at the embassy in Vienna, in 1993, he became First Secretary at the embassy in Bonn. In 1997 he returned to the MFA headquarter. Between 2000 and 2004 he was Consul-General in Montreal.
For the next two years he has been at the Treaty Department. From 2006 to 2008 he was director of the department at the Office for War Veterans and Victims of Oppression. In January 2008 he returned to the MFA as a deputy director of the Director General's Office; the same year, in September, he became the director of the MFA Bureau of Audit. Between 2006 and 2007 he back at the Permanent Representation to the EU, this time as chargé d’affaires. For the next year he was the MFA director general. Between 2010 and 2015 he was Poland ambassador to Morocco. In 2016 he was invitited by the president Andrzej Duda to the National Development Council. On 7 June 2016 he was nominated an ambassador to Algeria. Next month, he began his term, he is married, with daughter Aldona. Pro Memoria Medal Officer of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite Translations Hans Joachim Schneider, Zysk z przestępstwa: środki masowego przekazu a zjawiska kryminalne, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 1992, ISBN 83-01-10602-6