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An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid, exposing the cornea to the outside, giving vision; this can be either voluntarily or involuntarily. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration. "Palpebral" means relating to the eyelids. Its key function is to spread the tears and other secretions on the eye surface to keep it moist, since the cornea must be continuously moist, they keep the eyes from drying out when asleep. Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies; the appearance of the human upper eyelid varies between different populations. The prevalence of an epicanthic fold covering the inner corner of the eye may reach up to 90% in East Asian and Southeast Asian populations and is found in varying degrees in others. Separately, but similarly varying between populations, the crease of the remainder of the eyelid may form either a "single eyelid", a "double eyelid", or an intermediate form.

Eyelids can be found in other animals, some of which may have a third eyelid, or nictitating membrane. A vestige of this in humans survives; the eyelid is made up of several layers. The meibomian glands lie within the secrete the lipid part of the tear film; the skin is similar to areas elsewhere, but is thin and has more pigment cells. In diseased persons these may cause a discoloration of the lids, it contains sweat glands and hairs, the latter becoming eyelashes as the border of the eyelid is met. The skin of the eyelid contains the greatest concentration of sebaceous glands found anywhere in the body. In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; the skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve. In humans, the eyelids are supplied with blood by two arches on lower lid.

The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris. Any condition that affects the eyelid is called eyelid disorder; the most common eyelid disorders, their causes and treatments are the following: Hordeolum is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, similar to the more common condition Acne vulgaris. It is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms and it appears similar to a red bump placed underneath the eyelid; the main symptoms of styes include redness of the eyelid and sometimes swollen eyelids. Styes disappear within a week without treatment. Otherwise, antibiotics may be prescribed and home remedies such as warm water compresses may be used to promote faster healing.

Styes are harmless and do not cause long lasting damage. Chalazion is caused by the obstruction of the oil glands and can occur in both upper and lower eyelids. Chalazia may be mistaken for styes due to the similar symptoms; this condition is however less painful and it tends to be chronic. Chalazia heal within a few months if treatment is administered and otherwise they can resorb within two years. Chalazia that do not respond to topical medication are treated with surgery as a last resort. Blepharitis is the irritation of the lid margin; this is a common condition that causes inflammation of the eyelids and, quite difficult to manage because it tends to recur. This condition is caused by staphylococcus infection and scalp dandruff. Blepharitis symptoms include burning sensation, the feeling that there is something in the eye, excessive tearing, blurred vision, redness of the eye, light sensitivity and swollen eyelids, dry eye and sometimes crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment consists in maintaining a good hygiene of the eye and holding warm compresses on the affected eyelid to remove the crusts.

Scrubbing the eyelid with the warm compress is recommended as it eases the healing process. In more serious cases, antibiotics may be prescribed. Demodex mites are a genus of tiny mites that live as commensals in and around the hair follicles of numerous mammals including humans and dogs. Human demodex mites live in the follicles of the eyebrows and eyelashes. While harmless, human demodex mites can sometimes cause irritation of the skin in persons with weakened immune systems. Entropion results from aging, but sometimes can be due to a congenital defect, a spastic eyelid muscle, or a scar on the inside of the lid that could be from surgery, injury, or disease, it is an asymptomatic condition that can lead to trichiasis, which requires surgery. It affects the lower lid, is characterized by the turning inward of the lid, toward the globe. Ectropion is another aging-related eyelid condition that may lead to chronic eye irritation and scarring, it may be the result of allergies and its main symptoms are pain, excessive tearing and hardening of the eyelid conjunctiva.

Laxity is another aging-related eyelid condition that

Kathryn Hunt (archaeologist)

Kathryn Hunt is an American archaeologist and paleopathologist specializing in paleo-oncology, the multidisciplinary study of cancer in human history. Hunt grew up in Alaska, she studied anthropology and classical studies at the Pacific Lutheran University, graduating in 2011. She obtained a Master's of Science in paleopathology from Durham University. Hunt's fascination with archaeology dates back to her childhood in Alaska, where she never missed an episode of National Geographic. Kathryn studied archaeology during her time at PLU. Here, she became interested in Egyptology, which inspired her to sign up on a whim for a dig in Egypt along the Nile Delta. While participating in this dig, she was able to excavate remains of Egyptian royalty from areas surrounding the Valley of the Kings. In 2009, aged 22, Hunt was diagnosed with a aggressive form of ovarian cancer; this occurred during her junior year at PLU. Around the same time as her diagnosis, Hunt's aunt passed away from ovarian cancer. Before she passed away, Kathryn's aunt reminded her "my cancer is not your cancer", inspiring her to continue to fight her own battle with her cancer, although her aunt had lost hers.

She entered remission after over 2 months of chemotherapy and surgery to remove more than 20 benign tumors from her abdomen. Just 2 months after this, Hunt returned to classes embarking on a trip to return to the Valley of the Kings shortly after; this experience moved Hunt towards researching the global history of cancer. Since beginning her studies and colleagues have documented 272 cases of ancient cancer in the Cancer Research in Ancient Bodies Database. Researchers had suggested that cancer was a modern day illness that did not affect people in historical times. However, through the field of paleo-oncology, research has shown that the first case of cancer documented in humans occurred 1.5 million years ago. By researching ancient texts, Hunt has found sources referencing to cancer as an illness by ancient Egyptians, she has found records of ancient cancer treatments such as pharmacopoeia, surgery and fasting. These texts listed many different plants used as a remedy to cancer, including spurge, similar to a castor bean, Ecballium elaterium,also known as the squirting cucumber.

Finding textual evidence of cancer inspired Hunt to pursue physical evidence of cancer. She began studying bones as the primary method for identifying cancer. There are lesions present on the bones from the cancer metastasizing from other regions of the body. After abnormalities in the bone are recognized by researchers, further analysis can be done to understand more about the lesions; this can be done through radiographs. Aside from her achievements within the field, Hunt has been a vocal advocate for the expansion of the field itself, generating both awareness and interest for the new subject of paleo-oncology. Many scientists in the field of bio-archaeology tend to focus research on things such as infectious diseases and other frequent public health indicators. Paleo-Oncology is a diverse field, requiring help from scientists of all specialties, including evolutionary biologists, geneticists and many more. Part of Hunt's purpose for studying ancient cancer is to help the scientific community to better understand the history of various forms of the disease, including unknown causes and treatments.

Hunt has conducted studies all around the world, including the time she spent conducting archaeological excavation and research in Egypt's Valley of Kings, Israel's Jezreel Valley, with Transylvania Bioarchaeology. Hunt's ultimate goal is to establish a standard methodology for diagnosis of cancer in bones. In order to do this, Hunt along with help from Jennifer Willoughby, Casey Kirkpatrick, Roselyn Campbell, launched an organization called the Ancient Cancer Foundation. One of Hunt's ultimate goals is to help build a foundation for which paleo-oncological research can progress—based in methodological discussion, multidisciplinary collaboration, open access to information. Hunt co-founded the Paleo-Oncology Research Organization in 2012 with colleagues Casey Kirkpatrick, Roselyn Campbell, Jennifer Willoughby, which becoming a subsidiary of the Ancient Cancer Foundation; the organization is a multidisciplinary institution that facilitates research into the global history of cancer and open circulation of that information to the researchers as well as the public.

Paleo-oncological research has been growing and requires the contributions of historians and scientists alike to further the world's understanding of cancer's historical development. The Paleo-Oncology Research Organization is working to list evidence of cancer in an online database to aid future paleo-oncologists in diagnosis of cancer in bones, it is the hope of Hunt and her fellow researchers that this database will aid present and future scientists in their studies on how cancer has changed and evolved through time. This research will be aided by developments and advances in DNA analysis. Kathryn Hunt holds the position of human osteologist on the Jezreel Valley Research Project, she is an assistant director of the Jucu de Sus Necropolis excavation and field school which she works with alongside Transylvania Bioarchaeology. Hunt is a co-founder and creative director of the Paleo-Oncology Research Organization. Excavations that Hunt has participated in during her career include an archaeological excavation for Penn State's Mendes Expedition and an excavation for PLU Valley of the Kin

2020 Labour Party leadership election (Ireland)

The 2020 Labour Party leadership election is a forthcoming leadership election within Ireland's Labour Party, triggered when Brendan Howlin announced his intention to relinquish the role of leader. Howlin took the decision to step down as Labour leader on 12 February 2020, in the aftermath of the party's poor showing at the 2020 general election. Brendan Howlin was elected unopposed as Labour Party leader in a 2016 leadership election. While Labour had a modest gain of six seats in the 2019 local elections, it lost one seat in the 2020 general election, resulting in the party having its lowest number of seats in Dáil Éireann with just six TDs elected. Howlin subsequently announced that he would resign as Labour leader stating that it had been "an honour" to lead the party but feels it is time to step down; the Labour Party Executive Board met in the Gresham Hotel in Dublin on 15 February to agree on the rules for the contest. Only party TDs are eligible for the post of leader, candidates must be nominated by either two TDs or five constituency councils.

All members of the party have a vote. Postal ballot papers will be sent to Labour members on 15 March and the closing date for returning votes will be midday on 3 April; the party expects between 5,000 people to be eligible to vote. A voter must be a paid-up member for 21 days before polling day - meaning the last day they can sign up is 13 March; the following individuals were discussed in the media as potential leadership candidates, but chose not to stand: Seán Sherlock, TD for Cork East, former Minister of State Ged Nash, TD for Louth, former Minister of State

Minister of Health (New Zealand)

The Minister of Health styled Minister of Public Health, is a minister in the government of New Zealand with responsibility for the New Zealand Ministry of Health and the District Health Boards. The present Minister is a member of the Labour Party; the first Minister of Public Health was appointed during the premiership of Richard Seddon. The word "Public" was dropped from the title when Sir Māui Pōmare took over the portfolio from 27 June 1923, as "Minister of Health". In the health system reforms of the 1980s, the Department of Health lost responsibility for both the provision and funding of healthcare — these roles were transferred to separate Crown Health Enterprises and the Health Funding Authority, respectively; the only function remaining was policy-making. For a time, there was a separate Minister in Charge of Crown Health Enterprises, not the same as the Minister of Health. Further reforms have changed this, however — the Health Funding Authority has been re-absorbed into the Ministry of Health, the modern District Health Boards, while not part of the Ministry, are considered a responsibility of the Minister of Health.

Key Liberal Reform United Labour National New Zealand Ministry of Health

Sunil Gaikwad

Sunil Baliram Gaikwad is an Indian politician from Latur in the Maharashtra state who belongs to the Bharatiya Janata Party. He combines the roles of proprietor and publisher of Vatsala Baliram Prakashan Kendra's daily newspapers Dainik Suputra, Dainik Lokshasan, Dainik Lokaprabodhan and monthly magazine Anusadhya, he lost the Latur Lok Sabha seat by around 7000 votes in 2009. He won 2014 Lok Sabha elections from Latur as BJP/NDA candidate, he had completed Doctorate PhD Bamu Aurangabad from in the Year 2015He worked for the welfare of people belonging to Dalit Community and strived to ensure social justice and employment for the people belonging to Tribal and Backward Classes. He is associated with Film Production and acted in Marathi film Manoos and Padadya Maagcha Rajkaran. India Bangal Desh coordination Committee international Buddhist peace award winner 2015 at Bangala Desh dr gaikwad is third Indian who got this award before this mother Teresa and Apj abdulkalam got this. May, 2014: Elected to 16th Lok Sabha 1 Sep. 2014 onwards: Member, Standing Committee on Information Technology.

Member parliamentary standing Committee on official language under home Ministry Govt of India. Member - consultative rural development Ministry Govt of India,Hindi salahagar samiti- Dopt Ministry and Fertilizer Ministry and finance ministry,Petroliam ministry


Tobarra is a municipality in the province of Albacete in Spain, with a population of c. 8,000 as of 2009. The area is famous for its "Moniquí" variety of apricots, its drum processions and its Holy Week observances, declared by the government to be of National Tourist Interest, it has a "Dolorosa" sculpture by Francisco Salzillo and an articulated statue of Jesus that gives the blessing on Good Friday on a local hilltop designated Mount Calvary, before a congregation numbering some 30,000. After the trumpet sounds, the drums are silenced and the "Mektub" theme is sounded, while the Christ statue makes a gesture of blessing towards the four cardinal points. Other important events of the Tobarran Easter observances are the Descent from Paso Gordo from the Hermitage of the Incarnation on the afternoon of Good Thursday, the "Cierre del Tambor" at midnight on Easter Sunday; the settlement of Tobarra is ancient: prehistoric tools and spears have been found at its boundaries, the Santa Ana valley contains Iberian graves.

The origin of the name Tobarra is Arabic from the word "Tabarrah". Tobarra was inhabited before the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, as shown by the fact that the Via Romana which connected Complutum with Carthago Nova was diverted several kilometres to pass through Tobarra, afterward continued on its way to Illunum. During the Visigoth era a hermitage was carved out of the rock, a short distance from the current city centre, beside a quarry, used from Roman times until well into the 17th century. In the Muslim era a castle and a mosque were built, as well as an extensive irrigation network; some of the original wells from the Andalusian era still continue to supply water to an area that was, for many years, the most important orchard of Albacete. In 1243 the area of Alcaraz was reconquered by "Infante Alfonso", although it soon regained its independence. Ferdinand IV of Castile granted the city a franchise that would be confirmed by the successive kings and nobles of Tobarra until the era of the Catholic Monarchs.

In 1324 an expedition of Nasri Moors devastated Tobarra and took part of its enslaved population to Granada, which at that time had fallen under the influence of the powerful Señorío de Villena, who would soon become Marquess. In 1476 it was definitively joined to the Spanish crown. On Easter Sunday 1766, Tobarra became the second place in Spain, after Madrid, to rise up against food shortages, in the Esquilache Riots.. In 1812 the French troops under General Soult burned the town in their retreat from Murcia. Tobarra had to begin again from zero. In the 20th century, the destruction that occurred in Spanish Civil War did away with much of the local cultural inheritance, with the exception of the head of the "Ecce Homo" image and the "Virgen de los Dolores" sculpture by Francisco Salzillo. Around 1950, Tobarra reached its peak population of nearly 14,000. Since the desarrollista policy of the Franco government turned growth toward the east, to the provincial capitals, leaving Tobarra to create its own economic growth.

Among its places of interest, the area includes: the museum of the Drum and Holy Week, located at the 17th-century Hermitage of the Virgin the Monument to the Drum: "La Evolución" by local sculptor Jesús D. Jiménez Ramírez the church of Our Lady of the Ascension Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, built between 1546 and 1616 the sanctuary of Christ of Antiquity and the Virgin of the Incarnation, Santuario del Cristo de la Antigua y Virgen de la Encarnación, recognised as a historical and artistic national monument since 1981, with a caissoned ceiling, a dressing room with 18th-century painted murals dedicated to the Virgin, other rococo decorations under the cupola where the Christ of Antiquity is located. Next to the Sanctuary are the ruins of a Muslim fortress, from which one can see the tower known as Ojos del Diablo. Other sights include the Town Clock, the Convent of the Franciscan Order of Saint Joseph, the Hispano-Visigoth stone hermitage of Alborajico, the lagoon of Alboraj, the saladares of Cordovilla and the tower of El Castellar in Sierra