Piracy off the coast of Somalia
Piracy off the coast of Somalia refers to criminal violence and threats by Somalian pirates in the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea, in what some say are disputed territorial waters. It had been a threat to international fishing vessels, expanding to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000. Fishing communities responded by forming armed groups to deter the invaders by hijacking commercial vessels, but this grew into a lucrative trade, with large ransom payments, financial gain was the main motive. International organisations began to express concern over the new piracy due to its high cost to global trade and the incentive to profiteer by insurance companies and others; the Somali government has been active in policing the area, though some believe that it wants to collaborate with the pirates as a bulwark against others and to disrupt global trade. An anti-piracy coalition known as Combined Task Force 150 established a Maritime Security Patrol Area in the Gulf of Aden, aided by the Indian Navy and Russian Navy.
By 2010, these patrols were paying off, with a steady drop in the number of incidents. As of November 2017, there were no major hostages remaining in pirate captivity. In 2017, few piracy incidents were reported as the navies of Asian and European nations began to more rescue hijacked ships including the bulk carrier OS 35. In the early 1980s, prior to the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia, the Somali Ministry of Fisheries and the Coastal Development Agency launched a development program focusing on the establishment of agricultural and fishery cooperatives for artisanal fishermen, it received significant foreign investment funds for various fishery development projects, as the Somali fishing industry was considered to have a lot of potential owing to its unexploited marine stocks. The government at this time permitted foreign fishing through official licensing or joint venture agreements, forming two such partnerships in the Iraqi-Somali Siadco and Italian-Somali Somital ventures. After the collapse of the central government in the ensuing civil war, the Somali Navy disbanded.
With Somali territorial waters undefended, foreign fishing trawlers began illegally fishing on the Somali seaboard and ships began dumping industrial and other waste off the Somali coast. This led to erosion of the fish stock and local fishermen started to band together to try to protect their resources. An escalation began, leading to weapons being used and tactics such as taking over a foreign ship until their owners paid a ransom. After seeing the profitability of ransom payments, some financiers and former militiamen began to fund pirate activities, splitting the profits evenly with the pirates. In most of the hijackings, the pirates have not harmed their prisoners. Combined Task Force 150, a multinational coalition task force, subsequently took on the role of fighting piracy off the coast of Somalia by establishing a Maritime Security Patrol Area within the Gulf of Aden. However, many foreign naval vessels chasing pirates were forced to break off when the pirates entered Somali territorial waters.
To address this, in June 2008, following a letter from the Somali Transitional Federal Government to the President of the UN Security Council requesting assistance for the TFG's efforts to tackle acts of piracy off the coast of Somalia, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a declaration authorizing nations that have the consent of the Transitional Federal Government to enter Somali territorial waters to deal with pirates. On the advice of lawyers, the Royal Navy and other international naval forces have released suspected pirates that they have captured because, although the men are armed, they have not been caught engaging in acts of piracy and have thus not technically committed a crime. Due to improved anti-piracy measures the success of piracy acts on sea decreased by the end of 2011 with only four vessels hijacked in the last quarter versus 17 in the last quarter of the preceding year. In response, pirates resorted to increased hostage taking on land; the government of the autonomous Puntland region has made progress in combating piracy, evident in interventions by its maritime police force.
In part to further curtail piracy activity, the London Somalia Conference was convened in February 2012. According to the International Maritime Bureau, pirate attacks in the Indian Ocean had by October 2012 dropped to a six-year low. Attempted hijackings fell from 237 in 2011 to 75 the following year, with successful attacks plummeting from 28 in 2011 to 14 in 2012. Additionally, only 1 ship was attacked in the third quarter of 2012 compared to 36 during the same period in 2011. Somali pirates have attacked hundreds of vessels in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean region, though most attacks do not result in a successful hijacking. In 2008, there were 111 attacks. However, this is only a fraction of the up to 30,000 merchant vessels; the rate of attacks in January and February 2009 was about 10 times higher than during the same period in 2008 and "there have been daily attacks in March", with 79 attacks, 21 successful, by mid-April. Most of these attacks occurred in the Gulf of Aden but subsequently the pirates increased their range and started attacking ships as far south as off the coast of Kenya in the Indian Ocean.
Below are some notable pirate events which have garnered significant media coverage since 2007. On 28 May 2007, a Chinese sailor was killed by the pirates because the ship's owners failed to meet their ransom demand. On 5 October 2008, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1838 calling on nations with vessels in the area to appl
Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar known as Abdihakin Abdullahi Omar Amey, is a Somali politician. He is the Vice President of Puntland. Omar hails from Buuhoodle in the northeastern Cayn region of Somalia. Omar is a newcomer to politics. In 2013-2014, he ran for Vice President of the autonomous Puntland state in northeastern Somalia during the region's 2014 elections, he was declared the winner on 8 January 2014Omar made his first official trip as Puntland Vice President on 17 January 2014, when he visited Galkayo in the north-central Mudug province. Accompanied by state government officials and elders, the delegation was welcomed at a public gathering at the Abdullahi Yusuf International Airport by the provincial authorities, representatives of women's groups, local elders. Omar is scheduled to visit Kismayo in the southern Lower Juba province. On 25 January 2014, Puntland Vice President Omar and President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali were inaugurated into office at a ceremony at the state capital Garowe.
The event was attended by a number of dignitaries, including former Puntland Presidents Abdirahman Mohamud Farole and Mohamud Muse Hersi, Jubaland President Ahmed Mohamed Islam, Galmudug President Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid, former Prime Minister of Somalia Ali Mohammed Ghedi, federal MPs, ambassadors from Djibouti and Turkey, UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay, members of the Somali expatriate community and Puntland public, US, AU and IGAD representatives. On 1 March 2014, Vice President Omar helped launch a mass vaccination campaign in Puntland for children under the age of five; the initiative was inaugurated at an official function in Garowe attended by Omar, Health Minister Dr. Sadik Enow, WHO officials and local parents. According to Health Ministry Director-General Dr. Abdirizak Hirsi Hassan, the campaign will see 270,000 children and mothers in the region immunized against measles and seven other terminal diseases, it is scheduled to last five days, during which 4,000 vaccinators will conduct door-to-door medical and vaccine exercises across Puntland's constituent provinces.
Omar concluded the launching ceremony by administering the first vaccination drops, pledged to ameliorate the region's health sector. In May 2014, Vice President Omar led a Puntland delegation on a two-day visit to the coastal town of Eyl; the officials were received by the Puntland Deputy Minister of Public Works and Housing Abdirahman Dijana and the Governor of the Nugal region Abdiqani Hashi Ali, with a mandate to strengthen the town's social services. To this end, Dijana announced that Omar is slated to inaugurate a newly completed 27 km paved road between Eyl and adjacent hamlets. Governor Ali indicated that Omar would concurrently hold meetings with local community and traditional leaders. In June 2014, Puntland Vice President Omar participated in a well-organized event in Garowe marking World Environment Day, he concurrently reaffirmed the Puntland government's commitment to eradicating deforestation. Additionally, Puntland's Minister of Environment and Tourism Guled Salah Barre urged local residents to work toward afforestation and emphasized the importance of collective efforts against environmental degradation.
He announced the launching of a new regional tree-planting campaign in Puntland, during which his ministry is slated to plant 25,000 trees by the end of the year. Among the seven cities and towns earmarked for the reforestation initiative are Garowe, Qardho, Dhahar and Galkayo; the campaign is part of a broader partnership between the Puntland government and EU to set up various environmental protection measures in the region, with the aim of promoting reforestation and afforestation. In October 2014, Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed led a federal government delegation to the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia; the delegates included Second Speaker of the Federal Parliament Mahad Abdalle Awad and Minister of Education Ahmed Mohamed Gurase, among other Cabinet members. They were received at the Garowe International Airport by senior Puntland leaders, including President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Vice President Omar, subsequently attended a well-organized welcoming ceremony at the Puntland presidential palace in Garowe alongside various members of the international community.
Ahmed subsequently co-chaired a reconciliation conference in the city between the visiting federal officials and Puntland representatives led by President Ali. The three-day meeting concluded with a 12-point agreement between the stakeholders, with UN envoy to Somalia Ambassador Nicholas Kay, EU Ambassador Michele Cervone d'Urso, IGAD representative Mohamed Abdi Afey, Ethiopian Consul General Asmalash Woldamirat serving as witnesses. According to federal Minister of Culture and Higher Education Duale Adan Mohamed, the pact stipulates that the recent tripartite agreement between Galmudug and Himan and Heeb establishing a new central regional state within Somalia only applies to the Galguduud and south Mudug provinces. In keeping with a 2013 pact signed by former Prime Minister of Somalia Abdi Farah Shirdon and former Puntland President Abdirahman Mohamed Farole, the Garowe bilateral agreement states that the Federal and Puntland authorities will work together to form a united and inclusive national army.
Additionally, parliamentary committees consisting of Federal and Puntland representatives are mandated with ensuring equitable distribution of foreign assistance and overseeing eventual talks pertaining to the Provisional Constitution. Ambassador Kay welcomed the agreement and urged both parties to work for the public interest, IGAD representative Afey hailed t
Bandar Siyada known as Qaw, is a populated place in the northeastern Bari region of Somalia. Bandar Siyada is situated in the Bosaso District of the autonomous Puntland region; the town was founded by the Wabeeneeye subclan of the Majeerteen. It hosts the main base of the Puntland Maritime Police Force. In September 2013, Puntland Minister of Fisheries Mohamed Farah Adan announced that the Puntland government plans to open two new maritime training schools in Qaw and Eyl, another northeastern coastal town; the institutes are intended to buttress the regional fisheries industry and enhance the skill set of the Ministry's personnel and local fishermen. Bender Siyaada, Somalia Bender Siyaada toponyms'Zoomable' satellite pictures of Bandar Siyada: here and here
Puntland the Puntland State of Somalia, is a region in northeastern Somalia. Centred on the town of Garoowe in the Nugal province, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998 but is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Guardafui Channel in the northeast, the Somali Sea in the southeast, the central Galmudug region in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest. There are several major geographical apexes in Puntland, including the Cape Guardafui which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa, Ras Hafun the easternmost place on the entire African continent, the beginning of the karkaar mountain range, it has the northernmost major city in Somalia, located at a line of latitude higher than 11° north. The name "Puntland" is derived from the Land of Punt mentioned in ancient Egyptian sources, although the exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in present-day Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.
The Warsangali Sultanate was an imperial ruling house centred in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast; the Sultanate was founded in the 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin. In the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years; the Majeerteen Sultanate was founded in the mid-18th century. It rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor Osman Mahamuud. Centred in Aluula, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the polity maintained a robust trading network, entered into treaties with foreign powers, exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the mid-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor Osman and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid. After five years of battle, the young upstart was forced into exile in Yemen. A decade in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to overpower the local clans and establish the Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878. In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his realm an Italian protectorate, his rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate the year before. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Boqor Osman looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Kenadid over the Majeerteen Sultanate. Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.
With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of European colonial rule, all three sultanates were annexed to Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland in the early 20th century. The local commercial hub of Bosaso was represented in the parliament of the succeeding Trust Territory of Somaliland by the MPs Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman and Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf. Much of the northern sultanates' former domain is today co-extensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in Garoowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders, members of the business community and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, interact with domestic and international partners. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed served as the fledgling state's founding president.
As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region adheres to a federal system of government. Unlike the secessionist region of Somaliland to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. However, both regions have one thing in common: they base their support upon clan elders and their organizational structure along lines based on clan relationships and kinship. Since 1998, Puntland has been in territorial disputes with Somaliland over the Sool and Sanaag regions; the legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary and the executive branches of government. Though peaceful, the region experienced political unrest in 2001 when President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, wanted his term extended. Ahmed and Jama Ali Jama fought for control of the region, with Ahmed emerging victorious the following year.
Ahmed served his second term as president until October 2004, when he was elected President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Hashi, who se