Great Australian Bight
The Great Australian Bight is a large oceanic bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia. Two definitions of the extent are in use – one used by the International Hydrographic Organization, the IHO defines the Great Australian Bight as having the following limits, On the North. The south coast of the Australian mainland, a line joining West Cape Howe Australia to South West Cape, Tasmania. A line from Cape Otway, Victoria to King Island and thence to Cape Grim, the AHS defines the bight with a smaller area, from Cape Pasley, Western Australia, to Cape Carnot, South Australia - a distance of 1,160 kilometres. Much of the bight lies due south of the expansive Nullarbor Plain, the Eyre Highway passes close to the cliffs of the bight between the Head of the Bight and Eucla. Outside of Australia, the Great Australian Bight is generally considered part of the Indian Ocean, the AHS considers it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition used for this ocean.
The IHO in its Limits of Oceans and Seas includes the bight with the Indian Ocean, while Bass Strait, in the 1953 edition, IHO includes Bass Strait as part of the Indian Ocean. The Great Australian Bight was first encountered by European explorers in 1627 when a Dutch navigator François Thijssen sailed along its western margins, the coast was first accurately charted by the English navigator Matthew Flinders in 1802, during his circumnavigation of the Australian continent. A land-based survey was accomplished by the English explorer Edward John Eyre, the bight came into existence when Gondwana broke apart and separated Antarctica from Australia around 50 million years ago. The coastline of the Great Australian Bight is characterised by cliff faces, surfing beaches and rock platforms and this is a popular activity during the southern hemisphere winter, when increasing numbers of southern right whales migrate to the region from their summer feeding grounds in the Antarctic. The whales come to the Bight region, especially to the Head of Bight, to calve and breed and their numbers were severely depleted by whaling, particularly during the 19th Century, but have since recovered to some extent.
The Nullarbor Plain, which much of the length of the Bights coastline, is a former seabed, uplifted during the Miocene. Consisting of limestone, it is flat, and has an arid or semi-arid climate with very little rainfall. It has no drainage, but has a karst drainage system through cave formation in the underlying limestone. North of the Nullarbor lies the Great Victoria Desert, which has a drainage system terminating in numerous small salt lakes. The waters of the Great Australian Bight are highly biodiverse, particularly in zooplankton and these patches contain elevated nutrient concentrations and support enhanced levels of primary productivity. High densities of zooplankton to the northwest of the patches indicate that the prevailing southeasterly winds transport the products of this enhanced biological production into the central GAB and these plankton communities support the highest densities of small planktivorous fishes, including sardine and anchovy, in Australian waters. Juvenile southern bluefin tuna migrate into the GAB annually to feed on these rich pelagic resources, as the nutrients are swept up from the deep water ocean floor and pushed in towards the coast, the food chain is injected with a massive influx of the bottom rung
Oyster farming is an aquaculture practice in which oysters are raised for human consumption. Oyster farming was practiced by the ancient Romans as early as the 1st century BC on the Italian peninsula, the French oyster industry has relied on aquacultured oysters since the late 18th century. Oyster farming was practiced by the ancient Romans as early as the 1st century BC on the Italian peninsula, with the Barbarian invasions the oyster farming in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic came to an end. In 1852 Monsieur de Bon started to re-seed the oyster beds by collecting the oyster spawn using makeshift catchers, an important step to the modern oyster farming was the oyster farm built by Hyacinthe Boeuf in the Ile de Ré. After obtaining the rights to a part of the coast he built a wall to make a reservoir, some time the wall was covered with spat coming spontaneously from the sea which gave 2000 baby oysters per square metre. Oysters naturally grow in estuarine bodies of brackish water, when farmed, the temperature and salinity of the water are controlled, so as to induce spawning and fertilization, as well as to speed the rate of maturation – which can take several years.
Three methods of cultivation are commonly used, in each case oysters are cultivated to the size of spat, the point at which they attach themselves to a substrate. The substrate is known as a cultch, the loose spat may be allowed to mature further to form seed oysters with small shells. In either case, they are set out to mature. The maturation technique is where the cultivation method choice is made, in one method the spat or seed oysters are distributed over existing oyster beds and left to mature naturally. Such oysters will be collected using the methods for fishing wild oysters, in the second method the spat or seed may be put in racks, bags, or cages which are held above the bottom. The latter method may avoid losses to predators, but is more expensive. In the third method the spat or seed are placed in a cultch within an artificial maturation tank, the maturation tank may be fed with water that has been especially prepared for the purpose of accelerating the growth rate of the oysters.
In particular the temperature and salinity of the water may be altered somewhat from nearby ocean water, the carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite in the water may help oysters develop their shells faster and may be included in the water processing prior to introduction to the tanks. This latter cultivation technique may be the least susceptible to predators and poaching, the Pacific oyster C. gigas is the species most commonly used with this type of farming. During the nineteenth century in the United States, various shallow draft sailboat designs were developed for oystering in Chesapeake Bay and these included the bugeye, log canoe, pungy and skipjack. During the 1880s, a called the Chesapeake Bay deadrise was developed. Since 1977, several boat builders in Brittany have built specialized amphibious vehicles for use in the areas mussel, the boats are made of aluminium, are relatively flat-bottomed, and have three, four, or six wheels, depending on the size of the boat
Edward John Eyre
Edward John Eyre was an English land explorer of the Australian continent, colonial administrator, and a controversial Governor of Jamaica. Eyre was born in Whipsnade, shortly before his family moved to Hornsea and his parents were Rev. Anthony William Eyre and Sarah. After completing grammar school at Louth and Sedbergh, he moved to Sydney rather than join the army or go to university. He gained experience in the new land by boarding with and forming friendships with prominent gentlemen, when South Australia was founded, Eyre brought 1,000 sheep and 600 cattle overland from Monaro, New South Wales to Adelaide and sold them for a large profit. With this money, Eyre set out to explore the interior of South Australia and he had originally led the expedition with John Baxter and three aborigines. From 1848 to 1853, he served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster Province in New Zealand under Sir George Grey and he married Miss Adelaide Ormond in 1850. She was the sister of the politician John Davies Ormond, from 1854 Eyre was Governor of several Caribbean island colonies.
Up to 439 black peasants were killed in the reprisals, some 600 flogged, general Luke OConnor was directly responsible for those who inflicted excessive punishment. The controlling European element of the Jamaican population — those who had most to lose — regarded him as the hero who had saved Jamaica from disaster and these events created great controversy in Britain, resulting in demands for Eyre to be arrested and tried for murdering Gordon. A rival committee was set up by Thomas Carlyle for the defence and his supporters included John Ruskin, Charles Kingsley, Charles Dickens and Alfred Lord Tennyson. Cases against Lieutenant Brand and Brigadier Abercrombie Nelson were presented to the Central Criminal Court, Eyre resided in Market Drayton, which was outwith the jurisdiction of the court so the indictment failed on that count. Barrister James Fitzjames Stephen travelled to Market Drayton but failed to convince the Justices to endorse his case against Eyre, the Jamaica Committee next asked the Attorney-General to certify the criminal information against Eyre but was rebuffed.
Eyre moved to London so that he might bring matters to a head, the Queens Bench grand jury, upon presentation of the case against Eyre, declined to find a true bill of indictment, and Eyre was freed of criminal pursuit. The case went next to the civil courts, the case was influential in setting a precedent in English and Australian law over the conflict of laws, and choice of law to be applied in international torts cases. He lived out the remainder of his life at Walreddon Manor in the parish of Whitchurch near Tavistock, Devon and he is buried in the Whitchurch churchyard. Eyre Road, Palmerston North thought to be named after him as well as a few streets in Canterbury, New Zealand. Mount Remarkable Water Witch Geoffrey Dutton, The hero as murderer, catherine Hall, Civilising Subjects and Metropoloe in the English Imagination, 1830-1867. Dutton, Geoffrey In search of Edward John Eyre South Melbourne, Macmillan
Nicolas Thomas Baudin was a French explorer, cartographer and hydrographer. Born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré, Baudin joined the merchant navy at the age of 15 and he joined the French navy and served in the Caribbean as an officier bleu during the American War of Independence of 1775-1783. In 1785 Baudin was captain of Caroline, taking Acadian settlers from Nantes to La Nouvelle Orléans, josephine called at the Cape and took Boos on board. Baudin had been reason to hope that he would be given command of the ships of this expedition. Later in 1788 Baudin sailed on a voyage from Trieste to Canton in Jardiniere. From there, he sent Jardiniere under her captain on a fur-trading venture to the north-west coast of America. Baudin made his way to Mauritius, where he purchased a replacement ship, Jardiniere II, Baudin embarked on the Spanish Royal Philippines Company ship, which sailed from Port Louis for Cadiz in August 1790. Because of the condition of the ship, Placeres had to put in at the island of Trinidad in the West Indies.
On its return voyage from Canton, the expedition would call at the Cape of Good Hope to pick up Scholl. A ship, called Jardiniere, was acquired and the botanists Franz Bredemeyer, after delays caused by the outbreak of war between France and Austria, Jardiniere departed from the Spanish port of Málaga on 1 October 1792. From Bombay the expedition proceeded to the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa, the expedition came to an abrupt end in June 1794 when Jardiniere went aground in a storm while attempting to enter Table Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Baudin survived the wreck and made his way to the United States and he managed to send Jardinieres cargo of natural history specimens to the island of Trinidad. Belle Angélique cleared Le Havre on 30 September 1796 for the Canary Islands, the expedition sailed from the Canaries in a replacement vessel and reached Trinidad in April 1797. The British, who had just captured the island from the Spanish in February 1797, Baudin took Fanny to St.
Thomas and St. Croix, and to Puerto Rico, specimens being collected in all three islands. At St Croix, Fanny was replaced by a newly purchased ship, the expedition would have the aim of promoting the economic and commercial interests of France in the regions to be visited. The expedition would require two well-equipped ships, which would carry a team of astronomers and scientific draughtsmen over whom Baudin as commander would have absolute authority. After considering this extensive proposal, the French government decided to proceed with an expedition confined to a survey of western and southern New Holland, in October 1800 Baudin was selected to lead what has become known as the Baudin expedition to map the coast of Australia. He had two ships, Géographe and Naturaliste captained by Hamelin, and a suite of nine zoologists and botanists and he reached Australia in May 1801, and would explore and map the western coast and a part of the little-known southern coast of the continent
Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. The generic formula is written as FeO·nH2O, although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. Limonite is one of the two principal iron ores, the other being hematite, and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE. Limonite is named from the Greek word for meadow, in allusion to its occurrence as bog ore in meadows. In its brown form it is called brown hematite or brown iron ore. In its bright yellow form it is sometimes called lemon rock or yellow iron ore, limonite is relatively dense with a specific gravity varying from 2.7 to 4.3. It varies in colour from a bright yellow to a drab greyish brown. The streak of limonite on a porcelain plate is always brownish. The hardness is variable, but generally in the 4 -5.5 range, although originally defined as a single mineral, limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals, among them goethite, akaganeite and jarosite.
Because of its amorphous nature, and occurrence in hydrated areas limonite often presents as a clay or mudstone, there are limonite pseudomorphs after other minerals such as pyrite. This means that chemical weathering transforms the crystals of pyrite into limonite by hydrating the molecules, limonite pseudomorphs have been formed from other iron oxides and magnetite, from the carbonate siderite and from iron rich silicates such as almandine garnets. It is often the major component in lateritic soils. It is often deposited in run-off streams from mining operations, one of the first uses was as a pigment. The yellow form produced yellow ochre for which Cyprus was famous, roasting the limonite changed it partially to hematite, producing red ochres, burnt umbers and siennas. Bog iron ore and limonite mudstones are mined as a source of iron, Iron caps or gossans of siliceous iron oxide typically form as the result of intensive oxidation of sulfide ore deposits. These gossans were used by prospectors as guides to buried ore, in addition the oxidation of those sulfide deposits which contained gold, often resulted in the concentration of gold in the iron oxide and quartz of the gossans.
Goldbearing limonite gossans were mined in the Shasta County, California mining district. Similar deposits were mined near Rio Tinto in Spain and Mount Morgan in Australia, in the Dahlonega gold belt in Lumpkin County, Georgia gold was mined from limonite-rich lateritic or saprolite soil
Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed for eventual sale of a dairy product. Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial farms are typically one-species enterprises. In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows, other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats and camels. In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative source for human infants. Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years, historically it has been one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms doing only dairy production have emerged, in the 1800s von Thünen argued that there was about a 100 mile radius surrounding a city where such fresh milk supply was economically viable. Centralized dairy farming as we understand it primarily developed around villages and cities, near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town.
The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk in the morning and bring it to market on a wagon, until the late 19th century, the milking of the cow was done by hand. For most herds, milking took place twice a day. Feeding could occur simultaneously with milking in the barn, although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings, such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate, but some are preserved as a historic site for a glimpse into the days gone by. One such instance that is open for this is at Point Reyes National Seashore, dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years. Historically it has one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms doing only dairy production have emerged, the first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail. The early milker device fit on top of a milk pail. Following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank and these were introduced in the early 20th century.
This developed into the Surge hanging milker, prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow, across the cows lower back. The milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap and this innovation allowed the cow to move around naturally during the milking process rather than having to stand perfectly still over a bucket on the floor. The next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline, introduced in the late 20th century and this uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows, with quick-seal entry ports above each cow
Ceduna, South Australia
Ceduna is a town in South Australia located on the shores of Murat Bay on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula. It lies west of the junction of the Flinders and Eyre Highways around 786 km northwest of the capital Adelaide, the port town/suburb of Thevenard lies 3 km to the west on Cape Thevenard. It is in the District Council of Ceduna, the federal Division of Grey, the name Ceduna is a corruption of the local Aboriginal word Chedoona and is said to mean a place to sit down and rest. The town has played an important but minor role in Australias overall development due to it being a fishing port, matthew Flinders on his voyage in the Investigator, anchored in Fowlers Bay on 28 January 1802. He went on to explore the coast and named Denial Bay, Smoky Bay and he was disappointed to find no river and gave the name Denial Bay because they did not find fresh water. French expedition leader Nicolas Baudin discovered Murat Bay after meeting with Flinders, hill reported to Governor Gawler that although the bay was valuable, the hinterland was waterless, thereby stalling European interest.
There was a station on nearby St Peter Island during the 1850s before settlement. They were optimistic about the area and recommended that the necessary surveys be started at once, in 1889 the Government in Adelaide formalised the Far West with survey lines. In June 1901, the town of Ceduna was proclaimed, for many years, locals called the township Murat Bay and it was not until the railways came and called the siding Ceduna in 1915 that locals adopted the name. The Ceduna Jetty was built in 1902, the Tod Water pipeline was officially opened by Mr M McIntosh, Commissioner of Public Works, June 1928. Ceduna was the site of a major satellite telecommunications facility operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission and it was a major employer in the town until made redundant by technological change. It was built in 1969 and by 1984 almost half of Australias International telecommunication traffic passed through Cedunas Earth Station, on 4 December 2002, Ceduna received international attention when the path of totality of a solar eclipse passed directly over the town.
In the 2007/2008 State Budget, Premier Mike Rann announced a commitment of $36 million for Stage 1 of the Ceduna Hospital Redevelopment, in February 2010 Premier Rann opened the worlds largest mineral sands mine operated by Iluka Resources. The $390 million mine is located 200 km North West of Ceduna, the town is the last major settlement before crossing the Nullarbor Plain from east to west. It is set on Murat Bay and the coves, sheltered bays. The foreshore at Ceduna is lined with Norfolk Island pine trees, there is a jetty for walking and small boats. In the 2011 census the Ceduna urban area had a population of 2,289, Ceduna has a number of Indigenous homelands situated within 20–30 minutes of the town. These are groupings of Indigenous families who have chosen to live together, the council area has the highest percentage of Aboriginal people of all local government areas in South Australia, with the population currently standing at 24. 8% of the population
Captain Matthew Flinders RN was an English navigator and cartographer, who was the leader of the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed that Van Diemens Land was an island, in the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France, although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. Flinders health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the publication of his widely praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis. Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, and his wife Susannah, née Ward.
In his own words, he was induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe, initially serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, and in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasleys recommendation, he joined Captain Blighs expedition on HMS Providence and this was Blighs second Breadfruit Voyage following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty. The passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, in honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass discovery of that bay, Flinders never entered Western Port, and passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed the Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799 and he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs, in March 1800, Flinders rejoined the Reliance and set sail for England.
Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland. As a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of the Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, the Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition was the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, due to the scientific nature of the expedition, Flinders was issued with a French passport, despite England and France being at war. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson, however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. This is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks in May 1801. I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, the Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, and that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow. The iron itself is found in the form of magnetite, goethite, limonite or siderite. Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite are known as ore or direct shipping ore. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil. Metallic iron is virtually unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites, although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earths crust, comprising about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more rarely carbonate minerals. Prior to the revolution, most iron was obtained from widely available goethite or bog ore, for example during the American Revolution. Prehistoric societies used laterite as a source of iron ore, much of the iron ore utilized by industrialized societies has been mined from predominantly hematite deposits with grades of around 70% Fe.
These deposits are referred to as direct shipping ores or natural ores. Iron-ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined, there are four main types of iron-ore deposits worked currently, depending on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits. These are magnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits, banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks containing more than 15% iron composed predominantly of thinly bedded iron minerals and silica. Banded iron formations occur exclusively in Precambrian rocks, and are weakly to intensely metamorphosed. Banded iron formations may contain iron in carbonates or silicates, banded iron formations are known as taconite within North America. The mining involves moving tremendous amounts of ore and waste, the waste comes in two forms, non-ore bedrock in the mine, and unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself. The mullock is mined and piled in dumps, and the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings.
Taconite tailings are mostly the mineral quartz, which is chemically inert and this material is stored in large, regulated water settling ponds. The typical magnetite iron-ore concentrate has less than 0. 1% phosphorus, 3–7% silica, currently magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U. S. Direct-shipping iron-ore deposits are exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
Lieutenant-Colonel George Gawler, KH, was the second governor of South Australia, from 17 October 1838 until 15 May 1841. Gawler was the child of Captain Samuel Gawler, captain in the 73rd Regiment of Foot. Gawlers father was killed in battle in Mysore, India in December 1804, the Gawler family historically came from Devon. George Gawler was educated by a tutor, at a school in Cold Bath, two years were spent at the Royal Military College, Great Marlow, where he was a diligent and clever student. In October 1810 Gawler obtained a commission as an ensign in the 52nd Regiment of Foot and he was a member of a storming party at Badajoz, and was wounded and saved from death by a soldier who lost his own life. He was in Spain until 1814, taking part in the advance on Madrid, the regiment returned to England and Gawler, now a lieutenant, fought at the Battle of Waterloo. He remained in France with the army of occupation until 1818, Gawlers new sister-in-law, Mary Ann, married William Leeke, a fellow officer from the 52nd.
Gawler and his wife were sincerely religious and when the 52nd was sent to New Brunswick in 1823 they did much social, Gawler returned to England in 1826 and from 1830 to 1832 was engaged in recruiting. He reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1834 and in 1837 received the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, in 1838 Gawler was appointed governor of South Australia in succession to Captain John Hindmarsh, who had been recalled. Gawler and his wife and children arrived on the Pestonjee Bomanjee on 12 October 1838, after a journey via Tenerife. Gawler found the colony had almost no public finances, underpaid officials and 4000 immigrants living in makeshift accommodation and he was allowed a maximum of £12,000 expenditure a year, with an additional £5,000 credit for emergencies. His first goal was to address delays over rural settlement and primary production, Gawler promptly increased and reorganized the fledgling police force, promoting its commander Henry Inman. Gawler appointed more colonial officials, took part in exploration, the first permanent Government House was built, which is now the East Wing of the present building.
Due to droughts in other Australian colonies in 1840, before South Australia was self-sufficient in food, Gawler increased public expenditure to stave off collapse, which resulted in bankruptcy and changes to the way the colony was run. Over £200,000 had been spent and the fund in London had been exhausted. A £155,000 loan was approved by the British Parliament, in his time in office Governor Gawler had managed to make South Australia self-sufficient in terms of agriculture and had restored public confidence. Gawlers work was long misjudged, largely because his successor Grey, in his dispatches, made the worst of his predecessors acts, without suggesting the difficulties under which he had worked. Gawler was a gallant and energetic officer who, when he found the settlers faced with disaster, saw at once what it was necessary to do, Gawler was recalled, but investigations show him among the founders of South Australia