Gunnar Reiss-Andersen was a Norwegian lyric poet and author. He was born at Larvik in Norway. Reiss-Andersen went to sea at 17 years of age, sailing the Baltic and North Seas for a year in the brig “Baron von Holberg", commanded by his uncle, Knut Knutsen. After completing the Examen artium with emphasis in Latin in 1916 he went into the military, becoming a non-commissioned officer. There he followed his inclination towards painting portraits, he subsequently studied painting in Paris. For several years he worked as an artist and the art reviewer for the Arbeiderbladet newspaper in Oslo. In 1921 he debuted, he participated in the Norwegian resistance movement beginning in 1940 and during the early years of the Second World War, writing clandestinely distributed anti-war poetry to express opposition to the German occupation. In 1942 he was forced to flee to Sweden to avoid arrest by the Gestapo, he achieved a wide following in Norway by serving as one of the voices for the resistance, along with Nordahl Grieg and Arnulf Øverland.
His contributions included several resistance-oriented collections of poetry including a collection written in Norway titled Kampdikt fra Norge 1940-43, published in Stockholm in 1943 and Norsk røst, published in Stockholm in 1944. His poetry written during the war, which had circulated illegally, was published in Norway as a collection in the spring of 1945, enjoyed popularity. During his stay in Sweden, he was exposed to modernistic Swedish poetry and the influence of this genre became obvious in his post-war work. Reiss-Andersen was awarded the Norwegian state’s artist salary in 1945. After 1963 he received an honorary salary from the publishing house, Gyldendal in recognition for his contributions. In 1921, Reiss-Andersen married Elizabeth Waage. There were the parents of journalist Gry Waage. In 1925 he married Tordis Castberg Anker, they had Helge Reiss-Andersen. Gunnar Reiss-Andersen was the father of Dag Halvorsen, a journalist and foreign correspondent, he is the paternal grandfather of attorney Berit Reiss-Andersen, best known for her work as Norwegian State Secretary.
In 1962, King Haakon awarded him the rank Knight, First Class in the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Reiss-Andersen was buried at Undersbo kirke in Larvik. In 1977, a bust of Reiss-Andersen by Stinius Fredriksen was placed in the market square at Larvik city center. Indvielsens aar – poetry collection Mellem Løven og Venus – poetry collection Solregn – poetry collection Nyt liv – novel Kongesønnens bryllup – poetry collection Himmelskrift – poetry collection Lykkens prøve – poetry collection.
Log driving is a means of moving logs from a forest to sawmills and pulp mills downstream using the current of a river. It was the main transportation method of the early logging industry in North America; when the first sawmills were established, they were small water powered facilities located near the source of timber, which might be converted to grist mills after farming became established when the forests had been cleared. Bigger circular sawmills were developed in the lower reaches of a river, with the logs floated down to them by log drivers. In the broader, slower stretches of a river, the logs might be bound together into timber rafts. In the smaller, wilder stretches of a river, rafts couldn't get through, so masses of individual logs were driven down the river like huge herds of cattle; the log drive was one step in a larger process of lumber-making in remote places. In a location with snowy winters, the yearly process began in the fall when a small team of men hauled tools upstream into the timbered area, chopped out a clearing, constructed crude buildings for a logging camp.
In the winter when things froze down, a larger crew moved into the camp and proceeded to cut trees, cutting the trunks into 16-foot lengths, hauling the logs with oxen or horses over iced trails to the riverbank. There the logs were decked onto "rollways." In the spring when snow thawed and water levels rose, the logs were rolled into the river, the drive commenced. To ensure that logs drifted along the river, men called "log drivers" or "river pigs" were needed to guide the logs; the drivers divided into two groups. The more experienced and nimble men comprised "beat" crew, they watched the spots where logs were to jam, when a jam started, tried to get to it and dislodge the key logs before many logs stacked up. If they didn't, the river would keep piling on more logs, forming a partial dam which could raise the water level. Millions of board feet of lumber could back up for miles upriver, requiring weeks to break up, with some lumber lost if it was shoved far enough into the shallows. So when the jam crew saw a jam start, they rushed to it and tried to break it up, using peaveys and dynamite.
This job required some understanding of physics, strong muscles, extreme agility. The jam crew was an exceedingly dangerous occupation, with the drivers standing on the moving logs and running from one to another. Many drivers lost their lives by being crushed by the logs; each crew was accompanied by an experienced boss selected for his fighting skills to control the strong and reckless men of his team. The overall drive was controlled by the "walking boss" who moved from place to place to coordinate the various teams to keep logs moving past problem spots. Stalling a drive near a saloon created a cascade of drunken personnel problems. A larger group of less experienced men brought up the rear, pushing along the straggler logs that were stuck on the banks and in trees, they spent more time wading in icy water than balancing on moving logs. They were called the "rear crew." Other men worked with them from the bank. Others worked with horses and oxen to pull in the logs. Bateaux ferried log drivers using pike poles to dislodge stranded logs while maneuvering with the log drive.
A wannigan was a kitchen built on a raft. The wannigan served four meals a day to fuel the men working in cold water, it provided tents and blankets for the night if no better accommodations were available. A commissary wagon carrying clothing, plug tobacco and patent medicines for purchase by the log drivers was called a wangan; the logging company wangan train, called a Mary Anne, was a caravan of wagons pulled by four- or six-horse teams where roads followed the river to transport the tents, food and tools needed by the log drivers. For log drives, the ideal river would have been straight and uniform, with sharp banks and a predictable flow of water. Wild rivers were not that, so men cut away the fallen trees that would snag logs, dynamited troublesome rocks, built up the banks in places. To control the flow of water, they built "flash dams" or "driving dams" on smaller streams, so they could release water to push the logs down when they wanted; each timber firm had its own mark, placed on the logs, called an "end mark".
Obliterating or altering a timber mark was a crime. At the mill the logs were captured by a log boom, the logs were sorted for ownership before being sawn. Log drives were in conflict with navigation, as logs would sometimes fill the entire river and make boat travel dangerous or impossible. Floating logs down, but hardwoods were more dense, didn't float well enough to be driven, some pines weren't near drivable streams. Log driving became unnecessary with the development of railroads and the use of trucks on logging roads. However, the practice survived in some remote locations. Most log driving in the United States and Canada ended with changes in environmental legislation in the 1970s; some places, like the Catalan Pyrenees, still retain the practice as a popular holiday celebration once a year. The figure of speech "High and Dry" describes an unsuccessful log drive. Maximum river flows coincided with the runoff from snowmelt, was sometimes augmented by water released from flash dams. If logs were started downriver when there was not enough water to move them all the way to the sawmill, the investment m
Johan Falkberget, born Johan Petter Lillebakken, was a Norwegian author. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Johan Falkberget was born on the Lillebakken farm in the Rugldal valley in the Norwegian copper mining municipality of Røros. In 1891, he began to write his Christianus Sextus trilogy, he formally changed his surname for writing purposes in 1893, from Lillebakken to Falkberget—the name of the farm he lived on. His first work was published in 1902. In 1906 he found a job as editor of the newspaper "Nybrott" in Ålesund. In 1908 he traveled to Fredrikstad and edited «Smaalenes Socialdemokrat», he received a government-sponsored scholarship and traveled to Kirkenes. From 1909 till 1922 his primary residence and workplace was in Kristiania. In 1922 he returned to Røros and lived on the Ratvolden farm, less than 1 km from the Falkberget farm, his Ratvolden house is now a museum. While living there, he represented the Norwegian Labour Party for Sør-Trøndelag in the Storting from 1931 to 1933.
Since he grew up in a mining area and began his career as a miner, his works drew extensively on his experiences with the people, the country culture and mining. His breakthrough work in 1923 was a novel titled «Den fjerde nattevakt» or "The Fourth Night Watch", a historic novel set in the first half of the 19th century in and around the mines; this was followed by his «Christianus Sextus» trilogy, set in the 1720s, in which the mining culture is a central theme. Falkberget contributed extensively to the newspaper Fjell-Ljom. After a long and productive life, he died on 5 April 1967 and is buried in the family plot in the upper churchyard at Røros. "The miners' toil and rhythm of life became the fulcrum of Falkberget's literature", according to Sturle Kojen. Many of his works are not available in English translation; those that are, have been noted with the English equivalent title next to the Norwegian title. Gyldendal's Endowment for 1939 Nominated for the Nobel Prize thirty-six times. NRK: Johan Falkberget Family genealogy
Ole Peter Arnulf Øverland was a Norwegian poet and artist. He is principally known for his poetry which served to inspire the Norwegian resistance movement during the German occupation of Norway during World War II. Øverland was raised in Bergen. His parents were Hanna Hage; the early death of his father, left. He was able to attend Bergen Cathedral School and in 1904 Kristiania Cathedral School, he graduated in 1907 and for a time studied philology at University of Kristiania.Øverland published his first collection of poems. Øverland became a member of Mot Dag. He served as chairman of the Norwegian Students' Society 1923-28, he changed his stand in 1937 as an expression of dissent against the ongoing Moscow Trials. He was an avid opponent of Nazism and in 1936 he wrote the poem "Du må ikke sove", printed in the journal Samtiden, it ends with Jeg tenkte: Nu er det noget som hender. Vår tid er forbi - Europa brenner.. The most famous line of the poem is Du må ikke tåle så inderlig vel den urett som ikke rammer deg selv!
During the German occupation of Norway from 1940 in World War II, he wrote to inspire the Norwegian resistance movement. He wrote a series of poems which were clandestinely distributed, leading to the arrest of both him and his future wife Margrete Aamot Øverland in 1941. Arnulf Øverland was held first in the prison camp of Grini before being transferred to Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany, he spent a four-year imprisonment until the liberation of Norway in 1945. His poems were collected in Vi overlever alt and published in 1945.Øverland played an important role in the Norwegian language struggle in the post-war era. He became a noted supporter for the conservative written form of Norwegian called Riksmål, he was president of Riksmålsforbundet from 1947 to 1956. In addition, Øverland adhered to the traditionalist style of writing, criticising modernist poetry on several occasions, his speech Tungetale fra parnasset, published in Arbeiderbladet in 1954, initiated the so-called Glossolalia debate.
In 1918 he had married singer Hildur Arntzen. Their marriage was dissolved in 1939. In 1940, he married Bartholine Eufemia Leganger, they separated shortly thereafter and were divorced in 1945. Øverland was married to journalist Margrete Aamot Øverland during June 1945. In 1946, the Norwegian Parliament arranged for Arnulf and Margrete Aamot Øverland to reside at the Grotten, he lived there until his death in 1968 and she lived there for another ten years until her death in 1978. Arnulf Øverland was buried at Vår Frelsers Gravlund in Oslo. Joseph Grimeland designed the bust of Arnulf Øverland at his grave site. Den ensomme fest Berget det blå En Hustavle Den røde front Vi overlever alt Sverdet bak døren Livets minutter Gyldendal's Endowment Dobloug Prize Mads Wiel Nygaards legat Hjeltnes, Guri. "Øverland, Arnulf". In Dahl, Hans Fredrik. Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45. Oslo: Cappelen. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2008-09-11. Hambro, Carl Arnulf Øverland: det brennende hjerte ISBN 8203112366 "Du må ikke sove!"
Translation of "Du må ikke sove" by Lars-Toralf Storstrand Kristendommen, den tiende landeplage Christianity, the tenth plague
Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
The Days of His Grace
The Days of His Grace is a 1960 novel by Swedish writer Eyvind Johnson. Set in northern Italy, close to Aquileia, it tells the story of the fate of a Langobard family as their homeland falls under the domination of Charlemagne; the major theme running through the book is the way the actions of the various characters are influenced by love, but the difficulty of adapting to the arbitrary and overbearing power of absolute monarchy. The novel, translated into English by Elspeth Harley Schubert and published in 1968, is based somewhat on Charlemagne conquering northern Italy in 775. In its introductory remarks, Johnson acknowledges the historical plot, his altering some dates; the central story follows the Lupigis family and the difficult fates they suffer following a rebellion against Emperor Charlemagne. The novel received the Nordic Council Literature Prize, it is assumed to have been of decisive importance for the Swedish Academy's decision to award Johnson the Nobel Prize for Literature. Duke Rodgaud—cousin of Bertold, castle in Forojuli, starts a rebellion against King Carolus, put down.
He is executed by the Franks in Papia, summer, 776. Angilperta, the daughter of Rodgaud and Giseverga, is loved by the three Lupigi boys, she cannot be found during the rebellion, but becomes post-rebellion the wife of the Lord of East Burgundy, her name becoming Landoalda. She has Radbert as a lover, has two children and Gisertruda, who die young, a third child, Radaberta is given away. Gunderic imprisons her in the castle tower for seven years, after which Perto comes with an order from King Carolus to let her return to Forojuli, she dies on that trip back to her childhood home. Bertold Lupigi, cousin of Duke Rodgaud; the family name, loup. He is found in a dungeon, he is killed by an avalanche. Perto, son of Liuta and Bertold, is 16 years old at the novel’s beginning, the youngest of three brothers, he loves Angila. He is named Johannes Lupigis, more so as the novel progresses. During the rebellion, he manages to escape the Franks, he visits Angilperta with Agibert in the autumn of 783, sleeps with Angilperta.
Late autumn 783. He meets King Carolus and decides he is “indeed great.” Perto goes to Totonisvilla where his brother Warnefrit is in prison, but is seized by guards as he leaves the prison. In prison for three and a half years, in total darkness of the prison cell, he creates a vision of a flowering bush, he dines with the Devil, who tempts him. He is released from jail at the age of 31 and goes to Aquisgranum where his Uncle Anselm explains the reasons for his imprisonment, he becomes part of King Carolus’s Court again, gets an order allowing Angilperta to return to her childhood home. Warnefrit, the son of Liuta and Bertold, the oldest of three brothers, likes relations with slave women, he becomes engaged to Angila. All of chapter 16 is his frustrated monologue as heir to his father, he disappears in the rebellion and is found in a dungeon, where he remains for over ten years post-rebellion. His brother Perto comes to get him from prison. Eranbald brings Warnefrit to Gudneric, where Angilperta is, they all dine together though Warnefrit does not seem to recognize Angilperta.
Healthy again, he defends the kingdom against Huns. Eyvind Johnson Nobel acceptance speech at Nobel website http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1974/johnson-speech.html Eyvind Johnson biography at Answers.com http://www.answers.com/topic/eyvind-johnson Petri Liukkonen. "Eyvind Johnson". Books and Writers
Boden is a locality and the seat of Boden Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 18,277 inhabitants in 2010. It is part of the larger area around coastal city Luleå some 36 kilometres southeast; the town of Boden started as a railway junction where the Northern Line met with the Ore Line from the rich iron ore fields in northern Sweden. The town experienced increased growth when the Boden Fortress was constructed in the beginning of the 20th century; the purpose of the fortress was to defend Sweden from a possible attack from the east, where Russia was considered the most dangerous threat. The first official writings about Boden, was in a 1500~ tax paper, where the mention of "Boden village" with 7 homes. Boden got the title of city in 1919; this title became obsolete in 1971 and Boden is now the seat of Boden Municipality. Today Boden is still a military stronghold, houses the largest garrison of the Swedish Army; the army and the municipality are the two largest employers in Boden. As the military is continuously disarming, with the five regiments united into one garrison, the population has decreased by 2,000 people over the past ten years.
The famous Fällkniven knives are from Boden. Peter Englund, historian, Permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy Karl Fabricius, ice hockey player Stefan Gunnarsson, piano player Eyvind Johnson, Nobel Prize winner in literature 1974 Lennart Klockare, politician Daniel Larsson, ice hockey player Johanna Larsson, tennis player Elias Lindholm, ice hockey player Jonna Löfgren, drummer with Glasvegas Stig Strömholm, rector magnificus Stig Sundqvist, football player Stig Synnergren, former Swedish Supreme Commander Sven Utterström, skier Niclas Wallin, ice hockey player Hans Wallmark, politician Brolle, Singer Tommy Johannson, guitarist of the bands Reinxeed and Sabaton Boden is twinned with: Alta, Norway Hakkari, Turkey The following sports clubs are located in Boden: Bodens BK Hedens IF Skogså IF Vittjärvs IK Bodens HF Boden Handboll IF