Thiruvananthapuram known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of 2011; the encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. Located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland, Thiruvananthapuram is a major Information Technology hub in Kerala and contributes 55% of the state's software exports as of 2016. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills; the Ays ruled the present region of Thiruvananthapuram until the 10th century. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the Chera dynasty; the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and Thiruvananthapuram was made capital of Travancore. Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained capital when the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956.
Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is home to research centers such as the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Space Research Organisation's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, a campus of the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research; the city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, is home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, India's first Infotainment Industrial park. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Seaport.
Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. In 2012, Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today; the city was selected as the best-governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy in 2017. The city takes its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA:, meaning "The City of Lord Ananta", referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is known in the literature, popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE, it is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. The city was the trading post of spices and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala; the early rulers of the city were the Ays. Vizhinjam, now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of Ay dynasty. Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC. During the Ay dynasty rule, Thiruvananthapuram witnessed many battles in which the Chola and Pandyan dynasties attempted to capture the port town. After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in 925 AD, the glory of the Ays departed and all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty.
During the 10th century, the Cholas sacked Vizhinjam and surrounding regions. The port in Vizhinjam and the historic education center of Kanthalloor Sala was destroyed by Cholas during this period. A branch of the Ay family, controlling the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kayamkulam, Kottayam, Meenachil and Ambalapuzha. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district; the kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha; the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha; the city developed into a significant artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal.
This era saw the establishment of the first English school, the Observatory, the General Hospital, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College. The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda Co
Mangalore known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km west of the state capital, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range, it is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport — Air, Road and Sea along with 5 other major cities in India, it is known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after 13th best in India; the population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India. Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India; this port handles 75 per cent of India's cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast; this coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese.
The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947; the city was unified with the state of Mysore in 1956. Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India, it is the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km; the city has extended in the eastward direction up to Padil. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings; this coastal city has many skyscrapers of 40 plus floors.
India's first and only 3D Planetarium is situated in the port city of Mangalore. Mangalore is included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India; the city has an average elevation of 22 m above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon. Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana Buddhist sect. According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi, she arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way. She died, the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death; the city got its name from the temple.
One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom. According to K. V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura; the city is well known as Mangaluru in a reference to Mangaladevi. During the British rule from 1799, stuck as the official appellation. However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru; the name of this town appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India. Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning "junction", since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers.
In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity, while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, Mangarouth as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper. Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people. In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.
From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers. From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was
Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai
Elamkulam P. N. Kunjan Pillai, known as Elamkulam, was an Indian historian and academic from southern Kerala, India, he was a pioneering scholar of Kerala history, in particular. Although only holding academic degrees in Sanskrit and Malayalam, having no formal training as a historian, Elamkulam is considered one of the pioneers of modern Kerala historiography, he was one of the major proponents of the unitary/imperial state model in medieval Kerala history. The Elamkulam model of a centralised "empire" in medieval Kerala is now considered not acceptable by south Indian historians. Majority of Elamkulam's works are written with a few in Tamil and English, he was well versed in Kannada and Pali also. He was considered as one of the top authorities in Vattezhuthu script and Old/Early Malayalam language. Elamkulam associated himself for some time with Mortimer Wheeler in the excavation works at Harappa and Brahmagiri, he is known for informally guiding M. G. S. Narayanan, a research scholar in University of Kerala in early 1970s.
Born in Elamkulam village near Kalluvathukkal in Travancore, Kunjan Pillai had his school education at Trivandrum and Quilon. After taking his honours degree in Sanskrit language from Annamalai University, he started his career as a school teacher and became lecturer in Malayalam at Government Arts College, Trivandrum. Elamkulam retired as the Head of the Department of University College, Trivandrum. Elamkulam published most his research findings only in his years, he published more than 20 books, including one in Tamil and two in English. Some of his theories regarding early Kerala history have been challenged by researchers in the light of new evidence. Pillai died on 4 March 1973. Kanjiracode Valiaveettil Bhargavi Amma was his wife; the couple had five children. Elamkulam had studied comprehensively Old/Early Malayalam - Vatteluttu inscriptions from the ninth century CE, with the help of literary texts, claimed they belonged to a single line of kings that ruled Kerala from Kodungallur, he had challenged the foundations of the existing William Logan-K.
P. Padmanabha Menon construction of Kerala history, he proposed a unitary or imperial state model, emphasising centralised administration, for the Kulasekhara kingdom. The Elamkulam version of historiography had believed that this "Second Chera Empire", or "Kulasekhara Empire" was a centralised kingdom. However, critical research in the late 1960s and early 1970s by offered a major corrective to this. Suggestions pointing to the other extreme, that the king at Kodungallur had only a "ritual sovereignty" and the actual political power rested with "a bold and visible Brahmin oligarchy" has emerged; the nature of the Kodungallur Chera/Kulasekhara state is an ongoing academic debate. While the Elamkulam model of a centralised "empire" is considered not acceptable by south Indian historians, the third model is yet to be endorsed by them. Unnuneeli Sandesam Koka Sandesam Leelathlakam Chandrolsavam Unnuneeli Sandesam Charithradrishtiyilkoodi Nalachritham Attakkatha Gandhidevan Keralabhashayude Vikasaparinamangal Bhashayum Sahityavum Noottandukalil Sahityamalika 108 Shivalaya Sothram Sahityacharithrasamgraham Keralacharithrathile Iruldanja Edukal Annathe Keralam Chila Kerala Charithra Prasnangal Janmi samprdayam Keralathil Keralam Anchum Arum Noottandukalil Cherasamrajyam Ompathum Pathum Noottandukalil Samskarathinte Nazhikakkallukal Studies in Kerala History Some Problems in Kerala History Pandai Keralam
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Valapattanam is a small town in the Kannur district, located in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the smallest panchayath in Kerala, its area is 2.04 sqr Km. It is about 7 km north of Kannur. Valapattanam is an important Muslim settlement area in Kannur. Valapattanam is known for its communal harmony. On one side Kalarivathukkal Temple is located and on the other bank there is "Kakkulangara Mosque"; this town is known as Balyapattanam. This town is in the on the banks of Valapattanam river Centuries back Valapattanam River was the main ship route for trading and Valapattanam was the main town, because of this the town got this referred as "Valya pattanam" which means "big town" in Malayalam language; this town is named after its historical founder Vallabha II of the Mooshika dynasty and was known as Vallabha-Pattanam and served as the capital of the Mooshika dynasty during the medieval ages. The fourteenth-century narrative of Ibn Battuta refers to the ruler of Ezhimala as residing at Baliapatanam and offers a clue that by this time, the centre of the political authority had shifted from Ezhimala to Baliapatanam.
In the sixteenth century AD, a Portuguese official Duarte Barbosa mentions Baliapatanam as the residence of the ‘king of Cannanore’. Western India Plywoods Ltd. the largest wood-based industry in the country and once Asia's biggest plywood factory is located on the bank of Valapattanam River. Apart from the dense presence of booming plywood and timber based industries, Valapattanam is famous for small scale sand mining and fisheries activities. Warehouses of many prominent industries in Kannur is situated at Valapattanam. Known for its communal harmony and tradition of peaceful coexistence, numerous religious centers with centuries of tradition is located here; the famous Muthappan temple is on the bank of Valapattanam river. Valapattanam is located at 11.9°N 75.37°E / 11.9. It has an average elevation of 6 metres. Manna,Valappattanam As of 2001 India census, Valapattanam had a population of 8369. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Valapattanam has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, female literacy is 79%.
In Valapattanam, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Valapattanam Panchayath is rated among the best panchayaths in Kerala; the development activities of the panchayat has been commended by both the district and state authorities, as well as the public at large. Muthappan temple Sree Muthappan Kannur
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
The Mushika kingdom was the name of a kingdom in the early historic south India in present-day Kerala, ruled by a royal dynasty of the same name. Its dominions, for most of its recorded history, covered the present-day regions of northern Kerala and Coorg, between the western slopes of the Western Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Though starting out as a branch of the Cheras according to most scholars and legends alike, the dynasty were for several periods tributaries of the Cheras as well as of the Pandyas, at other times independent of them. Nannan was the most powerful ruler of Ezhimalai, he expanded the kingdom to include Coimbatore in his lifetime. With the death of Nannan towards the close of the 5th century C. E in a battle with the Cheras, the kingdom was again absorbed by the Chera kingdom, though prior to Nannan, they had several periods of independence alternating with those of being vassals or tributaries of the Cheras, as well as of the Pandyas. Medieval Kolathiri dynasty are the descendants of the Mushika Dynasty of ancient south India.
Like with the other ruling dynasties of recorded history's ancient Tamilakam, namely the Cheras and Pandyas and Cholas and the Ay Dynasty among others, pre-ancient Aryan legends trace the origin of the Mushika Royal Family to the legendary Indo-Aryans of prehistoric times. Keralolpathi mentions this Dynasty as a direct line of the Cheras and having descended from Cheraman Perumal. According to other legends, Parasurama is said to have appointed Ramaghata Mushika the first king of Mushika Dynasty, therefore christened the Dynasty itself as Royalty. More conventionally though, their origins, again like those of the other ancient South Indian dynasties, are rather obscure, several possibilities exist; the most plausible theory is that they, early on, started as a separate branch of the imperial Cheras/Pandyas/Cholas, originating in the Thiruvananthapuram area, before establishing themselves as a separate kingdom, sometimes a feudatory, at other times with a reasonable degree of autonomy or independence.
The Mushika royals were one of the lineages of the Tamil Sangam era. Over the millennia, they intermarried with the Cheras, the Pandyas, the Cholas, the Ays and the Sinhala Royalty of Sri Lanka, it is possible that they gave rise to the royalties of the Lakshadweep and the Maldives. They have had matrimonial alliances and relationships with the rulers of Magadha, the Chedis, the Yadavas and the Somavamsis; the Arakkal and the Nileshwaram Royal Families are both branches of this Royal Family, having branched out from them, over the centuries. Among all the Royal Families living today, the Travancore royal family is related to the Mushika Royal Family, the two being close sister dynasties. In fact, both the Mushika and the Thiruvithamkoor Families have been known by the same name of Mushika itself, as Kupaka/Kolathiri/Kolaswarupam across their recorded history; this suggests that the Mushika Family had the same ancestry as the Thiruvithamkoor Family originating from the Thiruvananthapuram region.
Worth noting is the tradition of mutual adoption of children between the two families. Thiruvithamkoor adopted princesses and princes more from Mushika than the other way round. During the Sangam Period, around the beginning of the Common Era, there was a Velir King by the name of Ay Nannan; the best known king in the recorded history of this dynasty and kingdom was Udayan Venmon Nannan known as Nannan or Nandan. Documented records of the rule of 118 kings up until Srikanta at the start of the 11th Century CE have been compiled in the Sanskrit text known as Mushikavamsa a poem composed by the poet and historian Atula, one of Srikanta's courtiers; the territories they ruled over were known as Kolathirinadu. The Kovilakam of the Kolathiris was located in Chirakkal; the Mushika Royals were responsible for building many of the existing ancient temples of Northern Kerala and adjoining areas, besides forts like those at Bekal Fort, major ports like those at Valapattam. The Arakkal and Nileshwaram Royal Families are both branches of the Kolathiri or Chirakkal Royal Family.
The Nannan Dynasty, one of the Tamil Velir lineages, had matrimonial alliances with the Cheras and Cholas, with the other Velir lineages. The marriages were mutual with daughters being both taken; the dynasty had several kings bearing the name of Nannan. In fact Nannan was a common name in the Tamilakam, the surviving Sangam texts those by the poet Paranar, speak of multiple Nannans from the Nannan and Ay Dynasties. During the Tamil Sangam period, the Nannan Dynasty along with a handful of other Velirs, had frequent and intimate marital relations with both the Cheras and the Cholas. With available texts and research, details of many of these marriages and alliances in terms of the exact names and timelines or periods of those concerned, are not known. A few are however known in some detail. Nannan I married the daughter of the Chera King Perunchorruthiyan sometime around the 3rd Century BCE. Sangam texts as well as several versions of the Mahabharata cite a Chera king by the same name to have fed the rival armies in the Great War.
Isanavarman married. The same Isanavarman married the daughter of the then