A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others. Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are used in editorial cartoons, while caricatures of movie stars are found in entertainment magazines; the term is derived from the Italian caricare -- to load. An early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Browne's Christian Morals, published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, Caricatura representations. With the footnote: When Men's faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura Thus, the word "caricature" means a "loaded portrait".
Until the mid 19th century, it was and mistakenly believed that the term shared the same root as the French'charcuterie' owing to Parisian street artists using cured meats in their satirical portrayal of public figures. Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who sought people with deformities to use as models; the point was to offer an impression of the original, more striking than a portrait. Caricature took a road to its first successes in the closed aristocratic circles of France and Italy, where such portraits could be passed about for mutual enjoyment. While the first book on caricature drawing to be published in England was Mary Darly's A Book of Caricaturas, the first known North American caricatures were drawn in 1759 during the battle for Quebec; these caricatures were the work of Brig.-Gen. George Townshend whose caricatures of British General James Wolfe, depicted as "Deformed and crass and hideous", were drawn to amuse fellow officers. Elsewhere, two great practitioners of the art of caricature in 18th-century Britain were Thomas Rowlandson and James Gillray.
Rowlandson was more of an artist and his work took its inspiration from the public at large. Gillray was more concerned with the vicious visual satirisation of political life, they were, great friends and caroused together in the pubs of London. In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a serious social or political point. A caricaturist draws on the natural characteristics of the subject. Sir Max Beerbohm and published caricatures of the famous men of his own time and earlier, his style of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. His published works include Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, The Poets' Corner, Rossetti and His Circle.
He published in fashionable magazines of the time, his works were exhibited in London at the Carfax Gallery and Leicester Galleries. George Cruikshank created political prints that attacked leading politicians, he went on to create social caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack and Omnibus. Cruikshanks' New Union Club of 1819 is notable in the context of slavery, he earned fame as a book illustrator for Charles Dickens and many other authors. Honoré Daumier created over 4,000 lithographs, most of them caricatures on political and everyday themes, they were published in the daily French newspapers Mort Drucker joined Mad in 1957 and became well known for his parodies of movie satires. He combined a comic strip style with caricature likenesses of film actors for Md, he contributed covers to Time, he has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society Special Features Award for 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, their Reuben Award for 1987. Alex Gard created more than 700 caricatures of show business celebrities and other notables for the walls of Sardi's Restaurant in the theater district of New York City: the first artist to do so.
Today the images are part of the Billy Rose Theatre Collection of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Al Hirschfeld was best known for his simple black and white renditions of celebrities and Broadway stars which used flowing contour lines over heavy rendering, he was known for depicting a variety of other famous people, from politicians, musicians and television stars like the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation. He was commissioned by the United States Postal Service to provide art for U. S. stamps. Permanent collections of Hirschfeld's work appear at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, he boasts a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. S. Jithesh is known for his speedy style of Celebrity Caricaturing Stage Shows."Cartoons take shape in no time". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 28, 2010.</ref> He performs a'Caricature Stage Show', a blend of poetry and socio-political satire
Max Klinger was a German symbolist painter, sculptor and writer. Klinger was studied in Karlsruhe. An admirer of the etchings of Menzel and Goya, he shortly became a skilled and imaginative engraver in his own right, he began creating sculptures in the early 1880s. From 1883–1893 he lived in Rome, became influenced by the Italian Renaissance and antiquity, his best known work is a series of ten etchings entitled Paraphrase on the Finding of a Glove. These pictures were based on images which came to Klinger in dreams after finding a glove at an ice-skating rink. In the leitmotivic device of a glove—belonging to a woman whose face we never see—Klinger anticipated the research of Freud and Krafft-Ebing on fetish objects. In this case, the glove becomes a symbol for the artist's romantic yearnings, finding itself, in each plate, in different dramatic situations, performing the role that we might expect the figure of the beloved herself to fulfil. Semioticians have seen in the symbol of the glove an example of a sliding signifier, or signifier without signified—in this case, the identity of the woman which Klinger is careful to conceal.
The plates suggest various psychological states or existential crises faced by the artist protagonist. Klinger traveled extensively around the art centres of Europe for years before returning to Leipzig in 1893. From 1897 he concentrated on sculpture. Klinger was cited by many artists as being a major link between the symbolist movement of the 19th century and the start of the metaphysical and Surrealist movements of the 20th century. Asteroid 22369 Klinger is named in his honor. In Elsa Bernstein's naturalist play Dämmerung, Klinger is mentioned in the third act when Carl talks of being able to afford "etchings by Klinger" for 80 francs. Inspection Medical Hermeneutics, an infamous Moscow art collective, based their 1991 installation Klinger’s Boxes, on an idea inspired by Klinger’s Paraphrase on the Finding of a Glove. Gibson, Michael. "Symbolism". Köln: Benedikit Taschen Verlag. 1995. ISBN 3-8228-9324-2. Plate 1 of'Paraphrase on the Finding of a Glove – all ten plates can be viewed in order www.max-klinger.com Max Klinger's Beethoven Monument "This Kiss to the Whole World" Klimt and the Vienna Secession.
Klinger Vienna Secession exhibition catalog.
Text comics or a text comic is a form of comics where the stories are told in captions below the images and without the use of speech balloons. It is the oldest form of comics and was dominant in European comics from the 19th century until the 1950s, after which it lost popularity in favor of comics with speech balloons; the form is sometimes referred to as a pantomime comic too though text comics do make use of dialogue, only not in the images themselves. A text comic is published as a series of illustrations. However, within the illustrations themselves no text is used: no speech balloons, no onomatopoeias, no written indications to explain where the action takes place or how much time has passed. In order to understand what is happening in the drawings the reader has to read the captions below each image, where the story is written out in the same style as a novel. Much like other comics text comics were pre-published in newspapers and weekly comics magazines as a continuous story, told in daily or weekly episodes.
When published in book format the comics were sometimes published as actual illustrated novels. In some cases the original text was kept, but only a few drawings were used as illustrations, rather than the entire comic. In the Netherlands text comics were published in small rectangular books, called oblong books, due to the shape of the books. Text comics are older than balloon comics. Ancient Egyptian wall paintings with hieroglyphs explaining the images are the oldest predecessors. In the late 17th century and early 19th century picture narratives were popular in Western Europe, such as Les Grandes Misères de la guerre by Jacques Callot, History of the Hellish Popish Plot by Francis Barlow, the cartoons of William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and George Cruikshank; these images provided visual stories which placed captions below the images to explain a moral message. The earliest examples of text comics are the Swiss comics series Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer, the French comics Les Travaux d'Hercule, Trois artistes incompris et mécontents, Les Dés-agréments d'un voyage d'agrément and L'Histoire de la Sainte Russie by Gustave Doré, the German Max und Moritz by Wilhelm Busch and the British Ally Sloper by Charles Henry Ross and Émilie de Tessier.
Töpffer put considerable effort in the narrative captions of his graphic narratives, which made them just as distinctive and appealing as the drawings. Wilhelm Busch used rhyming couplets in his captions. During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century text comics were the dominant form in Europe. In the United States of America the speech balloon made its entry in comics with 1895's The Yellow Kid by Richard F. Outcault. Frederick Burr Opper's Happy Hooligan and Alphonse and Gaston further popularized the technique; as speech balloons asked for less text to read and had the advantage of linking the dialogues directly to the characters who were speaking or thinking, they allowed readers to connect better with the stories. By the early 1900s most American newspaper comics had switched to the speech balloon format. While speech balloon comics became the norm in the United States, the format didn't always catch on as well in the rest of the world. In Mexico and Argentina speech balloons were adapted quickly, while in Europe they remained a rarity until deep in the 1920s.
In other parts of Europe, most notably the Netherlands, text comics remained dominant as late as the early 1960s. Many European moral guardians looked down upon on comics as low-brow entertainment that made the youth too lazy to read. Christian comics magazines and newspapers supervised the content of their publications and preferred text comics, as the format still encouraged children to read actual written texts, they were ideal to adapt classic novels and guide young readers towards "real" literature. In some instances foreign balloon comics were re-adapted by erasing the balloons and adding captions underneath them, it happened with the European Tintin in the Land of the Soviets by Hergé, republished in the French magazine Coeurs Vaillants, but with captions. Other comics, like Pip and Wilfred by Bertram Lamb, used both speech balloons and captions. Under the Nazi and Communist regimes in Western and/or Eastern Europe balloon comics were banned in favor of comics with captions underneath them.
The success of The Adventures of Tintin by Hergé from 1929 on, influenced many other European comics in the Franco-Belgian comics market, to adapt speech balloons. Translations of popular American comics such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Popeye throughout the 1930s and after the liberation of Europe in 1945 further encouraged the speech balloon format. By the 1960s text comics had lost popularity worldwide and only a few remained. L' Aventure des Belges/België in Beeld by Georges H. Dumont. Les aventures de "Tim" l'écureuil au Far-West by Hergé; the Adventures of Totor by Hergé. Bert, de Lustige Trekker by Willy Vandersteen. Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet by Hergé. Jonas en de Wonderwinkel by Gommaar Timmermans, aka GoT. Het Kerkelijk Jaar in Beeld by Jozef'Jos' Speybrouck. M. Coremans au tir national by Félicien Rops. De Avonturen van Neus by Marc Sleen. Neuske by Marc Sleen. Peerke Sorgeloos by Willy Vandersteen. Victor Sébastopol by Hubuc and Jacques Devos. Vesel Putniks Balon by Vadim Lazarkevich Lise og Lasse by Henning Dahl Mikkelsen, aka Mik continued by Ib Steinaa.
Rasmus Klump by Vilhelm Hansen and Carla Hansen. Janne Ankkanen by Ola Fogelberg. Pekka Puupää by Ola Fogelberg. Arabella by Jean Ache. Bécassine by Ca
Josef von Sternberg
Josef von Sternberg was an Austrian-American filmmaker whose career spanned the transition from the silent to the sound era, during which he worked with most of the major Hollywood studios. He is best known for his film collaboration with actress Marlene Dietrich in the 1930s, including the regarded Paramount/UFA production, The Blue Angel. Sternberg's finest works are noteworthy for their striking pictorial compositions, dense décor, chiaroscuro illumination and relentless camera motion, endowing the scenes with emotional intensity, he is credited with initiating the gangster film genre with his silent era movie Underworld. Sternberg's themes offer the spectacle of an individual's desperate struggle to maintain their personal integrity as they sacrifice themselves for lust or love, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for Shanghai Express. Josef von Sternberg was born Jonas Sternberg to an impoverished Orthodox Jewish family in Vienna, at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
When Sternberg was three years old, his father Moses Sternberg, a former soldier in the army of Austria-Hungary, moved to the United States to seek work. His mother, Serafine née Singer, her children joined Moses in America in 1901 when the young Sternberg was seven. Jonas attended public school there until the family, except Moses, returned to Vienna three years later. Throughout his life, Sternberg would carry vivid memories of Vienna and nostalgia for some of "his happiest childhood moments."The elder Sternberg insisted upon a rigorous study of the Hebrew language, limiting his son to religious studies on top of his regular schoolwork. Biographer Peter Baxter, citing Sternberg's memoirs, reports that "his parents relationship was far from happy: his father was a domestic tyrant and his mother fled her home in order to escape his abuse." Sternberg's early struggles, including these "childhood traumas" would inform the "unique subject matter of his films." In 1908, when Jonas was fourteen, he returned with his mother to Queens New York and settled in the United States.
After a year, he stopped attending Jamaica High School and began working in various occupations, including millinery apprentice, door-to-door trinket salesman and stock clerk at a lace factory. At the Fifth Avenue lace outlet, he became familiar with the ornate textiles with which he would adorn his female stars and embellish his mise-en-scène. In 1911, when he turned seventeen, the now "Josef" Sternberg, became employed at the World Film Company in Fort Lee, New Jersey. There, he "cleaned and coated motion picture stock" – and served evenings as a movie theatre projectionist. In 1914, when the company was purchased by actor and film producer William A. Brady, Sternberg rose to chief assistant, responsible for "writing titles and editing films to cover lapses in continuity" for which he received his first official film credits; when the United States entered World War I in 1917, he joined the US Army and was assigned to the Signal Corps headquartered in Washington, D. C. where he photographed training films for recruits.
Shortly after the war, Sternberg left Brady's Fort Lee operation and embarked on a peripatetic existence in America and Europe offering his skills "as cutter, editor and assistant director" to various film studios. Sternberg served his apprenticeship years with early silent filmmakers, including Hugo Ballin, Wallace Worsley, Lawrence C. Windom and Roy William Neill. In 1919, Sternberg worked with director Emile Chautard's on The Mystery of the Yellow Room, for which he received official screen credit as assistant director. Sternberg honored Chautard in his memoirs, recalling the French director's invaluable lessons on photography, film composition and the importance of establishing "the spatial integrity of his images." This advice led Sternberg to develop his distinctive "framing" of each shot to become "the screen's greatest master of pictorial composition." Sternberg's 1919 debut in filmmaking, though in a subordinate capacity, coincided with the filming and/or release of D. W. Griffith's Broken Blossoms, Charlie Chaplin's Sunnyside, Erich von Stroheim's The Devil's Pass Key, Cecil B.
DeMille's Male and Female, Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Victor Sjöström's Karin Daughter of Ingmar and Abel Gance's J'accuse. Sternberg travelled in Europe between 1922 and 1924, where he participated in making a number of movies for the short-lived Alliance Film Corporation in London, including The Bohemian Girl; when he returned to California in 1924, he began work on his first Hollywood movie as assistant to director Roy William Neill's Vanity's Price, produced by Film Booking Office. Sternberg's aptitude for effective directing was recognized in his handling of the operating room scene, singled out for special mention by New York Times critic Mordaunt Hall; the 30-year-old Sternberg made his debut as a director with The Salvation Hunters, an independent picture produced with actor George K. Arthur; the picture, filmed on the miniscule budget of $4800 – "a miracle of organization" – made a tremendous impression on actor-director-producer Charles Chaplin and co-producer Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. of United Artists.
Influenced by the works of Erich von Stroheim, director of Greed, the movie was lauded by cineastes for its "unglamorous realism", depicting three young drifters who struggle to survive in a dystopian landscape. Despite its considerable defects, due in part to Sternberg's budgetary constraints, the picture was purchased by United Artists for $20,000 and given a brief distribution, but fared poorly at the box-office. On the strength this picture alone, actor-producer Mary Pickford of UA engaged Sternberg to w
Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan. Contemporary religious practice of Satanism began with the founding of the Church of Satan in 1966, although a few historical precedents exist. Prior to the public practice, Satanism existed as an accusation by various Christian groups toward perceived ideological opponents, rather than a self-identity. Satanism, the concept of Satan, has been used by artists and entertainers for symbolic expression. Accusations that various groups have been practicing Satanism have been made throughout much of Christian history. During the Middle Ages, the Inquisition attached to the Roman Catholic Church alleged that various heretical Christian sects and groups, such as the Knights Templar and the Cathars, performed secret Satanic rituals. In the subsequent Early Modern period, belief in a widespread Satanic conspiracy of witches resulted in mass trials of alleged witches across Europe and the North American colonies. Accusations that Satanic conspiracies were active, behind events such as Protestantism and the French Revolution continued to be made in Christendom during the eighteenth to the twentieth century.
The idea of a vast Satanic conspiracy reached new heights with the influential Taxil hoax of France in the 1890s, which claimed that Freemasonry worshiped Satan and Baphomet in their rituals. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Satanic ritual abuse hysteria spread through the United States and United Kingdom, amid fears that groups of Satanists were sexually abusing and murdering children in their rites. In most of these cases, there is no corroborating evidence that any of those accused of Satanism were practitioners of a Satanic religion or guilty of the allegations leveled at them. Since the 19th century, various small religious groups have emerged that identify as Satanists or use Satanic iconography. Satanist groups that appeared after the 1960s are diverse, but two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism. Theistic Satanists venerate Satan as a supernatural deity, viewing him not as omnipotent but rather as a patriarch. In contrast, atheistic Satanists regard Satan as a symbol of certain human traits.
Contemporary religious Satanism is predominantly an American phenomenon, the ideas spreading elsewhere with the effects of globalization and the Internet. The Internet spreads awareness of other Satanists, is the main battleground for Satanist disputes. Satanism started to reach Central and Eastern Europe in the 1990s, in time with the fall of the Soviet Union, most noticeably in Poland and Lithuania, predominantly Roman Catholic countries. In their study of Satanism, the religious studies scholars Asbjørn Dyrendal, James R. Lewis, Jesper Aa. Petersen stated that the term Satanism "has a history of being a designation made by people against those whom they dislike; the concept of Satanism is an invention of Christianity, for it relies upon the figure of Satan, a character deriving from Christian mythology. Elsewhere, Petersen noted that "Satanism as something others do is different from Satanism as a self-designation". Eugene Gallagher noted that, as used, Satanism was "a polemical, not a descriptive term".
The word "Satan" was not a proper name but rather an ordinary noun meaning "the adversary". For instance, in the Book of Samuel, David is presented as the satan of the Philistines, while in the Book of Numbers the term appears as a verb, when God sent an angel to satan Balaam. Prior to the composition of the New Testament, the idea developed within Jewish communities that Satan was the name of an angel who had rebelled against God and had been cast out of Heaven along with his followers; this Satan was featured in parts of the New Testament, where he was presented as a figure who tempted humans to commit sin. The word "Satanism" was adopted into English from the French satanisme; the terms "Satanism" and "Satanist" are first recorded as appearing in the English and French languages during the sixteenth century, when they were used by Christian groups to attack other, rival Christian groups. In a Roman Catholic tract of 1565, the author condemns the "heresies and sathanismes " of the Protestants.
In an Anglican work of 1559, Anabaptists and other Protestant sects are condemned as "swarmes of Satanistes ". As used in this manner, the term "Satanism" was not used to claim that people worshipped Satan, but rather presented the view that through deviating from what the speaker or writer regarded as the true variant of Christianity, they were regarded as being in league with the Devil. During the nineteenth century, the term "Satanism" began to be used to describe those considered to lead a broadly immoral lifestyle, it was only in the late nineteenth century that it came to be applied in English to individuals who were believed to consciously and deliberately venerate Satan; this latter meaning had appeared earlier in the Swedish language. Historical and anthropological research suggests that nearly all societies have developed the idea of a sinister and anti-human force that can hide itself within society; this involves a belief in witches, a group of individuals who invert
Corbeil-Essonnes on the River Seine is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 28.3 km from the center of Paris. Although neighboring Évry is the official seat of the Arrondissement of Évry, the sub-prefecture building and administration are located inside the commune of Corbeil-Essonnes. Traces of human presence in the area date to the Neolithic ages; the name Corbeil is derived from the Latin Corbulium, from the Gaulish cor beel, meaning "holy house". Since the time of Aymon, comte de Corbeil, to the 12th century it was the chief town of a powerful county, which passed to Mauger, son of Richard I of Normandy. William de Corbeil became archbishop of Canterbury, but nothing is known for certain about his parentage; the Gothic church was rebuilt in the fifteenth century. Before the expulsion of the Jews Corbeil had a flourishing Jewish community, which numbered thirteenth-century scholars Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil and Perez ben Elijah. Peter of Corbeil was the teacher of Lotario de' Conti, who became pope as Innocent III.
Representatives of the king of France signed two treaties of Corbeil in the town, the Treaty of Corbeil between France and Aragon and the Treaty of Corbeil between France and Scotland. Corbeil was besieged by the Duke of Burgundy in 1418; the Protestants of France attacked it in 1562 amidst. In 1590 General Alessandro Farnese, who had come to the assistance of the Catholics in France, fought at Corbeil; the composer Camille Saint-Saëns lived in Corbeil for some years of his youth. The commune of Corbeil-Essonnes was created on 10 August 1951 by the merger of the commune of Corbeil with the commune of Essonnes; the commune town hall is located in Corbeil. Inhabitants of Corbeil-Essonnes are known as Corbeil-Essonnois. In the 19th century, Corbeil-Essonnes was a centre of the flour-milling industry. Essonnes had notable papermills. Today, X-Fab France SAS operates a semiconductor fabrication plant; the 55 hectares site includes 25000 square meters of a design center. The fab had been founded by IBM in 1964.
In 1999 it was transferred into a joint venture between IBM and Infineon, operating under the name Altis Semiconductor. In 2010 it was sold to Yazid Sabeg for one symbolic Euro. X-Fab acquired the assets of insolvent Altis in 2016. Corbeil-Essonnes is served by Corbeil-Essonnes station, an interchange station on Paris RER line D and on the Transilien Paris – Lyon suburban rail line. Corbeil-Essonnes is served by Essonnes-Robinson station on the Transilien Paris – Lyon suburban rail line and by Moulin-Galant station on Paris RER line D; the town is crossed by the EuroVelo 3 track. There are about 40 schools in Corbeil-Essonnes. Junior high schools: Collège Chantemerle Collège La Nacelle Collège Louise Michel Collège Saint-Spire Collège Sédar SenghorSenior high schools/Sixth-form colleges: Lycée Robert Doisneau Lycée polyvalent Saint Léon Nigel Atangana, footballer Jean-Sylvain Babin, footballer Demba Diagouraga, footballer Damien Mozika, footballer Hadi Sacko, footballer PNL, French rappers MMZ, French rappers Alzira, since 1991 Belinho, since 2000 Bishopbriggs, since 1989 Sindelfingen, since 1961 Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website website MJC of Corbeil-Essonnes Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use