Jaime Benito Fuster Berlingeri was a politician who served as an Associate Justice to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico. Justice Fuster, along with Justice Liana Fiol Matta, was considered the leading liberal voice in the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, he obtained his Bachelor's Degree from the University of Notre Dame in 1962 and his Law Degree form the University of Puerto Rico in 1965. He obtained a Master's Degree in Law from Columbia Law School in 1966, he received a fellowship in law and humanities at Harvard University. In 1985, he received Honoris Causa, from Temple University. In 1979, Fuster was named Deputy Assistant Attorney General of the United States, he held that position until 1981. In 1984, he was elected Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico to the United States Congress. During his tenure, he served a term as Chair of Congressional Hispanic Caucus. In both terms he served on the Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs, on the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. In Congress he was a strong advocate for educational and youth programs.
He supported numerous laws and bills to give state and local governments assistance for youth service projects and programs aimed at preventing drug and tobacco abuse. He supported the establishment of a Children and Families Administration, as well as the establishment of a federal child care program, he sponsored legislation to increase social security funds for families with blind and disabled dependents. In 1992, Governor Rafael Hernández Colón appointed him to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico. Fuster resigned from his Resident Commissioner position on March 4, 1992 to take an appointment as associate justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, he took the oath of office on March 4, 1992 after confirmation by the Senate, serving on the Court until his death. Fuster was affiliated with the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico and the Democratic Party of the United States. Fuster died during the early hours of December 2007 from cardiac arrest, his death left the Supreme Court in an unprecedented position with two seats vacant.
List of famous Puerto Ricans List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico Federico Hernández Denton, Chief Justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court Francisco Rebollo, Associate Justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court Liana Fiol Matta, Associate Justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court United States Congress. "Jaime Fuster". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Hispanic Americans in Congress: Jaime Fuster Supreme Court of Puerto Rico: "Conservative and Slow" - Primera Hora.
Santiago Iglesias Pantín, was a Spanish-born Puerto Rican socialist and trade union activist. Iglesias is best remembered as a leading supporter of statehood for Puerto Rico, as the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico in the U. S. Congress from 1933 to 1939. Santiago Iglesias was born in A Coruña, Spain, where he attended the common schools, was apprenticed as a cabinet maker. At a young age he stowed away on a ship. There he organized workers and, beginning in 1889 was secretary of the Workingmen Trades Circle in Havana. Iglesias subsequently moved to Puerto Rico, was the founder and editor of three labor papers: Porvenir Social Union Obrera Justicia He was a active labor organizer in Puerto Rico and was arrested and jailed for his activities, was considered American Federation of Labor president Samuel Gompers's ally on the island. In fact, Gompers appointed him general organizer of the American Federation of Labor for the districts of Puerto Rico and Cuba in 1901. In 1915, he founded a pro-statehood, pro-labor party.
His Socialist Party, unlike its namesake, did elect its candidates to elective office during many elections. He served as secretary of the Pan-American Federation of Labor from 1925 to 1933. In 1936, he was wounded during an assassination attempt by Puerto Rican Nationalist Party partisans. After losing a race in 1908 against Tulio Larrínaga for Puerto Rico's non-voting delegate seat in the United States Congress, Iglesias was elected as a Coalitionist Resident Commissioner on November 8, 1932, was reelected in 1936 for the term ending January 3, 1941, he served in the 73rd, 74th, 75th, 76th Congresses, from March 4, 1933 until his death. Iglesias served as a member of the first Senate of Puerto Rico in 1917, reelected several times, until his election to Congress in 1932, he pushed for many social reforms, many of which did become law, either as part of the PDP's reform agenda in the 1940s or as part of the Constitution of Puerto Rico in 1952. Iglesias unsuccessfully pushed for legislation to enable Puerto Ricans to elect their own Governor, a concept that did not become law until 1947.
He was able to have Puerto Rico included in many New Deal assistance programs, including road construction, the Bankhead-Jones Act that enabled agricultural experimentation, the fight against malaria and the Jones Act exclusion regarding the taxation of shipping between Puerto Rico and other U. S. ports. In Congress, he served on the Insular Affairs and Labor committees. Married to Justa Pastora Bocanegra in 1902, he had three sons and eight daughters, including labor activist America Iglesias Thatcher, career military officer Edward Iglesias, the late Manuel Francisco Iglesias, distinguished Air Force Captain and Lead Crew Radar Office of the B-29s during World War II. Iglesias died in office in Washington, D. C. on December 5, 1939 and his body was returned home to Puerto Rico, where it lay in state at the Capitol. Some 200,000 people were said to have filed past the casket and 50,000 are said to have gridlocked the streets of Old San Juan during his funeral. Iglesias's body was interred in a tomb at Santa Maria Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Early in 1943, a Liberty Ship was named for him. List of famous Puerto Ricans List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress List of United States Congress members who died in office Gonzalo F. Córdova, Santiago Iglesias Pantín, Creator of the Labor Movement in Puerto Rico. Rio Piedras, PR: Editorial Universitaria, 1980. Manuel Mourelle de Lema. Santiago Iglesias Pantín: Un político circunstancial gallego en Puerto Rico. May, 2010. Clarence Senior, Santiago Iglesias: Labor Crusader. Hato Rey, PR: Inter American University Press, 1972. United States Congress. "Santiago Iglesias". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Memorial Services held in the House of Representatives of the United States, together with remarks presented in eulogy of Santiago Iglesias late a resident commissioner from Puerto Rico frontispiece 1941"
Dr. Antonio Fernós Isern was the first Puerto Rican cardiologist and the longest serving Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico in the United States Congress. Fernós Isern was born in San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico and attended primary and intermediate schools in Caguas, his family moved to Pennsylvania during his mid-year in high school. He finished his high school education in the Pennsylvania State Normal School. After completing his pre-medical training, he applied and was accepted to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University of Maryland and earned his doctor's degree in May 1915. Fernós Isern returned to the island and settled in the city of Caguas where he practiced medicine for two years. Between the years 1918 and 1933 he held various administrative positions in the health services of Puerto Rico. In 1918, he was the Director for the City of San Juan. From 1919 to 1921, Dr. Fernós Isern was the Under-Secretary of Health. From 1921 to 1923, he was the Director of Health in the city.
From 1923 to 1929, Fernós Isern was once again Under-Secretary of Health. He was the Secretary of Health from 1930 to 1933. In 1933, Fernós Isern resigned as health commissioner and went to New York City where he completed his residency in cardiology at Columbia University and thus became the first Puerto Rican cardiologist. Upon his return to Puerto Rico, Fernós Isern became a professor at the Public School of Tropical Medicine of Puerto Rico, he had served as both assistant professor and associate professor at this institution. In 1937, Fernós Isern joined Luis Muñoz Marín to organize the Partido Popular Democrático. In 1941, he served as the Director of Civil Defense for the San Juan Metropolitan Area. In 1942, he returned to head the Department of Health and the Administration of Public Housing, in addition to serving as Director of the War Effort Office for Puerto Rico. From 1943 to 1946, Dr. Fernós Isern was the acting governor of Puerto Rico during the Governorship of Rexford G. Tugwell (this was under appointment as Permanent Acting Governor approved by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
In 1946, Jesús T. Piñero, the first Puerto Rican to serve as governor of Puerto Rico, appointed Fernós Isern as his replacement in the position of Resident Commissioner to the U. S. Congress after unanimous endorsement from the island legislature. Dr. Fernós Isern was re-elected on six consecutive occasions; as Resident Commissioner, Fernós Isern played a important role in convincing the Government of the United States to give Puerto Ricans the right to govern their island. In 1947, the Crawford Project, allowing Puerto Ricans to elect their governor, was approved by Congress and signed into law by President Harry S Truman. On June 8, 1950, the United States Senate approved Public Law 600, permitting Puerto Rico to establish its own constitutional local autonomous government. Fernós Isern served as president of the Constitutional Convention which drafted the Constitution of the Commonwealth. Dr. Fernós Isern did not seek re-election in 1964, he returned to Puerto Rico from Washington, D. C. and was elected to the Puerto Rican Senate, serving between 1965 and 1969.
After he retired from politics, Dr. Fernós Isern returned to the University of Puerto Rico as Resident Scholar where he wrote a monumental political work in two parts, i.e. El Estado Libre Asociado and Filosofía y Doctrina del Estadolibrismo. Antonio Fernós Isern died in San Juan, Puerto Rico on January 19, 1974 and was buried with full state honors in the Santa María Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery located in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, his memory is honored at the Capitol in San Juan with a bust facing the urn preserving the original Constitution of Puerto Rico. His collected papers are held in trust at the Fernós Isern room at the Inter American University Law School in Hato Rey, San Juan. List of Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican scientists and inventors List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Resident Commissioner Hispanic Americans in Congress: Antonio Fernós-Isern Fundación Educativa Dr. Antonio Fernós Isern
George Washington University Law School
The George Washington University Law School is the law school of The George Washington University, in Washington, D. C. Founded in the 1820s, GW Law is the oldest law school in the national capital and one of the most prestigious law schools in the country. GW Law has offerings in business and finance law, environmental law, government procurement law, intellectual property law, international comparative law and dispute resolution, national security and U. S. foreign relations law. GW Law is famous for its numerous prominent alumni within the fields of law and government, including the current U. S. Attorney General, foreign heads of state, judges of the International Court of Justice, ministers of foreign affairs, a Director-General of the World Intellectual Property Organization, Directors of the CIA, members of U. S. Congress, U. S. State Governors, 4 Directors of the FBI, numerous Federal judges; the 2020 U. S. News & World Report University Rankings ranks GW Law as 5th best in the U. S. for its international law program, 5th best for intellectual law, 2nd best for part-time law, as the 22nd best law school in the United States.
The National Law Journal ranked GW Law 21st for law schools that sent the highest percentage of new graduates to NLJ 250 law firms, the largest and most prominent law practices in the U. S; the George Washington University Law School founded in the 1820s but closed in 1826 due to low enrollment. The law school's first two professors were William Cranch, chief justice of the Circuit Court for the District of Columbia and second reporter of the U. S. Supreme Court, William Thomas Carroll, a descendant of Charles Carroll the Settler and Clerk of the U. S. Supreme Court from 1827 until his death in 1863; the law school was the first law school in the District of Columbia. Law classes resumed in 1865 in the Old Trinity Episcopal Church, the school graduated its first class of 60 students in 1867; the Master of Laws degree program was adopted by the school in 1897. In 1900, the school was one of the founding members of the Association of American Law Schools. In 1954, it merged with National University School of Law of Washington.
The law school operated under the name National Law Center for the 37 years from 1959 to 1996, when it was renamed the George Washington University Law School. Supreme Court Justices Clarence Thomas, William Strong, David J. Brewer, Willis Van Devanter and John Marshall Harlan were among those who served on its faculty. Chief Justice John Roberts, Justice Antonin Scalia, Justice Elena Kagan, Justice Sonia Sotomayor, Justice Samuel Alito presided over its moot court in 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2016. GW Law has the oldest intellectual property program in the country, with alumni having written patents for some of the greatest technological achievements of the past 130 years—including the Wright brothers' flying machine, patented on May 22, 1906; the school was accredited by the American Bar Association in 1923 and was a charter member of the Association of American Law Schools. National University School of LawThe National University School of Law was merged into the George Washington University School of Law in 1954.
The school was founded in 1869. Many alumni served in prominent legal positions throughout the school's history. J. D. students are required to take courses on civil procedure, criminal law, constitutional law, introduction to advocacy, legal research and writing, professional responsibility and ethics and torts. GW Law offers more than 275 elective courses each year; the school boasts robust offerings in business and finance law, environmental law, government procurement law, intellectual property law, international comparative law and dispute resolution, national security and U. S. foreign relations law. GW Law offers numerous summer programs, including a joint program with the University of Oxford for the study of international human rights law at New College, Oxford each July. In addition to the juris doctor degree, GW Law offers the following joint degrees: J. D./M. B. A. With the School of Business J. D./Master of Public Administration with the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences J. D./Master of Public Policy with the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences J.
D./M. A. With the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences in History, in Women's Studies, or in Public Policy J. D./M. A. With the Elliott School of International Affairs J. D./Master of Public Health with the Milken Institute School of Public Health J. D./Public Health Certificate with the Milken Institute School of Public HealthThe school offers Master of Laws in Environmental Law and Finance Law, International Environmental Law, Government Procurement and Environmental Law, Intellectual Property Law and Comparative Law, Government Procurement Law and Dispute Resolution, National Security and U. S. Foreign Relations Law; the Doctor of Juridical Science is offered to a limited number of candidates. Instead of supplying students with individual class rankings, GW Law recognizes academic performance with two scholar designations; the top 1–15% of the class is designated George Washington Scholars while the top 16–35% of the class is designated Thurgood Marshall Scholars. GW Law publishes nine journals: The George Washington Law Review The George Washington International Law Review The George Washington Business & Finance Law Review The Federal Circuit Bar Journal The American Intellectual Property Law Association Quarterly Journal The Public Contract Law Journal The Federal Communications Law Journal The Journal of Energy and Environmental Law International Law in Do
Baltasar Corrada del Río
Baltasar Corrada del Río was a Puerto Rican politician. He held various high political offices in the island, including President of the Puerto Rico Civil Rights Commission, Resident Commissioner, Mayor of the capital city of San Juan, Puerto Rico's 15th Secretary of State and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, he was the unsuccessful NPP candidate for Governor in the elections of 1988. Corrada del Río obtained his high school diploma from Colegio Ponceño de Varones in 1952, both his Bachelor's Degree in Social Studies in 1956 and his Law Degree from the University of Puerto Rico in 1959, he was admitted to the Puerto Rico Bar that year and practiced as a private lawyer from 1969 to 1975. In 1976, after expressing an interest in becoming Mayor of San Juan and running in an unofficial internal primary within the NPP, Corrada del Río was elected Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico. During his tenure, he advocated for the admission of Puerto Rico into the Union and co-founded the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute.
Corrada served as Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico, from 1985 to 1989. In the elections of 1988, Corrada made an unsuccessful bid to become Governor of Puerto Rico, he was defeated by incumbent Governor Rafael Hernández Colón. In January 1993, Pedro Rosselló became Governor and appointed Corrada as Puerto Rico's 15th Secretary of State. In 1995, Rosselló appointed Corrada as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, he took the oath of office on July 15, 1995, after unanimous confirmation in the Senate of Puerto Rico. During his tenure as Associate Justice, Corrada was among the moderate/conservative voices in the Court adhering to strict interpretations of the Constitution while practicing a firm type of judicial restraint; the Constitution of Puerto Rico mandates an obligatory retirement for the Justices of the Supreme Court at age 70. Corrada arrived at this age in April, 2005, was forced to retire. Prior to his retirement, Corrada publicly asked for an amendment to the Constitution that would repeal the obligatory retirement age for the justices, arguing that by obligating people to retire the constitution is discriminating by reason of age.
At the time of its enactment in 1952, the average life expectancy in Puerto Rico was 61 years, 9 less than the mandatory retirement age. In 2013, the mandatory retirement age was 9 years less than the average life expectancy of 79; the Court seat left vacant by Corrada remained vacant until 2009. Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá did not nominate anyone for the position after then-Senate President Kenneth McClintock made it clear in his inaugural speech as Senate president in 2005 that only a well-qualified statehooder would muster the votes for Senate confirmation to Court seats held by statehooders in order to assure "balance" on the bench, he was succeeded in 2009 by Rafael Martinez-Torres, appointed by a Corrada protege, governor Luis Fortuño. Corrada last served as "of counsel" to Puerto Rico's largest law firm, McConnell Valdés, of which he had been a partner prior to holding elective office. Upon his retirement from the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, he announced that he would abstain from political activity for one year, on March 14, 2006 announced that within a month would begin attending New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico meetings, as former party president, to provide discrete advice.
He publicly disagreed with then-party president Pedro Rossello by objecting to the expulsion of then-Senate President Kenneth McClintock and then-Vice President Orlando Parga from the party for refusing to turn over the Senate presidency to Rossello. The expulsion was revoked by the Supreme Court, he was the brother of Álvaro Corrada del Rio, Roman Catholic Bishop of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico and of a Roman Catholic nun. Another of his sisters was the Puerto Rico Independence Party candidate for mayor of San Juan in 1988, when he was elected to the post, he was married to Beatriz Betances, who served as First Lady of San Juan during his term as mayor, had one daughter, Ana Isabel, three sons: Juan Carlos and Francisco. In 2013 his wife passed away he was too ill to travel for the funeral services held in Morovis, Puerto Rico, where his ashes will be interred alongside her remains on March 24, 2018. Baltasar Corrada del Río died on Sunday March 2018 in Fort Myers, Florida at 82 years of age. By the time of his death he suffered from Parkinson’s disease.
The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute issued a medal honoring Corrada and three other founding members. In 2010, former Puerto Rico Secretary of State McClintock designated the department's summer internship program as the Baltasar Corrada del Río State Department Internship Program. Distinguished students such as Josue Rivera, former National President of the Puerto Rico Statehood Students Association, participated in the First Class of interns. On November 24, 2010 a ceremony was held at the Puerto Rico Department of State to announce the publication of Baltasar Corrada Del Río-Sus opiniones 1995-2005 a book containing excerpts from 61 of his Supreme Court opinions edited by Pontifical Catholic University Law School dean Angel González Román, at which Acting Governor Kenneth McClintock and Chief Justice Federico Hernandez Denton were the keynote speakers. List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Hispanic Americans in Congress: Corrada del Río United States Congress.
"Baltasar Corrada del Río". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Appearances on C-SPAN
Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term. Commissioners function in every respect as a member of Congress, including sponsoring legislation and serving on congressional committees, where they can vote on legislation, except that they are denied a vote on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor, they receive a salary of $174,000 per year. The current commissioner is Jenniffer González-Colón of the New Progressive Party, the first woman to hold the post, she is affiliated with the Republican Party at the national level. Other U. S. territories have a similar representative position called a delegate. List of United States congressional districts Resident Commissioners from the Philippines
Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Spanish: Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico — is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law. The Court is analogous to one of the state supreme courts of the states of the United States. Article V of the Constitution of Puerto Rico vests the judicial power in the Supreme Court—which by its nature forms the judicial branch of the government of Puerto Rico; the Supreme Court holds its sessions in San Juan. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was established by the Foraker Act in 1900 and maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico, it is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. However, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is a Federal District Court for the island; the justices are appointed by the Governor of Puerto Rico and confirmed by majority vote by the Senate. One of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice.
Unlike the Supreme Court of the United States, the justices of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court do not serve for life, as the Puerto Rico Constitution requires that all judges must retire upon reaching age 70. Although the Constitution of Puerto Rico provides for the Court to be composed of five justices, it contains a provision that the number may be altered, though only by petition of the Court itself; this provision has been used four times in Court history. After the Constitution's ratification, the Court asked for two additional judges. During the early 1960s, the Court once again petitioned for the addition of two more judges, arguing that there was a case backlog on its docket. Subsequently, during the 1970s the Court asked for its number to be reduced back to seven members, arguing that the backlog had been attended to. In 2010 a 4–3 majority of the justices petitioned the Legislative Assembly to once again increase the Court's membership to 9; this decision has generated controversy since it is the first time that such a request has been done without unanimity from the justices.
The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is defined by the Constitution and the laws of Puerto Rico. In general, the jurisdictional structure parallels that of the state Supreme Courts in the continental United States; the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico has concurrent jurisdiction with federal courts to interpret federal laws, unless the Supremacy Clause requires otherwise. Judgments that stand on federal law grounds may be reviewed by the United States Supreme Court, unless an adequate and independent ground for the decision based in Puerto Rico commonwealth law is present; the Court has the power of judicial review and its decision are considered binding precedent within the jurisdiction of Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico regulates the practice of law in Puerto Rico; the term of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court begins on the first Monday of October and ends in the last week of June of the following year. However, during the recess months of July through September, an alternating panel of three justices are allowed to hear cases and their decisions are considered binding precedent.
However, in order for any law passed by the Legislative Assembly to be declared unconstitutional, it requires the votes of a majority of the total membership of the Court, therefore, a three-justice panel may not hear constitutional challenges to laws passed by the Legislature. The justices decide. If the case is controversial or carries high public interest, an oral argument may be scheduled, although oral arguments were rare under Chief Justice Hernández Denton; when oral argument occurs, each side has twenty-five minutes to state its respective claims and five minutes for rebuttal. After the sides have ended their argument, each justice has ten minutes to ask questions to each side. Justices may decide to yield the balance of their time to one of their colleagues; because several Federal judges have voluntarily withdrawn from the Puerto Rico Bar Association and was converted by statute into a voluntary membership organization, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico maintains the official bar records of Puerto Rico licensed attorneys.
The Chief Justice is the presiding officer of the Supreme Court, amongst its functions it directs the administration of the different courts, chairs the Constitutional Redistricting Board which revises Puerto Rico's senatorial and representative districts after every decennial census, presides at the impeachment trial of the Governor of Puerto Rico. During much of the 20th century, the court system in Puerto Rico had consisted of Municipal Courts, District Courts, the Supreme Court. Cases could be appealed from Municipal Courts to commonwealth District Courts. From the commonwealth District Courts cases were appealed to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Supreme Court. Municipal and District courts have existed in Puerto Rico since at least the 19th century; when the United States invaded the island, it set to reorganize the judicial system. The U. S. military regime in Puerto Rico promulgated Order 118 of 1899, by which the system of Criminal Courts and Courts of First Instance and Investigation were replaced by five district courts in San Juan, Mayaguez and Humacao.
Appointments to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico have traditionally been a politicized and controversial process. The Governor of Puerto Rico appoints someone, affiliated with his own political party. For example, during his sixteen years as Gove