F. Scott Fitzgerald

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American writer. His novels depicted the excess of the Jazz Age. Though he achieved popular success and fortune in his lifetime, Fitzgerald did not receive much critical acclaim until after his death. Considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s, today he is regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century, he finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night. The unfinished novel The Last Tycoon was published posthumously. Four collections of his short stories were published, as well as 164 short stories in magazines during his lifetime. Born in 1896 in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to an upper-middle-class family, Fitzgerald was named after his famous second cousin, three times removed on his father's side, Francis Scott Key, but was always known as Scott Fitzgerald, he was named after his deceased sister, Louise Scott Fitzgerald, one of two sisters who died shortly before his birth.

"Well, three months before I was born," he wrote as an adult, "my mother lost her other two children... I think I started to be a writer."His father, Edward Fitzgerald, was of Irish and English ancestry, had moved to St. Paul from Maryland after the American Civil War, was described as "a quiet gentlemanly man with beautiful Southern manners", his mother was Mary "Molly" McQuillan Fitzgerald, the daughter of an Irish immigrant who had made his fortune in the wholesale grocery business. Edward Fitzgerald's first cousin once removed Mary Surratt was hanged in 1865 for conspiring to assassinate Abraham Lincoln. Scott Fitzgerald spent the first decade of his childhood in Buffalo, New York in West Virginia where his father worked for Procter & Gamble, with a short interlude in Syracuse, New York. Edward Fitzgerald had earlier worked as a wicker furniture salesman, his parents, both Catholic, sent Fitzgerald to two Catholic schools on the West Side of Buffalo, first Holy Angels Convent and Nardin Academy.

His formative years in Buffalo revealed him to be a boy of unusual intelligence with a keen early interest in literature. His doting mother ensured, her inheritance and donations from an aunt allowed the family to live a comfortable lifestyle. In a rather unconventional style of parenting, Fitzgerald attended Holy Angels with the peculiar arrangement that he go for only half a day—and was allowed to choose which half. In 1908, his father was fired from Procter & Gamble, the family returned to Minnesota, where Fitzgerald attended St. Paul Academy in St. Paul from 1908 to 1911; when he was 13, he saw his first piece of writing appear in print—a detective story published in the school newspaper. In 1911, when Fitzgerald was 15 years old, his parents sent him to the Newman School, a prestigious Catholic prep school in Hackensack, New Jersey. Fitzgerald played on the 1912 Newman football team. At Newman, he met Father Sigourney Fay, who noticed his incipient talent with the written word and encouraged him to pursue his literary ambitions.

After graduating from the Newman School in 1913, Fitzgerald enrolled at Princeton University, where tried out for the football team and was cut the first day of practice. Honing his craft as a writer, at Princeton became friends with future critics and writers, including Edmund Wilson and John Peale Bishop, he wrote for the Princeton Triangle Club, the Nassau Lit, the Princeton Tiger. He was involved in the American Whig-Cliosophic Society, which ran the Nassau Lit, his absorption in the Triangle—a kind of musical-comedy society—led to his submission of a novel to Charles Scribner's Sons where the editor praised the writing but rejected the book. Four of the University's eating clubs sent him bids at midyear, he chose the University Cottage Club known as "the'Big Four' club, most committed to the ideal of the fashionable gentleman", it was while attending Princeton that Fitzgerald met Chicago socialite and debutante Ginevra King on a visit back home in St. Paul. King and Fitzgerald had a romantic relationship from 1915 to 1917.

Infatuated with her, according to Mizner, Fitzgerald "remained devoted to Ginevra as long as she would allow him to", wrote to her "daily the incoherent, expressive letters all young lovers write". She would become his inspiration for the character of Isabelle Borgé, Amory Blaine's first love in This Side of Paradise, for Daisy in The Great Gatsby, several other characters in his novels and short stories. After their relationship ended in 1917, Fitzgerald requested that Ginevra destroy the letters that he had written to her, he never destroyed the letters. After his death in 1940 his daughter "Scottie" sent the letters back to King where she kept them until her death, she never shared the letters with anyone. Fitzgerald's writing pursuits at Princeton came at the expense of his coursework, causing him to be placed on academic probation, in 1917 he dropped out of university to join the Army. During the winter of 1917, Fitzgerald was stationed at Fort Leavenworth and was a student of future United States President and General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower whom he intensely disliked.

Worried that he might die in the War with his literary dreams unfulfilled, Fitzgerald hastily wrote The Romantic Egotist in the weeks before reporting for duty—and, although Scribners rejected it, the reviewer noted his novel's originality and e

Suicide (Durkheim book)

Suicide is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim. It was the first methodological study of a social fact in the context of society, it is ostensibly a case study of suicide, a publication unique for its time that provided an example of what the sociological monograph should look like. According to Durkheim, the term suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result, he believes that because of high levels of anomie there are high levels of suicide. In his view, suicide comes in four kinds: Egoistic suicide reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community, it results from the suicide's sense. This absence can give rise to meaninglessness, apathy and depression. Durkheim calls such detachment "excessive individuation"; those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups were left with little social support or guidance, were therefore more to commit suicide.

Durkheim found that suicide occurred more among unmarried people unmarried men, whom he found had less to bind and connect them to stable social norms and goals. Altruistic suicide is characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group's beliefs, it occurs in societies with high integration, where individual needs are seen as less important than the society's needs as a whole. They thus occur on the opposite integration scale as egoistic suicide; as individual interest would not be considered important, Durkheim stated that in an altruistic society there would be little reason for people to commit suicide. He described one exception: when the individual is expected to kill her/himself on behalf of society, for example in military service. Anomic suicide reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, related to dramatic social and economic upheaval, it is the product of moral deregulation and a lack of definition of legitimate aspirations through a restraining social ethic, which could impose meaning and order on the individual conscience.

This is symptomatic of a failure of economic development and division of labour to produce Durkheim's organic solidarity. People do not know. Durkheim explains that this is a state of moral disorder where people do not know the limits on their desires and are in a state of disappointment; this can occur. Fatalistic suicide occurs when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline, it is the opposite of anomic suicide, occurs in societies so oppressive their inhabitants would rather die than live on. For example, some prisoners might prefer to die than live in a prison with constant abuse and excessive regulation. Unlike the other concepts he developed, Durkheim believed that fatalistic suicide was theoretical and did not exist in reality; these four types of suicide are based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation. Durkheim noted the effects of various crises on social aggregates – war, for example, leading to an increase in altruism, economic boom or disaster contributing to anomie.

Durkheim concluded that: Suicide rates are higher in men than women. Suicide rates are higher for those. Suicide rates are higher for people without children than people with children. Suicide rates are higher among Protestants than Jews. Suicide rates are higher among soldiers than civilians. Suicide rates are higher in times of peace than in times of war. Suicide rates are higher in Scandinavian countries; the higher the education level, the more it was that an individual would choose suicide. However, Durkheim established that there is more correlation between an individual's religion and suicide rate than an individual's education level. Jewish people were highly educated but had a low suicide rate. Durkheim has been accused of committing an ecological fallacy, since Durkheim's conclusions are about individual behaviour, although they are derived from aggregate statistics; this type of inference, which explains particular events in terms of statistical data, is misleading, as Simpson's paradox shows.

However, diverging views have contested whether Durkheim's work contained an ecological fallacy. Van Poppel and Day argue that differences in reported suicide rates between Catholics and Protestants could be explained in terms of how these two groups record deaths. Protestants would record "sudden deaths" and "deaths from ill-defined or unspecified cause" as suicides, while Catholics would not. If so Durkheim's error was empirical, not logical. Inkeles and Gibbs claimed that Durkheim only intended to explain suicide sociologically, within a holistic perspective

Be Up a Hello

Be Up a Hello is the fifteenth studio album by British electronic musician Squarepusher, released through Warp Records on 31 January 2020. It is Tom Jenkinson's first album under the Squarepusher name in five years, following Damogen Furies; the first single, "Vortrack", was released on 6 December 2019. The second single, "Nervelevers", was released on 8 January 2020. A release party was held at the Five Miles nightclub in London on 1 February 2020. On the album, Jenkinson decided to reuse analogue synthesizers that he used in the early 1990s rather than his own technology that he developed and used on albums like Ufabulum and Damogen Furies. Jenkinson made use of vintage effects units and a Commodore VIC-20. Be Up a Hello received favourable reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from professional publications, the album received an average score of 76, based on 14 reviews, indicating'generally favourable reviews'