SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

F. W. de Klerk

Frederik Willem de Klerk is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996. As South Africa's last head of state from the era of white-minority rule, he and his government dismantled the apartheid system and introduced universal suffrage. Ideologically a conservative and an economic liberal, he led the National Party from 1989 to 1997. Born in Johannesburg, British Dominion of South Africa, to an influential Afrikaner family, de Klerk studied at Potchefstroom University before pursuing a career in law. Joining the National Party, to which he had family ties, he was elected to parliament and sat in the white-minority government of P. W. Botha, holding a succession of ministerial posts; as a minister, he supported and enforced apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged white South Africans. After Botha resigned in 1989, de Klerk replaced him, first as leader of the National Party and as State President.

Although observers expected him to continue Botha's defence of apartheid, de Klerk decided to end the policy. He was aware that growing ethnic animosity and violence was leading South Africa into a racial civil war. Amid this violence, the state security forces committed widespread human rights abuses and encouraged violence between Xhosa and Zulu, although de Klerk denied sanctioning such actions, he permitted anti-apartheid marches to take place, legalised a range of banned anti-apartheid political parties, freed imprisoned anti-apartheid activists, including Nelson Mandela. He dismantled South Africa's nuclear weapons program. De Klerk negotiated with Mandela to dismantle apartheid and establish a transition to universal suffrage. In 1993, he publicly apologised for apartheid's harmful effects for apartheid itself, he oversaw the 1994 non-racial election in which Mandela led the African National Congress to victory. After the election, de Klerk became a Deputy President in Mandela's ANC-led coalition, the Government of National Unity.

In this position, he supported the government's liberal economic policies. De Klerk had desired a total amnesty for political crimes committed under apartheid and opposed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission set up to investigate past human rights abuses by both pro and anti-apartheid groups, his working relationship with Mandela was strained, although he spoke fondly of him. In May 1996, after the National Party objected to the new constitution, de Klerk withdrew it from the coalition government. In 1997, he retired from active politics and since has lectured internationally. De Klerk is a controversial figure; the recipient of a wide range of awards—including the Nobel Peace Prize—he was praised for dismantling apartheid and bringing universal suffrage to South Africa. Conversely, anti-apartheid activists criticised him for offering only a qualified apology for apartheid and for ignoring the human rights abuses carried out by his state security forces, while South Africa's white right-wing claimed that by abandoning apartheid he had betrayed the interests of the country's white minority.

F. W. de Klerk was born on 18 March 1936 in a suburb of Johannesburg. His parents were Johannes "Jan" de Klerk and Hendrina Cornelia Coetzer – "her forefather was a Kutzer who stems from Austria", he was his parents' second son, having a brother, Willem de Klerk, eight years his senior. De Klerk's first language is Afrikaans and the earliest of his distant ancestors to arrive in what is now South Africa did so in the late 1680s. De Klerk's family had played a leading role in Afrikaner society, his paternal great-grandfather, Jan van Rooy, had been a senator, while his paternal grandfather, had been a clergyman who fought in the Anglo-Boer War and who stood twice, unsuccessfully, as a National Party candidate. His paternal aunt's husband was a former Prime Minister, his own father, Jan de Klerk, was a Senator, having served as the secretary of the National Party in Transvaal, president of the senate for seven years, a member of the country's cabinet for fifteen years under three Prime Ministers.

In this environment, de Klerk was exposed to politics from childhood. He and family members would be encouraged to hold family debates. Willem became a political analyst and split from the National Party to found the liberal Democratic Party; the name "de Klerk" is derived from Le Clerc, Le Clercq and De Clercq, is of French Huguenot origin. De Klerk noted that he is of Dutch descent, with an Indian ancestor from the late 1600s or early 1700s, he is said to be descended from the Khoi interpreter known as Krotoa or Eva. De Klerk's upbringing was comfortable; when de Klerk was twelve years old, the apartheid system was institutionalised by the South African government. He therefore was, according to his brother, "one of a generation that grew up with the concept of apartheid", he was inculturated in the norms and values of Afrikaner society, including festivals like Kruger Day, loyalty to the Afrikaner nation, stories of the "age of injustice" that the Afrikaner faced under the British. He was brought up in the Gereformeerde Kerk, the smallest and most conservative of South Africa's

Filip Bednarek

Filip Bednarek is a Polish footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Dutch side SC Heerenveen. Bednarek signed with Dutch side FC Twente at the age of 16, he made his debut for FC Twente on 6 December 2012 against Helsingborgs IF in Europa League. As he never could make it to the first eleven, he left Twente as a free agent in July 2015. After being on trial with FC Utrecht, he signed a one-year contract with the club, including an option for an extra season, he is the older brother of Southampton defender Jan Bednarek. Filip Bednarek at WorldFootball.net Voetbal International profile Filip Bednarek at 90minut.pl

Driven right leg circuit

A Driven Right Leg Circuit or DRL circuit is an electric circuit, added to biological signal amplifiers to reduce Common-mode interference. Biological signal amplifiers such as ECG EEG or EMG circuits measure small electrical signals emitted by the body as small as several micro-volts; the patient's body can act as an antenna which picks up electromagnetic interference 50/60 Hz noise from electrical power lines. This interference can obscure the biological signals, making them hard to measure. Right Leg Driver circuitry is used to eliminate interference noise by cancelling the interference. Other methods of noise control include: Faraday cage Twisting Wires High Gain Instrumentation Amplifier Filtering J. G. Webster, "Medical Instrumentation", 3rd ed, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998, ISBN 0-471-15368-0. B. B. Winter and J. G. Webster, “Driven-right-leg circuit design,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. vol. BME-30, no. 1, pp. 62–66, Jan. 1983. "Improving Common-Mode Rejection Using the Right-Leg Drive Amplifier" by Texas Instruments