FA Cup

The FA Cup known as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world, it is named after The Football Association. Since 2015, it has been known as The Emirates FA Cup after its headline sponsor. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the FA Women's Cup; the competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system – all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League and the English Football League, several hundred "non-League" teams in Steps 1 to 6 of the National League System. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12; the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the final. Entrants are not seeded, although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds – the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.

The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper. In the modern era, only one non-League team has reached the quarter-finals, teams below Level 2 have never reached the final; as a result, significant focus is given to the smaller teams who progress furthest if they achieve an unlikely "giant-killing" victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been five actual cups. Winners qualify for the Europa League and a place in the FA Community Shield match. Manchester City are the current holders. Arsenal are the most successful club with 13 titles. Arsène Wenger is the most successful manager in the history of the competition, having won seven finals as manager of Arsenal F. C. In 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.

On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the FA Secretary C. W. Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March 1872. Wanderers retained the trophy the following year; the modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced. Following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, did not resume until 1919–20; the 1923 FA Cup Final known as the "White Horse Final", was the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium. The 1927 final saw "Abide with Me" being sung for the first time at the Cup final, which has become a pre-match tradition. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions.

Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until 1980–81. Having featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day was introduced in 2000. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the 2001–2006 finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff; the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria. All clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the next six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season. All clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium, it is rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.

Manchester United did not defend their title in 1999–2000, as they were in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles; the club claimed. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the 1999–2000 league title by an 18-point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship; the withdrawal from the FA Cup, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation. Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only five clubs remaining: Cardiff City (the only non-English team to win the tournament

McGurk effect

The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound; the visual information a person gets from seeing a person speak changes the way. If a person is getting poor quality auditory information but good quality visual information, they may be more to experience the McGurk effect. Integration abilities for audio and visual information may influence whether a person will experience the effect. People who are better at sensory integration have been shown to be more susceptible to the effect. Many people are affected differently by the McGurk effect based on many factors, including brain damage and other disorders, it was first described in 1976 in a paper by Harry McGurk and John MacDonald, titled "Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices" in Nature. This effect was discovered by accident when McGurk and his research assistant, MacDonald, asked a technician to dub a video with a different phoneme from the one spoken while conducting a study on how infants perceive language at different developmental stages.

When the video was played back, both researchers heard a third phoneme rather than the one spoken or mouthed in the video. This effect may be experienced when a video of one phoneme's production is dubbed with a sound-recording of a different phoneme being spoken; the perceived phoneme is a third, intermediate phoneme. As an example, the syllables /ba-ba/ are spoken over the lip movements of /ga-ga/, the perception is of /da-da/. McGurk and MacDonald believed that this resulted from the common phonetic and visual properties of /b/ and /g/. Two types of illusion in response to incongruent audiovisual stimuli have been observed: fusions and combinations; this is the brain's effort to provide the consciousness with its best guess about the incoming information. The information coming from the eyes and ears is contradictory, in this instance, the eyes have had a greater effect on the brain and thus the fusion and combination responses have been created. Vision is the primary sense for humans, but speech perception is multimodal, which means that it involves information from more than one sensory modality, in particular and vision.

The McGurk effect arises during phonetic processing because the integration of audio and visual information happens early in speech perception. The McGurk effect is robust; this is different from certain optical illusions. Some people, including those that have been researching the phenomenon for more than twenty years, experience the effect when they are aware that it is taking place. With the exception of people who can identify most of what is being said from speech-reading alone, most people are quite limited in their ability to identify speech from visual-only signals. A more extensive phenomenon is the ability of visual speech to increase the intelligibility of heard speech in a noisy environment. Visible speech can alter the perception of audible speech sounds when the visual speech stimuli are mismatched with the auditory speech. Speech perception is thought to be an auditory process. Speech is perceived by all of the senses working together; the brain is unaware of the separate sensory contributions of what it perceives.

Therefore, when it comes to recognizing speech the brain cannot differentiate whether it is seeing or hearing the incoming information. It has been examined in relation to witness testimony. Wareham and Wright's 2005 study showed that inconsistent visual information can change the perception of spoken utterances, suggesting that the McGurk effect may have many influences in everyday perception. Not limited to syllables, the effect can occur in whole words and have an effect on daily interactions that people are unaware of. Research into this area can provide information on not only theoretical questions, but it can provide therapeutic and diagnostic relevance for those with disorders relating to audio and visual integration of speech cues. Both hemispheres of the brain make a contribution to the McGurk effect, they work together to integrate speech information, received through the auditory and visual senses. A McGurk response is more to occur in right-handed individuals for whom the face has privileged access to the right hemisphere and words to the left hemisphere.

In people that have had callosotomies done, the McGurk effect is still present but slower. In people with lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, visual features play a critical role in speech and language therapy. People with lesions in the left hemisphere of the brain show a greater McGurk effect than normal controls. Visual information influences speech perception in these people. There is a lack of susceptibility to the McGurk illusion if left hemisphere damage resulted in a deficit to visual segmental speech perception. In people with right hemisphere damage, impairment on both visual-only and audio-visual integration tasks is exhibited, although they are still able to integrate the information to produce a McGurk effect. Integration only appears if visual stimuli is used to improve performance when the auditory

Six Flags Zhejiang

Six Flags Zhejiang is an upcoming theme park in Jiaxing, China, a partnership between Six Flags. It will feature original rides and attractions, along with attractions themed around Looney Tunes and Friends, Tuzki, among others. In addition to a theme park, the park will be accompanied by a Six Flags Hurricane Harbor water park. Six Flags Zhejiang will be located on the coast of Hangzhou Bay; the park is 45 miles from downtown Shanghai. As of 2020, construction on the park has came to a halt, as the Riverside Investment Group has been unable to pay their debts; the main area of the park, which will branch off to the park's other areas. The park's areas are based on other Six Flags theme parks as well as various aspects of the United States. Themed after Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California. Themed after Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson, New Jersey. Themed after Six Flags Fiesta Texas in San Antonio, Texas. A beach-themed children's area, based on the Garfield franchise by Jim Davis.

A seaside area connected to Garfield Beach. A water park, similar to other Six Flags Hurricane Harbor water parks in the US. Six Flags Official website