The Football Association Challenge Trophy known as the FA Trophy, is a men's football knockout cup competition run by and named after the English Football Association and competed for by semi-professional teams. The competition was instigated in 1969 to cater for those non-league clubs that paid their players and were therefore not eligible to enter the FA Amateur Cup. Eligibility rules have changed over time, but from 2008 onwards the competition has been open to clubs playing in Steps 1–4 of the National League System, equivalent to tiers 5–8 of the overall English football league system; this covers the National League, the Southern League, Isthmian League, Northern Premier League. The final of the competition was held at the original Wembley Stadium from the tournament's instigation until the stadium closed in 2000; the final has been played at the new Wembley Stadium since its opening in 2007. The record for the most FA Trophy wins is shared by Woking and two defunct clubs and Telford United, with three victories each.
The Trophy is held by A. F. C. Fylde who beat Leyton Orient in the 2019 final; the competition was created by the Football Association in 1969 to afford semi-professional teams an opportunity to compete for the chance to play at Wembley Stadium. Amateur clubs took part in the long-standing FA Amateur Cup, but most of the leading non-league clubs made at least some form of payment to their players and were therefore ineligible to enter the Amateur Cup; the first winners of the competition were Macclesfield Town of the Northern Premier League, who defeated Telford United of the Southern League in the final. Northern Premier League clubs dominated the first decade of the competition, with Telford United the only Southern League team to break the northern clubs' hold on the competition. In the early years of its existence the competition struggled to achieve the same level of prestige as the long-established Amateur Cup. In 1974 the FA abolished the distinction between official professional and amateur status and discontinued the Amateur Cup, the Trophy soon had 300 entrants.
This figure was reduced until by 1991 only around 120 clubs took part. In 1978 the FA moved the final of the Trophy to the Saturday following the FA Cup Final, so as to give it a longer build-up and avoid conflict with clubs' league programmes, which had reduced the competition's prestige. In 1979 the leading Southern and Northern Premier League teams formed the new Alliance Premier League, teams from this league dominated the Trophy during the 1980s, although in the 1980–81 season Bishop's Stortford of the comparatively lowly Isthmian League First Division entered at the preliminary round and won twelve matches to reach the final, where they defeated Sutton United. Telford United's win in 1989 made them the second team to win the Trophy three times. Between 1990 and 2000 three more teams claimed multiple wins. Former Northern Ireland international Martin O'Neill, in his third managerial role, led Wycombe Wanderers to two wins, Geoff Chapple managed Kingstonian to victory twice and Woking three times, all within the space of seven years.
After Chapple's period of success, Mark Stimson became the first man to manage the Trophy-winning team in three successive seasons, when he led Grays Athletic to victory in 2005 and 2006 and repeated the feat with his new club Stevenage Borough in 2007. As of 2001 the competition was sponsored by Umbro; the competition is a knockout tournament with pairings drawn at random. However, the qualifying round draws and the 1st Round proper draw are regionalised to reduce teams' travel costs, from the 2014–15 season this was extended to the 2nd Round proper draw as well, however this change only lasted 1 season. If a match is drawn, there is a replay at the ground of the team which played away from home for the first game. Drawn replays are now settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though in the past further replays were possible; the competition included as many qualifying rounds as were required to reduce the number of teams to 32. In 1999 the format was amended to match that of the FA Cup, with six rounds prior to the semi-final stage, albeit without qualifying rounds.
Teams from the Football Conference received byes through the early rounds, in a similar manner to the way in which the leading clubs receive byes in the FA Cup. As of 2008–09 the competition featured four qualifying rounds and four rounds proper before the semi-finals. Teams from Step 4 enter at the preliminary round stage, those from Step 3 at the first qualifying round, those from Step 2 at the third qualifying round, those from Step 1 at the first round proper; the FA pays prize money to all teams. In the 2014-15 season the prize for the 64 preliminary round winners was £2,500, rising round-by-round to £50,000 for the winners of the final; the prize fund is cumulative, so a team that starts in the preliminary round and wins through several rounds would receive £2,500 for the preliminary round, £2,700 for the first qualifying round, £3,250 for the second qualifying round, so on. The final was traditionally held at the original Wembley Stadium, but was moved to Villa Park during Wembley's redevelopment, a final was played at West Ham United's Boleyn Ground.
In 2007 the final moved to the new Wembley Stadium, a record crowd of 53,262 saw Kidderminster Harriers lose to Stevenage Borough. Scarborough, Telford United, Woking share the record for the most victories in the final. In 1985 Wealdstone became the first team to win the "Non-League
The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag is an art installation by John Sims. The controversial installation consists of a Confederate flag hanging from a noose at a 13-foot gallows; the Proper way to Hang a Confederate Flag was first shown in Schmucker Gallery at Gettysburg College in 2004 as a part of Sims' Recoloration Proclamation: The Gettysburg Redress. Recoloration Proclamation targets specific traditional symbols of southern heritage, which are inextricably linked to slavery and racism in America. Included in the exhibition are recolored Confederate flags, a Confederate flag hanging from the gallows, a contemporary rewrite of the Gettysburg Address, contemporary recordings of the song "Dixie", a documentary film. A notable piece featured in the exhibition Recoloration Proclamation: The Gettysburg Redress is ReVote, an installation featuring three voting booths used in Florida's disputed 2000 presidential election with re-colored Confederate flags hanging above, including black and green for the Pan-African Flag of the African Liberation Movement.
Pink and lavender Confederate flags with feathers and sequins were created for the exhibition signifying "drag flags". John Sims received national media attention for his lynching of the Confederate flag. A related exhibition, Dread Scott's interactive installation What is the Proper Way to Display a U. S. Flag? was first shown at The Art Institute of Chicago in 1989. Scott's piece became the center of national controversy over its use of the American flag. Dread Scott's piece begins with a photomontage of American flags draped over coffins as well as South Korean citizens burning American flags while protesting American foreign policy; the question, "What is the Proper Way to Display a U. S. flag?" is written across the images. The photomontage hangs above a table where exhibit visitors are invited to write their answers to Scott's question in a blank book. A three by five foot American flag is placed on the ground in front of the table, if visitors want to write in the book, they must first step on the flag.
What is the Proper Way to Display a U. S. Flag? joined Sims' The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag in Sarasota, Florida, at the Crossley Gallery in 2006. Schmucker Gallery, Pennsylvania, 2004: The lynching exhibit was set to be installed outdoors in front of Schmucker Gallery at Gettysburg College, would have remained open to the public for three weeks. Sons of Confederate Veterans, Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Association, other members of the community objected to the exhibition. Detractors interpreted the exhibit as anti-southern heritage. Sims wrote about his motivation, "... Our sense of history is segregated, our social identity is fractured and our vocabularies for discussing race and respect are bare." Gettysburg College administration changed the location and duration of the exhibit. The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag was installed inside of Schmucker Gallery. John Sims boycotted the exhibition. Georgia State University, Atlanta, 2005: The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag was shown in a group show, Potentially Harmful: The Art of American Censorship.
The group exhibition examines the role of artistic controversy in shaping a free society. Through two exhibitions, presentations of spoken word and performance artists, artists' talks, panel discussions, a film screening and a series of legal seminars, this project reflects an environment that nurtures contentious art. Artists included in the exhibition are Lynda Benglis, Critical Art Ensemble, Sue Coe, Benita Carr, Alex Donis, Karen Finley, Eric Fischl, Tom Forsythe, John Jota Leaños, Gayla Lemke, Alma Lopez, Robert Mapplethorpe, Carolee Scheemann, Dread Scott, Andres Serrano, Elizabeth Sisco, Louis Hock, David Avalos, John Sims, John Anthony Trobaugh, Pat Ward Williams, Nancy Worthington, Marilyn Zimmerman, The File. Crossley Gallery, Florida, 2006: The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag was shown at Ringling College of Art and Design in the Crowley Gallery alongside Dread Scott's What is the Proper Way to Hang a U. S. Flag?:Bowery Poetry Club, New York, 2006: Recoloration Proclamation: The New York City Hangings was the title of the New York City exhibition.
Acclaimed controversial performance artist Karen Finley performs a piece in response to Sims' work during the exhibition. Brogan Museum, Florida, 2007: Sims' exhibition remained on display despite protests from the Sons of Confederate Veterans, who called it once again an affront to Southern heritage; the Mary Brogan Museum of Art and Science said it stands by Sims' work, part of a larger exhibit, AfroProvocations. Kennedy Museum of Art, Ohio University, Ohio, 2017: On October 26, 2017, in front of the E. W. Scripps Amphitheater at Ohio University, Sims's concept came was realized. "Confederate Flag: A Public Hanging" took place as conceived: with community participation, music and readings. The flag was ritually hung from a 13-foot gallows in a symbolic act of judgment against the history of white supremacy. Following this performance event, the flag was carried to the Kennedy Museum of Art and installed in the exhibition "Expression and Repression: Contemporary Art Censorship in America" as "The Proper Way to Hang a Confederate Flag."
The exhibition featured Kara Walker, Sue Coe and David Wojnarowicz, was on view through December 22, 2017. Confederate Flag art exhibit stirs passions in Gettysburg, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 4 September 2004 NY Times USA Today Herald Tribune Asheville Tribune SP Times Fox News CBS News Dred Scott Civil War News John Sims website Facebook Fan Page Dread Scott Karen Finley
The Living Coffin is a 1959 Mexican Western horror film focusing on a ranch haunted by evil spirits. It incorporates the story of La Llorona. Gastón Santos as Gastón / Cowboy María Duval as María Elena García Pedro de Aguillón as Coyote Loco Carlos Anciraa as Felipe Carolina Barret as Clotilde Antonio Raxel as Doctor Hortensia Santoveña as Doña María Quintín Bulnes as Indio The Living Coffin was released on DVD in April 2007. Bloody Disgusting rated it 3.5/5 stars and called it "an enjoyable—if somewhat dusty romp—through Mexico’s version of the old west." Bill Gibron of DVD Verdict wrote, "Though its mixture of horror and horse opera never quite succeeds, The Living Coffin is still an enjoyable example of Mexican madness. It may not give you the shivers, but it won't directly disappoint you either." Todd Brown of Twitch Film wrote, "The Living Coffin succeeds because it knows what kind of film it is: this is pure b-film pulp." Glenn Erickson of DVD Talk wrote, "The film may not be scary, but it is funny."
The Living Coffin on IMDb
The Sunday Philosophy Club is a series of novels by the author Alexander McCall Smith. It is the name of the first novel in the series, an informal talking group founded by the main character Isabel Dalhousie; the series is set in Edinburgh. The title of the first book and of the series was suggested by McCall Smith's editor; the series of novels includes: The Sunday Philosophy Club Friends, Chocolate The Right Attitude to Rain The Careful Use of Compliments The Comfort of Saturdays. S. title: The Comforts of a Muddy Saturday The Lost Art of Gratitude The Charming Quirks of Others The Forgotten Affairs of Youth The Uncommon Appeal of Clouds The Novel Habits of Happiness A Distant View of Everything The Quiet Side of Passion Isabel Dalhousie is in her early forties and is a philosopher, the editor of the journal "Review of Applied Ethics". Her father was a Scotsman and her mother was American, from Mobile, Alabama. Due to an inheritance left to her by her late mother, she can work for a nominal fee.
She lives alone in a large ageing house in Merchiston in Edinburgh. Isabel is "a good person, a kind soul. She’s thoughtful, obviously." However, she lets her personal feelings about various issues get in the way of more rational judgement. Cat, Isabel's niece, is a young attractive woman who runs a delicatessen in the Bruntsfield neighborhood of Edinburgh. Cat has a habit of falling for inappropriate men and refusing to listen to Isabel's advice about them. Grace, Isabel's housekeeper, an outspoken Scotswoman with an interest in spiritualism and an opinion on everything. Jamie, Cat's ex-boyfriend, a "fatally attractive" bassoonist. Becomes Isabel's husband and father to her sons. Like Isabel, Jamie is kind-hearted and enjoys helping others. Charlie and Jamie's first-born son. Magnus and Jamie's younger son. Eddie, Cat's assistant at the delicatessen, who has experienced "something traumatic" in his past and is therefore shy. Over the course of the series, he begins to open up to others. Brother Fox, an urban fox who lives in Isabel's garden.
Peter and Susie Stevenson, two close friends of Isabel's. Robert Lettuce, an English philosopher who tried to have Isabel fired from the editorial position of the Review of Applied Ethics; as such, Isabel dislikes him greatly. Mark, a man whose death at the theatre Isabel decides to investigate Toby, Cat's first unsuitable boyfriend, with a penchant for crushed-strawberry-coloured trousers Ian, the recipient of a problematic heart transplant Tomasso, an Italian who woos Isabel Rose Macleod and Graeme, a couple whose son has died Mimi, Isabel's cousin from Dallas, her husband Joe Tom Bruce, a rich American who suffers from Bell's palsy, his young beautiful fiancé Angie Patrick, another of Cat's boyfriends, under his mother's thumb The Sunday Philosophy Club marked a departure from the gentle Botswana setting of McCall Smith's previous series: in an interview in May 2004, McCall Smith said, "I’m enjoying it immensely, writing about a different milieu." The series was set in Edinburgh because McCall Smith "wanted to write something about Scotland" and finds Edinburgh "a interesting and intriguing city."
The series tries to reflect the Edinburgh people, who are "vivid agreeable people just waiting to have a novel written about them." McCall Smith has lived in Edinburgh since 1984. Particular comparisons have been made between McCall's Edinburgh and the version of the city that appears in Ian Rankin’s books. McCall Smith notes that his books are "certainly a bit different from the realistic fiction that comes from Edinburgh" but believes that both styles reflect the nature of Edinburgh and Scotland: "I would say that a city’s literary nature needn’t be carved in stone. One doesn’t need to accept that there is just one sort of literature or one formula for the Scottish novel." In comparison to The No 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, the Sunday Philosophy Club series is "a little bit more tilted in the mystery direction." Nonetheless, it is a detective novel "only in a rather quirky, incidental way." More the series is character- rather than plot-driven. Time Out’s website describes the main character Isabel thus: "If you combine the nosey interfering of Austen’s Emma with the relentless self-analysis of Carrie Bradshaw you have a fair idea of the protagonist."
The books are narrated through Isabel's eyes from a limited third-person viewpoint. McCall Smith himself calls the series "a little more focused" than The No 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, with "a different register." Nonetheless, he believes that Precious Ramotswe and Isabel would get along: " would respect but she would tell her to relax a bit, drink a bit more tea, sit out under a tree to chew the fat a bit more." The repeated presence of a female protagonist who tries to do the right thing demonstrates McCall Smith's "underlying sympathy for women and fundamental generosity of spirit." The series deals with "everyday moral and philosophical conundrums" through Isabel's work as the editor of a philosophical journal. McCall Smith notes: "We can't answer the great questions about meaning – Camus talks about this, that you can't answer the question of what is the meaning of life, but you can find meaning in a limited context, work toward that."A key element is the notion that simplicity and kindness are important aspects of life: "Kindness needn't be dull... it can be elevating and moving."
Commenting on the lack of villains in his ‘mystery’ stories, McCall
Synodontis budgetti, known as Budgett's synodontis, is a species of upside-down catfish native to Benin, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Nigeria where it occurs in Lake Nokoue and the Niger. It was first described by Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1911, from specimens collected in Lokoja, Nigeria; the species name budgetti comes from name of the collector of the original specimen, J. S. Budgett. Like all members of the genus Synodontis, S. budgetti has a strong, bony head capsule that extends back as far as the first spine of the dorsal fin. The head contains a distinct narrow, external protrusion called a humeral process; the shape and size of the humeral process helps to identify the species. In S. budgetti, the humeral process is 1 1⁄2 times as long as it is broad, with three spines directed backwards. The fish has three pairs of barbels; the maxillary barbels are on located on the upper jaw, two pairs of mandibular barbels are on the lower jaw. The maxillary barbel is straight with a wide membrane at the base.
It extends 1 3⁄5 the length of the head. The outer pair of mandibular barbels is about twice as long as the inner pair; the front edges of the dorsal fins and the pectoral fins of Syntontis species are hardened into stiff spines. In S. budgetti, the spine of the dorsal fin is long and curved, about as long as the head, bearing a long filament, smooth in the front and serrated on the back. The remaining portion of the dorsal fin is made up of seven branching rays; the spine of the pectoral fin about as long as the dorsal fin spine, serrated on both sides. The adipose fin is 3 times as long; the anal fin contains five unbranched and seven branched rays. The tail, or caudal fin, is forked, with both lobes ending in a long filament. All members of Syndontis have a structure called a premaxillary toothpad, located on the front of the upper jaw of the mouth; this structure contains several rows of chisel-shaped teeth. In S. budgetti, the toothpad forms a broad band. On the lower jaw, or mandible, the teeth of Syndontis are attached to flexible, stalk-like structures and described as "s-shaped" or "hooked".
The number of teeth on the mandible is used to differentiate between species. The body color is a uniform brownish; the maximum total length of the species is 39.5 centimetres, a standard length of 29.7 centimetres. Females in the genus Synodontis tend to be larger than males of the same age. In the wild, the species has been found in the Niger River basin; the reproductive habits of most of the species of Synodontis are not known, beyond some instances of obtaining egg counts from gravid females. Spawning occurs during the flooding season between July and October, pairs swim in unison during spawning; as a whole, species of Synodontis are omnivores, consuming insect larvae, gastropods, sponges and the eggs of other fishes. The growth rate is rapid in the first year slows down as the fish age. Data related to Synodontis budgetti at Wikispecies
Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear. The expression is used in the context of materials science and engineering; the definition of which elements belong to this group differs. The most common definition includes five elements: two of the fifth period and three of the sixth period, they all share some properties, including a melting point above 2000 °C and high hardness at room temperature. They are chemically inert and have a high density, their high melting points make powder metallurgy the method of choice for fabricating components from these metals. Some of their applications include tools to work metals at high temperatures, wire filaments, casting molds, chemical reaction vessels in corrosive environments. Due to the high melting point, refractory metals are stable against creep deformation to high temperatures. Most definitions of the term'refractory metals' list the extraordinarily high melting point as a key requirement for inclusion.
By one definition, a melting point above 4,000 °F is necessary to qualify. The five elements niobium, tantalum and rhenium are included in all definitions, while the wider definition, including all elements with a melting point above 2,123 K, includes a varying number of nine additional elements: titanium, chromium, hafnium, rhodium and iridium; the artificial elements, being radioactive, are never considered to be part of the refractory metals, although technetium has a melting point of 2430 K or 2157 °C and rutherfordium is predicted to have melting point of 2400 K or 2100 °C. The melting point of the refractory metals are the highest for all elements except carbon and iridium; this high melting point defines most of their applications. All the metals are body-centered cubic except rhenium, hexagonal close-packed. Most physical properties of the elements in this group vary because they are members of different groups. Creep resistance is a key property of the refractory metals. In metals, the starting of creep correlates with the melting point of the material.
This resistance against deformation at high temperatures makes the refractory metals suitable against strong forces at high temperature, for example in jet engines, or tools used during forging. The refractory metals show a wide variety of chemical properties because they are members of three distinct groups in the periodic table, they are oxidized, but this reaction is slowed down in the bulk metal by the formation of stable oxide layers on the surface. The oxide of rhenium is more volatile than the metal, therefore at high temperature the stabilization against the attack of oxygen is lost, because the oxide layer evaporates, they all are stable against acids. Refractory metals are used in lighting, lubricants, nuclear reaction control rods, as catalysts, for their chemical or electrical properties; because of their high melting point, refractory metal components are never fabricated by casting. The process of powder metallurgy is used. Powders of the pure metal are compacted, heated using electric current, further fabricated by cold working with annealing steps.
Refractory metals can be worked into wire, rebars, sheets or foil. Molybdenum based alloys are used, because they are cheaper than superior tungsten alloys; the most used alloy of molybdenum is the Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy TZM, composed of 0.5% titanium and 0.08% of zirconium. The alloy exhibits a higher creep resistance and strength at high temperatures, making service temperatures of above 1060 °C possible for the material; the high resistivity of Mo-30W, an alloy of 70% molybdenum and 30% tungsten, against the attack of molten zinc makes it the ideal material for casting zinc. It is used to construct valves for molten zinc. Molybdenum is used in mercury wetted reed relays, because molybdenum does not form amalgams and is therefore resistant to corrosion by liquid mercury. Molybdenum is the most used of the refractory metals, its most important use is as a strengthening alloy of steel. Structural tubing and piping contains molybdenum, as do many stainless steels, its strength at high temperatures, resistance to wear and low coefficient of friction are all properties which make it invaluable as an alloying compound.
Its excellent anti-friction properties lead to its incorporation in greases and oils where reliability and performance are critical. Automotive constant-velocity joints use grease containing molybdenum; the compound sticks to metal and forms a hard, friction resistant coating. Most of the world's molybdenum ore can be found in the USA, Chile and Canada. Tungsten was discovered in 1781 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, at 3,410 °C. Up to 22% rhenium is alloyed with tungsten to improve its high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Thorium as an alloying compound is used; the ignition is the arc burns more stably than without the addition of thorium. For powder metallurgy applications, binders have to be used for the sintering process. For the production of the tungsten heavy alloy, binder mixtures of nickel and iron or nickel and copper are used; the tungsten content of the alloy is above 90%. The diffusion of the binder elements into the tungsten grains is low at the sintering temperatures and therefore the interi