The FDR Drive is a 9.68-mile limited-access parkway on the east side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It starts near South and Broad Streets, just north of the Battery Park Underpass, runs north along the East River to the 125th Street / Robert F. Kennedy Bridge / Willis Avenue Bridge interchange, where it becomes the Harlem River Drive. All of the FDR Drive is designated an unsigned reference route; the FDR Drive features a mix of below-grade, at-grade, elevated sections, as well as three covered tunnels. The parkway is three lanes in each direction, with the exception of several small sections. By law, the current weight limits on the FDR Drive from 23rd Street to the Harlem River Drive in both directions is posted 8,000 pounds. Buses are not allowed to use the roadway north of 23rd Street because they exceed the road's maximum clearance and weight. All commercial vehicles are banned from all sections of the FDR Drive, except for a short section just north of the Battery Park Underpass where the northbound lanes temporarily merge with South Street.
The East River Greenway runs below, beside, or above the FDR Drive along nearly its entire length, except for a section between 38th and 60th Streets. A plaque dedicating the East River Drive is visible on the southbound roadway before entering the Gracie Mansion tunnel at 90th Street. FDR Drive starts at the southern tip of Manhattan at South and Whitehall Streets in the Financial District, it rises from the underground Battery Park Underpass to an elevated viaduct above South Street, with an at-grade connection to South Street at exit 1. The elevated viaduct continues northeast, with an interchange at Brooklyn Bridge at exit 2; the elevated road known as the South Street Viaduct, continues until Gouverneur Slip, near the Manhattan Bridge interchange, where there is a southbound exit and northbound entrance. From here, the road is at-grade, with a southbound exit/entrance at Grand Street, exit 4; the FDR Drive continues north through Lower East Side and Alphabet City, dips under Houston Street at exit 5, in a three-way interchange.
It continues north as an at-grade road. Between 14th and 15th Streets, the FDR Drive passes a large Con Edison substation; the substation is surrounded by ramps for the former exit 6, a southbound exit and entrance, closed after September 11, 2001. By 18th Street, the FDR Drive curves north onto an elevated viaduct above Avenue C; the elevated viaduct continues until 25th Street in order to serve the 23rd Street interchange at exit 7. This exit serves the neighborhood of Kips Bay. At 23rd Street, Avenue C continues as the northbound service road for the FDR Drive, while the southbound lanes split from the main highway at 25th Street; the FDR Drive continues north as an at-grade road, with the Waterside Plaza complex located along the East River to the east of the parkway. The southbound lanes ascend to a viaduct at 28th Street, the southbound lanes ascend at 30th Street. There is a southbound entrance and northbound exit at ground level at 28th-30th Streets, where the southbound service road begins again.
The northbound exit, labeled exit 8, serves 34th Street in Murray Hill, located four blocks north. Another southbound entrance is located at 34th Street itself, rises to the viaduct level. At 38th Street, the northbound-only exit 9 for 42nd Street, serving Turtle Bay, splits from FDR Drive. Exit 9 continues as an elevated ramp until the intersection of 42nd Street and First Avenue, where it becomes the westbound lanes of 42nd Street; the FDR Drive dips onto street level and merges with the northbound service road. The southbound service road continues parallel to the FDR Drive, the southbound exit 8 splits from the parkway near 41st Street; the southbound service road becomes the eastbound lanes of 42nd Street. The headquarters of the United Nations was constructed on a platform above the at-grade FDR Drive from 42nd to 48th Streets; the southbound roadway is inside a structure resembling a tunnel while the northbound roadway is located just outside of the tunnel. This section is referred to as the United Nations Tunnel though only the westernmost lane of the northbound roadway is under the structure.
At 48th Street, the FDR Drive emerges from the United Nations tunnel. A northbound ramp from First Avenue merges onto the northbound roadway; the southbound roadway contains two exits: exit 10 at 49th Street, exit 11 at 53rd Street. At 54th Street, the road enters the Sutton Place Tunnel, which passes under apartment buildings on the east side of Sutton Place and York Avenue until 60th Street. In this tunnel, the southbound roadway is raised and runs over the northbound roadway for northbound access to and from the Queensboro Bridge interchange; as part of the design in this area, numerous homes on the river were demolished and rebuilt or otherwise modified to accommodate the highway. At 63rd Street, the southbound lanes descend to ground level, at the same elevation as the northbound lanes. From 63rd to 71st Streets, the FDR Drive passes under a series of interconnected at-grade tunnels; the segment from 63rd to 68th Street runs under an annex constructed by Rockefeller University, while the section of roadway between 68th and 71st Streets runs underneath the pilotis of the New York-Presbyterian Hospital.
Afterward, the FDR Drive continues north at ground level. There is a southbound-only entrance and exit, labeled exit 13, at 71st–73rd Streets, serving Lenox Hill on the Upper East Side. Another southbound-only entrance exists at 79th Street.
Fred Hughes is an American R&B singer. He moved to Compton, California, he first recorded while a student at Compton High School as a member of the Cymbals in 1962, worked as a member of a band, the Creators. Hughes was signed up for Vee-Jay Records by the label's A&R chief on the West Coast in the 1960s shortly before its demise, scoring hits in 1965 with the singles, "Oo Wee Baby, I Love You" and "You Can't Take It Away", written and produced by Parker. Released in Britain on the Fontana label, "OO Wee Baby" became a soul classic and was re-released in 1976 by DJM Records because of demand, according to the record's picture sleeve; the singer's career struggled after his label's collapse, although he had a couple of Richard Parker-produced singles released on Exodus, run by Vee-Jay personnel in 1966, another two on Chess Records. In 1969, Hughes signed with another Chicago label, Brunswick Records and although failing to reach the pop charts, two releases for the label became R&B successes, "Baby Boy" at #25 and "I Understand" at #45.
An album was released by Brunswick featuring the two hits. According to his blog, Fred Hughes is confused with Freddie Hughes, an Oakland, California recording artist, Castlemont High School graduate; the 1988 edition of Joel Whitburn's "Top R&B Singles" Billboard-based book lists releases by both artists together as if they were one artist, whilst AllMusic Guide's brief biography of Fred Hughes conflates the two artists, but in editions of Whitburn's "Top Pop Singles" do separate the two artists, as of the 1994 edition. Freddie Hughes recorded "Send My Baby Back", a Top 20 R&B hit. On the strength of this hit, Wand Records released an album of the same name. Freddie Hughes recorded with several Oakland and Berkeley groups including the Melkeets, the Four Rivers, Music City Soul Brothers, the Casanova Two, he shared a producer, Lonnie Hewitt, with the Ballads, he recorded "Send My Baby Back" on Lonnie Hewitt's Wee Records and when the record became popular, it was leased to Wand. In 2014, Fred Hughes' "Baby Boy", a favorite on the UK's Northern soul scene, was featured in the film, "Northern Soul"
The Communist Party was a Maoist political party in the United States. The Communist Party's predecessor organization, the October League, was founded in 1971 by several local groups, many of which had grown out of the radical student organization Students for a Democratic Society when SDS split apart in 1969. Michael Klonsky, a national leader in SDS in the late 1960s, was the main leader of the CP; the October League came out of the Revolutionary Youth Movement II grouping in the SDS split. During the early 1970s the OL took positions that were at odds with most of the US Left, including opposition to gay liberation and support of the shah of Iran, whose regime they saw as a bulwark against Soviet social-imperialism; the OL established influence within some of the established civil rights organizations, including the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Southern Conference Educational Fund, under the influence of the Moscow-oriented Communist Party USA. In late 1975 they organized a "National Fight Back Conference," which drew 1,000 participants and was attended by representatives of the August 29th Movement, the Congress of Afrikan People and the Marxist–Leninist Organizing Committee of San Francisco.
They had a youth group called the Communist Youth Organization. In June 1977, the October League transformed itself into the Communist Party, with Klonsky as chairman and Eileen Klehr as vice-chairman; the CP supported the Chinese government's purge of the Gang of Four. It was subsequently recognized by the Communist Party of China as their de facto fraternal party in the US. Klonsky and Klehr met with Hua Guofeng. Longtime Black communist Harry Haywood, who had become a CP member visited with Chinese leaders in June 1978. In 1978, Daniel Burstein, the editor of the CP central organ The Call, three others made an eight-day tour of Khmer Rouge-ruled Cambodia a Chinese ally, he visited Phnom Penh as well as Siem Reap, Kompong Thom, Kompong Cham and Takéo provinces and had an interview with Ieng Sary. In an op-ed he wrote in the New York Times he claimed that there was no evidence of genocide, claiming that, part of a propaganda campaign orchestrated by the regime's enemies, he did concede, however: The new government has had to deal with many forces that oppose the revolution—former Lon Nol officials, as well as organized networks of American and Vietnamese agents trying to overthrow the Government.
Such sabotage has undoubtedly been met with violent suppression. In the course of this, there may have been some excesses, which no revolution is immune to. In early 1980, the CP condemned the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and called on President Carter to give aid to the Afghan forces opposing the Soviets, end its arms embargo on China and refrain from selling the USSR any "strategic materials"; the CP claimed the Mariel exodus was evidence that the USSR and Fidel Castro had "betrayed" the Cuban Revolution. On the October League's Call for a New Communist Party: A Response by the Proletarian Unity League. New York: United Labor Press, 1976 Communist Party USA Wildcat at Mead a film produced by the October League Lessons from the Collapse of the Communist Party by Carl Davidson