The FIFA Confederations Cup was an international association football tournament for men's national teams, held every four years by FIFA. It was contested by the holders of each of the six continental championships, along with the current FIFA World Cup holder and the host nation, to bring the number of teams up to eight. Between 2001 and 2017, the tournament was held in the country that would host the World Cup next year, acting as a test event for the larger tournament; the last champions were Germany, who won the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup by defeating Chile 1–0 in the final to win their first and only title. In March 2019, FIFA confirmed that the tournament would no longer be active, owing to an expansion of the FIFA Club World Cup in 2021; the tournament was organized by and held in Saudi Arabia, contested in 1992 and 1995 by the Saudi national side and some continental champions. Disputed as the King Fahd Cup, in honor of the Saudi ruler who organized the tournament with his country's federation.
In 1997, FIFA took over the organization of the tournament, named it the FIFA Confederations Cup and staged the competition every two years and recognized the first two editions in 1997. After 2005, it was held every four years, in the year prior to each World Cup in the host country of the forthcoming World Cup. Considered a dress-rehearsal for the World Cup it precedes, it used around half of the stadiums intended for use at the following year's competition and gave the host nation, which qualified for that tournament automatically, experience at a high level of competition during two years of otherwise friendlies. At the same time, participation was made optional for European champions; the host nation, the World Cup holders, the six continental champions qualified for the competition. In those cases where a team meets more than one of the qualification criteria, another team was invited to participate the runner-up in a competition that the extra-qualified team won. On four occasions teams have chosen not to participate in the tournament.
Germany did so twice, in 1997 and in 2003 when Germany were awarded a place as the 2002 World Cup runners-up, replaced by the third-placed team Turkey. World champions France declined a place in the 1999 Confederations Cup, replaced by Brazil, the 1998 World Cup runners-up. Italy, UEFA Euro 2000 runners up, declined their place in the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. An earlier tournament that invited former World Cup winners, the Mundialito, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the first World Cup; the Artemio Franchi Trophy, contested in 1985 and 1993 between the winners of the Copa América and UEFA European Football Championship, was another example of an earlier contest between football confederations. Both of these are considered by some to be a form of unofficial precursor to the Confederations Cup, although FIFA recognised only the 1992 tournaments onwards to be Confederations Cup winners; the 2021 tournament was to be held in Qatar, the host country of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, as announced on 2 December 2010 after the country was awarded the hosting rights of the 2022 FIFA World Cup.
However, concerns arose surrounding Qatar's high temperatures during the summer period. On 25 February 2015, this resulted in FIFA announcing that it would move the 2021 Confederations Cup to another country of the Asian Football Confederation, so it could still be held during the traditional window of June/July 2021, without interrupting domestic leagues; as compensation, another FIFA tournament the 2021 FIFA Club World Cup, could be held in Qatar in November–December 2021, as the test event for the 2022 World Cup. In October 2017, FIFA divulged plans to abolish the Confederations Cup by 2021 and replace it with a quadrennial, 24-team FIFA Club World Cup and move the latter tournament from December to June. On 15 March 2019, FIFA announced that the Confederations Cup would be abolished, with the 2021 FIFA Club World Cup taking place instead; the eight qualified teams were drawn into two round-robin groups: two teams from the same confederation could not be drawn in a group, except if there were three teams from the same confederation.
Every team played all other teams in their group once, for three matches. The top two teams of each group advanced to the semi-finals, with the winners of each group playing the runners-up of the other group; the rankings of teams in each group were determined as follows: If two or more teams were equal on the basis of the above three criteria, their rankings were determined as follows: The winners of the semi-finals advanced to the final, while the losers played in the third-place game. For the knockout stage if the score was drawn at the end of regular time, extra time was played and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winner; the first two editions were in fact the defunct King Fahd Cup. FIFA recognized them retroactively as Confederations Cup editions. *: Hosts FIFA Confederations Cup on FIFA.com
James Edward Roe II is a former American football wide receiver and coach. He served as the offensive coordinator for the Baltimore Brigade of the Arena Football League from 2017–2019, he played for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League from 1996–1998. James Roe attended Henrico High School in Henrico, Virginia where he was an All-State and All-Richmond Metro honoree in football and an All-Richmond Metro honoree in basketball. James was an All-Capital District honoree in track and field. James Roe graduated from Henrico High School in 1991. Reference VHSL Reference Guide & Richmond-Times Dispatch Archives. James Roe attended Norfolk State University from 1992 to 1995 and was voted All-CIAA three years in row. James Roe remains Norfolk State's all-time leading receiver, holds three CIAA reception records for career reception yards, career reception touchdowns and single season reception TD. Roe played for three years for the Baltimore Ravens, ended his NFL career with 15 receptions for 239 yards, a touchdown.
In nine Arena Football League seasons with the San Jose SaberCats, Roe caught 761 receptions for 9449 yards and 231 touchdowns. He received All-Ironman Team honors in 2003, 2004, 2005, was named Ironman of the Game in San Jose's ArenaBowl XVIII victory. After not starting the 2013 season with the team, Roe re-joined the SaberCats with two weeks remaining in the season. In 2017, he became the offensive coordinator of the Baltimore Brigade. Just Sports Stats NFL stats AFL stats ArenaFootball.com bio
The 1904 United States presidential election in Oregon took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Oregon voters chose four electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president; this election would solidify Oregon as a one-party Republican bastion, which it would remain at a Presidential level apart from the 1910s GOP split until Franklin D. Roosevelt rose to power in 1932, apart from a short New Deal interlude at state level until the “Revolution of 1954”. Democratic representation in the Oregon legislature would never exceed fifteen percent during this period, no Democrat other than Woodrow Wilson would henceforth carry one county in the state before the Great Depression. Republican primaries would become the chief mode of competition: indeed Oregon became in this election year the first Western state to utilize the direct primary. President Roosevelt was popular in Oregon because of his policies of reforming the railroads, creating a Department of Commerce and Labor and conserving the forest resources that were at the time exploited by big business.
Parker's re-emphasis on the Gold Standard, which harked back to Grover Cleveland, aroused no enthusiasm in Oregon. Nor did his opposition to Roosevelt's policy of imperialism in the Pacific, with the result that Parker's showing was the worst-ever by any major-party nominee in Oregon except for his mentor Cleveland twelve years previously. At the same time, Roosevelt's performance remains the best by any Presidential candidate since Oregon's statehood in 1859. Parker did not win thirty percent in a single county, overall took just a little over nineteen percent of Oregon's ballots. Socialist nominee Eugene V. Debs, whose campaign focused on trust-busting and the evils of monopoly, travelled all around the nation in a charismatic campaign that netted him over four hundred thousand votes nationwide. Although he did not outpoll Parker in any Oregon county, Debs nonetheless received over eight percent of the vote
Rhymney Valley was one of six local government districts in Mid Glamorgan from 1974 to 1996. The district was formed from areas in the administrative counties of Monmouthshire; the Rhymney River forms the historic boundary between the two counties. From Glamorgan came: The urban district of Caerphilly, less Taff's Well ward The urban district of Gelligaer, except the Bedlinog ward Part of Cardiff Rural District (the parishes of Llanfedw, Rhydygwern and Van. From Monmouthshire came: The urban district of Bedwas and Machen The urban district of Rhymney Part of Bedwellty urban district, In 1996 the district was abolished, with its area becoming part of the unitary Caerphilly County Borough; the district council inherited the municipal bus fleets of Bedwas and Machen and Gelligaer urban district councils. The united operation was given a dark brown and gold livery, ran operations throughout the valley and into Merthyr Tydfil and Newport. With bus deregulation in 1986 the buses passed to Inter Valley Link Limited, owned by the district council at "arms length".
The Nissan Primera is a large family car, produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan from 1990 to 2007, for the Japanese and European markets. In Japan, it replaced the Auster/Stanza, was exclusive to Nissan Prince Store locations. In North America, it was the entry level luxury sports sedan for the Infiniti brand; the word "primera" is Spanish for "first class" or "finest". Since 1986, Nissan had been building Bluebirds — a rebadged home market Auster/Stanza – for the European market at its factory in Washington and Wear, England. Nissan showcased the Primera X concept car at the 1989 Tokyo Motor Show and UV-X concept car at the 1989 International Motor Show Germany. In the end of 1990, Nissan replaced the United Kingdom's Bluebird with the smaller Primera, it had a conventional front wheel drive chassis and five speed manual gearbox, with some versions getting the option of a four speed automatic. Power came from 1.8 litre and 2.0 litre injection petrol engines. The 1.8 was a single point injection model.
The 1.8 litre version was not sold in the rest of Europe. Bodystyles were five door saloons. A five door estate was offered as the Primera Traveller, however, it received the different sheet metal of the Nissan Avenir, was only made in Japan. Nissan had targeted the car at the market in Europe; the Primera saw Nissan's multi-link front suspension applied to front-wheel drive for the first time. The 2.0 litre gasoline engine received a power upgrade in 1992, which gave the ZXe, 150 bhp from the standard 2.0 litre engine and a top speed of around 219 km/h. Some five door British, RHD Primeras were exported back to Japan and Ireland. In the United States, the version built in Japan of the Primera was rebadged as the Infiniti G20, part of Nissan's upper scale Infiniti brand; the Primera range came in six trim levels at launch: L, LS, SLX, GS, GSX and ZX. The 1.6 litre engine was available in L, LS and LSX trim and the 2.0 litre 115 bhp engine was available in LS, GS and GSX trim. The ZX model had a 2.0 litre 150 bhp engine.
From 1992 onwards, the range was facelifted and new L, LX, SLX, SGX and eGT trim levels replaced the original naming scheme. A 2.0 litre diesel version was available from 1992. The L cars were basic, had 1.6 litre petrol engines only. The LX was plusher, but 2.0 litre petrol and diesel versions were available. SLX was the mid range model, these had a choice of 1.6 and 2.0 petrol, or 2.0 diesel engines. The SGX trim level was the luxury specification version; the eGT was the sporting version, with a 2.0 litre 150 bhp engine. Engine power was increased during 1994, with the 1.6 model producing 102 bhp and the 2.0 model, 123 bhp. From 1994, the range received another facelift, the trim levels were the same. A rare AWD option was available, known with 150 bhp. At this time, the SE replaced the SGX. A new "hot hatch" version, the SRi joined the line up from 1994, this had a choice of 1.6 or 2.0 litre petrol engines. There was a rare version of the P10 built and tuned by Japanese tuning company AutechThese models came with special Autech suspension and interior packages and a tuned SR20DE 2.0 litre engine, making 180 PS.
The second generation Nissan Primera was launched in the end of 1995 in Japan, in the autumn of 1996 in Europe. Unique in its class, new Primera featured multi link beam rear suspension with multi-link front suspension; as before, in Europe the Primera was sold with 1.6 L and 2.0 L petrol engines and a 2.0 L diesel, with hatchback and estate bodystyles. While the estate was now based on the Primera's platform, it was assigned a model code of WP11. In Japan, the Primera was offered with the SR18DE, SR20DE and SR20VE-for Japan only engines, only as a sedan; the hatchback assembled in the United Kingdom was available only with the SR20DE engine and automatic transmission and began production from November 1997, a captive import known as the Primera UK GT. Estate began production from September 1997. Alongside the original Primera, the Nissan Primera Camino was launched as a badge engineered model for different dealer networks; the Japanese models introduced a CVT automatic transmission during the P11 series, including a six speed tiptronic version in the M6 G-V and Autech edition wagons and Te-V saloon.
Nissan Primera HP11 TE-V was equipped with CVT-M6 transmissions only. Nissan continued selling the Primera in the United States as the Infiniti G20 until 2002, when it was replaced by a rebadged version of the Nissan Skyline V35 as the Infiniti G35; the G20 used rear lamp alterations from the Primera Camino. In 1998, Nissan New Zealand released a limited edition Primera SMX with association with Steve Millen. Features include cross drilled brakes, a more aggressive body kit. There were a total of 26 made in five colour choices; this was because until 1998 Nissan had an automotive assembly operation in New Zealand, for a short time between 1997 and 1998 the P11 Primera was assembled in Wiri, Auckland. The
Worldwar: Striking the Balance is an alternate history novel by American writer Harry Turtledove. It is the fourth and final novel of the Worldwar tetralogy, as well as the fourth installment in the extended Worldwar series that includes the Colonization trilogy and the novel Homeward Bound. In this book, while the Race considers total annihilation or continuing hostilities, the humans make a stand for the sovereignty of the planet. At the beginning of 1944, the Battle of Chicago has ended with the Race's forces decimated as a result of an American atomic bomb detonated in the heart of the city, destroying most of it. German forces in Western Europe have kept the Race from reaching the Rhine while managing to hurl back the Race's troops in Poland after a nuclear attack on Breslau; the Soviets have managed to stop the Race's assault on Moscow and accept the surrender of a band of disillusioned alien soldiers. After a landing in the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Winston Churchill inflicted a massive victory against the Race using mustard gas, gaining much abandoned technology, inspiring the other nations to use poison gas.
The United States attempts to reverse engineer captured Race technology in an effort to create ballistic missiles at a military base in Couch, Missouri. Sergeant Yeager attempts to help Robert Goddard and other scientists with this research by interrogating captured aliens. By this point Yeager has become an expert translator of the Race's language, making him an invaluable asset to Goddard. In the process of his work, Yeager has developed a friendship with two of the alien prisoners and Ulhass. Both members of the Race show an alarming adaptability to American customs, learning to play baseball and adopting human slang, along with a surprising willingness to help their human captors; the Race has lost interest in Chicago and seeks instead to capture Denver. Captain Rance Auerbach is among the U. S. Army soldiers who are ordered to halt the new offensive. However, the Race's superior firepower and mobility crush American resistance with relative ease. During the fighting, Rance is critically incapacitated.
He awakens in a refugee hospital to find that the Race is advancing on Denver. General Omar Bradley prepares defenses around Denver which, as the site of America's nuclear weapons program, must be defended at all costs. Brigadier General Groves and the metallurgical laboratory manage to produce an atomic bomb which they use to halt the Race. Fleetlord Atvar considers a nuclear strike against Denver in retaliation, but decides against it since the nuclear fallout would harm the Race's forces. Instead he orders the detonation of one over the front lines in Florida, causing the collapse of the entire American position in the state. Americans are upset by the recent death of President Franklin Roosevelt, Atvar hopes that this will cause a succession crisis, tearing the United States apart; the U. S. Army, under the command of General George Patton, launches a counter-offensive down the Mississippi River liberating it from the Race, they manage to reach Quincy, Illinois but begin taking higher and higher casualties as they progress.
The first American ballistic missiles are launched against the Race, though they are so crude and unsophisticated that they do little damage against the invaders. Many of these missiles are destroyed by the Race's anti-missile systems, but stocks of anti-missile weapons are low as the Race expended many to shoot down German missiles. The speed with which the Americans and Germans have developed such weapons stuns and frightens the Race. In Poland, the Wehrmacht continues its advance eastward toward Lodz. However, as they get deeper and deeper into Polish territory, they encounter Jewish partisans whose sympathies lean toward the Race. Mordechai Anielewicz and his fellow Jews do not trust the Nazis and do not wish to see them in control of Poland, they don't wish to see the Race rule the world, either. This situation is exacerbated by the realization that Soviet forces in Ukraine are making their way toward Poland as well. No one is sure when the Wehrmacht and the Red Army meet on the battlefield.
Colonel Heinrich Jäger, a tank commander who has had experience with the partisans, manages to convince Anielewicz that the German forces will not repeat their previous persecution of the Jews. For a time, the Wehrmacht and the partisans manage to work together against the Race; the Kriegsmarine manages to destroy Alexandria with an atomic bomb on board a type XXI Elektroboote U-boat. This attack shocks the Race, both because they are unaware of the type XXI's existence and do not see how the bomb could have been transported close enough to Alexandria to destroy the city, due to Alexandria's proximity to the Race's capital in Cairo. In the wake of recent setbacks a Soviet nuclear attack on the Race's forces in Saratov, Fleetlord Atvar agrees to meet with human diplomats from the USSR, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States for the purpose of negotiating an armistice. Vyacheslav Molotov, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Anthony Eden, Shigenori Tōgō, George Marshall head to Cairo, the Race's capital, in order to negotiate with Atvar.
However, the chances for peace are endangered when Hitler secretly plans to resume hostilities by launching a surprise attack against the Race in Poland. Jäger is relieved that the fighting hopes that it will achieve a lasting peace. However, Hitler sends SS agents into Poland under Otto Skorzeny and they begin to cause friction between the local Poles, the Jewish partisans