Costa Rica the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area; the sovereign state of Costa Rica is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. It is known for its long-standing and stable democracy, for its educated workforce, most of whom speak English; the country spends 6.9% of its budget on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%. Its economy, once dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies and ecotourism. Many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones where they benefit from investment and tax incentives.
Costa Rica was facing a market liquidity crisis in 2017 due to a growing budget deficit. By August 2017, the Treasury was having difficulty paying its obligations. Other challenges facing the country in its attempts to improve the economy by increasing foreign investment include a poor infrastructure and a need to improve public sector efficiency. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century, it remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the First Mexican Empire, followed by membership in the United Provinces of Central America, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. Since Costa Rica has remained among the most stable and progressive nations in Latin America. Following the brief Costa Rican Civil War, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army; the country has performed favorably in the Human Development Index, placing 69th in the world as of 2015, among the highest of any Latin American nation.
It has been cited by the United Nations Development Programme as having attained much higher human development than other countries at the same income levels, with a better record on human development and inequality than the median of the region. Costa Rica has progressive environmental policies, it is the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. It was ranked 42nd in the world, third in the Americas, in the 2016 Environmental Performance Index, was twice ranked the best performing country in the New Economics Foundation's Happy Planet Index, which measures environmental sustainability, was identified by the NEF as the greenest country in the world in 2009. Costa Rica plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021. By 2016, 98.1% of its electricity was generated from green sources hydro, solar and biomass. Historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
More pre-Columbian Costa Rica has been described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. Stone tools, the oldest evidence of human occupation in Costa Rica, are associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley; the presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, two different cultures coexisted. Agriculture became evident in the populations, they grew tubers and roots. For the first and second millennia BCE there were settled farming communities; these were small and scattered, although the timing of the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the main livelihood in the territory is still unknown. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE. Shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters and other forms of vases decorated with grooves and some modelled after animals have been found; the impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been small compared to other nations, since the country lacked a strong native civilization to begin with.
Most of the native population was absorbed into the Spanish-speaking colonial society through inter-marriage, except for some small remnants, the most significant of which are the Bribri and Boruca tribes who still inhabit the mountains of the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the southeastern part of Costa Rica, near the frontier with Panama. The name la costa rica, meaning "rich coast" in the Spanish language, was in some accounts first applied by Christopher Columbus, who sailed to the eastern shores of Costa Rica during his final voyage in 1502, reported vast quantities of gold jewelry worn by natives; the name may have come from conquistador Gil González Dávila, who landed on the west coast in 1522, encountered natives, appropriated some of their gold. During most of the colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In practice, the captaincy general was a autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire.
Costa Rica's distance from the capital of the captaincy in Guatemala, its legal prohibition under Spanish law from trade with its southern neighbor Panama part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, lack of r
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Queen Elizabeth II Park
Queen Elizabeth II Park was a multi-use stadium in Christchurch, New Zealand, located in a large park of the same name. The stadium had a capacity of 25,000 people and was built in 1973 to host the 1974 British Commonwealth Games, with a temporary 10,000 seat western stand erected for that event to take the capacity to 35,000; the stadium suffered some damage in the September 2010 Canterbury earthquake but was able to reopen, only to be damaged beyond repair in February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. An adjacent swimming complex has been demolished. Two high schools from the eastern suburbs will be rebuilt in Queen Elizabeth II Park adjacent to a new swimming complex; the facilities are situated in a large park called Queen Elizabeth II Park. Queen Elizabeth II Park contained a running track, as well as a diving pool. There is a cricket ground, behind the main complex, called "The Village Green", the home of the district's first-class cricket team, the Canterbury Wizards. A golf course takes up with north-east corner of Queen Elizabeth II Park.
The stadium hosted many local and international events, including concerts by many famous artists, such as The Eagles, Beach Boys, Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton, Neil Diamond, David Bowie and Red Hot Chili Peppers. On 29 November 1978, it hosted a concert of David Bowie as part of his Isolar II – The 1978 World Tour; the venue was the site of the last concert by Talking Heads in 1984, apart from their brief reformation for their induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 2002. For many years it was the venue for the Christchurch Kids Weet-Bix triathlon, for athletics and football matches, it was one of venues to host the 2008 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup and was used as the main stadium for the 2011 IPC Athletics World Championships after repairs from the 2010 earthquake had cleared the facility for use. A fun park was located adjacent to the pool between early 2000s; the park consisted of Drive World a mini street where visitors could ride mini bikes or mini vehicles around the streets, a mini golf course, a maze, five lane super slide and for a time a mini roller coaster.
The Christchurch City Council had launched a feasibility study into returning the Commonwealth Games to the city in 2018 with QEII Park to be used for athletics and swimming events - with Lancaster Park to be used for rugby sevens as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prime Minister John Key was against the plan, the February 2011 earthquake ended any prospect; the stadium has hosted two rugby league internationals involving New Zealand. Notable games at the stadium include: In March 2012, Christchurch City Council released reports showing that the facilities at Queen Elizabeth II Park were beyond repair; the demolition of the stadium and pool complex began in August 2012. In February 2015 the Minister of Education, Hekia Parata, announced that two single-sex high schools damaged in the earthquakes would be rebuilt at Queen Elizabeth II Park: Avonside Girls' and Shirley Boys'. Christchurch City Council sold 11.5 hectares of land to the Ministry of Education for NZ$4.6m for the two schools.
A new Eastern Sport & Recreation Centre will be co-located adjacent to the schools and its concept design was unveiled in May 2016, with an expected opening date in 2018. Videos of a swimming pool walk-through showing earthquake damageG_KrSwtAET0 Part 1 on YouTube LEmOY8rF-9k Part 2 on YouTube
2008 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup
The 2008 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup is the first women's football U-17 World Cup in FIFA history. It was held in New Zealand from 28 October to 16 November 2008, it is the recognized world championship for women's under-17 national football teams. This was the first women's world youth championship organized by FIFA with the age limit of 17. Matches were played in four New Zealand cities: The Auckland conurbation, New Zealand's largest metropolitan area, hosted the final and 3rd place playoff; the designated host stadium is located in North Shore City. Hamilton hosted two of the quarter-finals. Wellington, New Zealand's capital city, hosted two of the quarter-finals. Christchurch, the only host city in the South Island, hosted the semi-finals. Pool matches were spread evenly among these cities; the host nation, New Zealand, was based in Auckland but played one pool match in Wellington. All times local All times local Dzsenifer Marozsán of Germany won the Golden Shoe award for scoring six goals. In total, 113 goals were scored with two of them credited as own goals.
6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goal FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup New Zealand 2008, FIFA.com FIFA Technical Report
Hamilton, New Zealand
Hamilton is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the seat and most populous city of the Waikato region, with a territorial population of 169,300, the country's fourth most-populous city. Encompassing a land area of about 110 km2 on the banks of the Waikato River, Hamilton is part of the wider Hamilton Urban Area, which encompasses the nearby towns of Ngaruawahia, Te Awamutu and Cambridge; the area now covered by the city was the site of several Māori villages, including Kirikiriroa, from which the city takes its Māori name. By the time English settlers arrived, most of these villages, which sat beside the Waikato River, were abandoned as a result of the Invasion of Waikato, Waikato Wars and the unjust land confiscation by the Crown under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863; the new English settlement was renamed Hamilton after Captain John Fane Charles Hamilton, the commander of HMS Esk, killed in the Battle of Gate Pā, Tauranga. An agricultural service centre, Hamilton now has a diverse economy and is the third fastest growing urban area in New Zealand, behind Pukekohe and Auckland.
Hamilton Gardens is the region's most popular tourist attraction. Education and research and development play an important part in Hamilton's economy, as the city is home to 40,000 tertiary students and 1,000 PhD-qualified scientists; the area now covered by the city was the site of several Māori villages, including Pukete and Kirikiriroa, from which the city takes its Māori name. Local Māori were the target of raids by Ngāpuhi during the Musket Wars, several pā sites from this period can still be found beside the Waikato River. In December 2011 several rua or food storage pits were found near the Waikato River bank, close to the Waikato museum. In 1822, Kirikiriroa Pa was abandoned to escape the Musket Wars. However, by the 1830s Ngati Wairere’s principal pa was Kirikiriroa, where the missionaries, who arrived at that time, estimated 200 people lived permanently. A chapel and house were built at Kirikiriroa for visiting clergy after Benjamin Ashwell established his mission near Taupiri. Between 1845 and 1855 crops such as wheat and potatoes were exported to Auckland, with up to 50 canoes serving Kirikiriroa.
Imports included blankets, axes, sugar and tobacco. Millstones were acquired and a water wheel constructed, though the flour mill wasn't completed. However, one article said. Magistrate Gorst, estimated that Kirikiriroa had a population of about 78 before the Invasion of Waikato via the Waikato Wars of 1863–64; the government estimated. After the war in the Waikato, large areas of land, including the area of the present city of Hamilton were unjustly confiscated by the Crown under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863.. By the time British settlers arrived after 1863, most of these villages had been abandoned as a result of the land confiscation known as Raupatu. After the invasion of the Waikato and confiscation of the invaded land, militia-settlers were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney. Hamilton was settled by the 4th regiment of the Waikato Militia; the 1st Regiment was at Tauranga, the 2nd at Pirongia, the 3rd at Cambridge and the 4th at Kirikiriroa. The settlement was founded on 24 August 1864 and named by Colonel William Moule after Captain John Fane Charles Hamilton, the commander of HMS Esk, who never stepped foot in Kirikiriroa and was killed in the battle of Gate Pā, Tauranga.
On 10 March 2013 a statue of Captain Hamilton was given to the city by the Gallagher Group. Many of the soldier/settlers who intended to farm after the 1863 war, walked off their land in 1868 disgusted at the poor quality of the land. Much of the land was swampy or under water. In 1868 Hamilton's population, about 1,000 in 1864, dropped to 300 as farmers left; the road from Auckland reached Hamilton in 1867 and the railway in December 1877. That same month, the towns of Hamilton East merged under a single borough council; the first traffic bridge between Hamilton West and Hamilton East, known as the Union Bridge, opened in 1879. It was replaced by the Victoria Bridge in 1910; the first railway bridge, the Claudelands Bridge, was opened in 1884. It was converted to a road traffic bridge in 1965. Hamilton reached 1,000 people in 1900, the town of Frankton merged with the Hamilton Borough in 1917. Between 1912 and 1936, Hamilton expanded with new land in Claudelands and Richmond – modern day Waikato Hospital and northern Melville.
Hamilton was proclaimed a city in 1945. The city is near the southernmost navigable reach of the Waikato River, amidst New Zealand's richest and now fertile agricultural land, once Raupo and Kahikatea swamp. Beale Cottage is an 1872 listed building in Hamilton East. From 1985 MV Waipa Delta provided excursions along the river through the town centre. In 2009 Waipa Delta was moved to provide trips on Waitematā Harbour in Auckland, but replaced by a smaller boat; that too ceased operation and the pontoon at Parana Park was removed in 2013. The Delta moved to Taupo in 2012; the former Golden Bay vessel, Cynthia Dew, has run 4 days a week on the river since 2012. Hamilton Central, on the Waikato River, is a bustling retail precinct; the entertainment area is quite vibrant due to the large student population. The 2008 Lonely Planet guide states that "the city's main street has sprouted a sophisticated and vibrant stretch of bars and eateries that on the weekend at least leave Auckland's Viaduct Harbour
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
North Shore, New Zealand
The North Shore is part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, located to the north of the Waitematā Harbour. The North Shore was North Shore City, a distinct territorial authority district, governed by the North Shore City Council from 1989 until 2010, when it was incorporated into Auckland Council; the city had an estimated population of 229,000 at 30 June 2010, making it the fourth most populous city in New Zealand prior to the November 2010 reorganisation. The former city was the country's fourth largest city in land, with an area of 129.81 square kilometres and a coastline of 141 kilometres. It was the most densely populated city in the country because, unlike other New Zealand cities, most of the city's area was urban or suburban in character; the North Shore comprises a large suburban area to the north of downtown Auckland. The North Shore has been administered by various councils over the years, in the most recent past the North Shore City Council. On 1 November 2010, North Shore City Council and the six other local councils and Auckland Regional Council merged to create Auckland Council.
Today, the entire area has been divided among four local boards of the amalgamated Auckland Council: Devonport-Takapuna, Upper Harbour and Hibiscus and Bays. The administrative area of North Shore City Council was bounded by Rodney District to the north, Waitematā Harbour to the south and the Rangitoto Channel of the Hauraki Gulf to the east; the seat of the council was in Takapuna. North Shore City was divided into the following wards, which each ward was further divided into two community boards. Albany Community Board: Albany2, Albany Heights, Fairview Heights, Greenhithe2, Lucas Heights, Paremoremo, Rosedale, Schnapper Rock, Unsworth Heights, Windsor Park; the European history of the North Shore was dominated by rural settlement, with people from the "main" Auckland venturing there only during weekends, when the beaches and many coastal settlements were favourite daytripper goals reached by the ferries connecting the North Shore to Auckland. By the 1950s, only about 50,000 people lived on the Shore, its growth rate was still about half that of the areas south of the Waitemata because few jobs were on offer.
This changed with the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959, which opened up the Shore for Auckland expansion – vehicle volumes on the bridge became three times the forecast volume within the first decade – and began turning parts of it into a dormitory town for people working in the Auckland CBD or further south. The growth became significant enough for the North Shore to be considered a city in its own right, though densities remained still below what is typical south of the Harbour. On 1 November 2010 the North Shore boundaries were amalgamated with the rest of the entire Auckland Region, the North Shore City Council was abolished and replaced by a single unitary city authority. All council services and facilities are now under authority of the Auckland Council. Commuting within the North Shore itself can be done easily, but those who commute to Auckland City and need to cross the Auckland Harbour Bridge face severe traffic congestion; the alternative route through western suburbs is prone to nose-to-tail traffic at peak times.
As with the greater Auckland area, there has been much discussion regarding the problem at both national and local government levels, but little concrete action related to the high cost and difficulty of providing additional crossings over the Waitematā Harbour. Several options for new bridges and tunnels have been studied in depth, but at the moment, the official position is to mitigate congestion effects instead of providing new infrastructure; the Northern Busway running alongside the Northern Motorway, together with park and ride or drop-off areas at most of its stations, serves as the spine of a bus-based rapid transit system for North Shore and Hibiscus Coast citizens. The busway was operational between Constellation and Akoranga in February 2008. A number of North Shore suburbs have a regular ferry service to Auckland City, including Devonport, Stanley Bay, Birkenhead. Others are planned for Takapuna and Browns Bay. A plan in the mid-2000s to turn North Shore streets into a venue for a three-day V8 supercar race generated controversy.
The city was run by a 15-member council and mayor, democratically elected every three years using the First Past The Post voting system. The