The World Cup is a gold trophy, awarded to the winners of the FIFA World Cup association football tournament. Since the advent of the World Cup in 1930, two trophies have been used: the Jules Rimet Trophy from 1930 to 1970, the FIFA World Cup Trophy from 1974 to the present day; the first trophy named Victory, but renamed in honour of FIFA president Jules Rimet, was made of gold plated sterling silver and lapis lazuli and depicted Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Brazil won the trophy outright in 1970; the original Jules Rimet Trophy was never recovered. The subsequent trophy, called the "FIFA World Cup Trophy", was introduced in 1974. Made of 18 carat gold with bands of malachite on its base, it stands 36.8 centimetres high and weighs 6.1 kilograms. The trophy was made by Stabilimento Artistico Bertoni company in Italy, it depicts two human figures holding up the Earth. The current holders of the trophy are winners of the 2018 World Cup; the Jules Rimet Trophy was the original prize for winning the FIFA World Cup.
Called "Victory", but known as the World Cup or Coupe du Monde, it was renamed in 1946 to honour the FIFA President Jules Rimet who in 1929 passed a vote to initiate the competition. It was designed by French sculptor Abel Lafleur and made of gold-plated sterling silver on a lapis lazuli base. In 1954 this base was replaced with a taller version to accommodate more winner's details, it weighed 3.8 kilograms. It comprised a decagonal cup, supported by a winged figure representing Nike, the ancient Greek goddess of victory; the Jules Rimet Trophy was taken to Uruguay for the first FIFA World Cup aboard the Conte Verde, which set sail from Villefranche-sur-Mer, just southeast of Nice, on 21 June 1930. This was the same ship that carried Jules Rimet and the footballers representing France and Belgium who were participating in the tournament that year; the first team to be awarded the trophy was the winners of the 1930 World Cup. During World War II, the trophy was held by 1938 champion Italy. Ottorino Barassi, the Italian vice-president of FIFA and president of FIGC, secretly transported the trophy from a bank in Rome and hid it in a shoe-box under his bed to prevent the Nazis from taking it.
The 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden marked the beginning of a tradition regarding the trophy. As Brazilian captain Hilderaldo Bellini heard photographers' requests for a better view of the Jules Rimet Trophy, he lifted it up in the air; every Cup-winning captain since has repeated the gesture. On 20 March 1966, four months before the 1966 FIFA World Cup in England, the trophy was stolen during a public exhibition at Westminster Central Hall, it was found just seven days wrapped in newspaper at the bottom of a suburban garden hedge on Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, South London, by a black and white mongrel dog named Pickles. As a security measure, The Football Association secretly manufactured a replica of the trophy for use in exhibitions rather than the original; this replica was used on subsequent occasions up until 1970 when the original trophy had to be handed back to FIFA for the next competition. Since FIFA had explicitly denied the FA permission to create a replica, the replica had to disappear from public view and was for many years kept under its creator's bed.
This replica was sold at an auction in 1997 for £254,500, when it was purchased by FIFA. The high auction price, ten times the reserve price of £20,000–£30,000, was led by speculation that the auctioned trophy was not the replica trophy but the original itself. Subsequent testing by FIFA, confirmed the auctioned trophy was indeed a replica and FIFA soon afterwards arranged for the replica to be lent for display at the English National Football Museum, based in Preston but is now in Manchester; the Brazilian team won the tournament for the third time in 1970, allowing them to keep the real trophy in perpetuity, as had been stipulated by Jules Rimet in 1930. It was put on display at the Brazilian Football Confederation headquarters in Rio de Janeiro in a cabinet with a front of bullet-proof glass. On 19 December 1983, the wooden rear of the cabinet was opened by force with a crowbar and the cup was stolen again. Four men were convicted in absentia for the crime; the trophy has never been recovered, it is believed to have been melted down and sold.
Only one piece of the Jules Rimet Trophy has been found, the original base which FIFA had kept in a basement of the federation's Zürich headquarters prior to 2015. The Confederation commissioned a replica of their own, made by Eastman Kodak, using 1.8 kilograms of gold. This replica was presented to Brazilian military president João Figueiredo in 1984; the trophy was the subject of a 2014 documentary "Mysteries of the Rimet Trophy" shown as part of ESPN's 30 for 30: Soccer Stories films series during the 2014 World Cup. A replacement trophy was commissioned by FIFA for the 1974 World Cup. Fifty-three submissions were received from sculptors in seven countries. Italian artist Silvio Gazzaniga was awarded the commission; the trophy stands 36.5 centimetres tall and is made of 5 kilograms of 18 carat gold, worth US$161,000 in 2018, with a base 13 centimetres in diameter containing two layers of malachite. It has been asserted by Sir Martyn Poliakoff of Periodic Videos. Produced by Bertoni, Milano in Paderno Dugnano, it weighs 6.175 kilograms in total and depicts two human figures holding up the Earth.
Gazzaniga described the
Premium efficiency is a class of motor efficiency. As part of a concerted effort worldwide to reduce energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the impact of industrial operations on the environment, various regulatory authorities in many countries have introduced, or are planning, legislation to encourage the manufacture and use of higher efficiency motors; this article looks at the development of the premium efficiency standard and premium efficiency motors and associated environmental and energy-related topics. The oil crisis and the worldwide need for more power and more power stations have raised energy conservation awareness. In 1992 the U. S. Congress, as part of the Energy Policy Act set minimum efficiency levels for electric motors. In 1998 the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power systems issued a voluntary agreement of motor manufacturers on efficiency classification, with three efficiency classes: Eff 1 for High Efficiency Eff 2 for Standard Efficiency Eff 3 for Low Efficiency The term premium efficiency as discussed here relates to a class of motor efficiency.
It is thought necessary to introduce this term associated with motors because of forthcoming legislation in the EU, USA and other countries regarding the future mandatory use of premium-efficiency squirrel cage induction type motors in defined equipment. Several statements have been made regarding motor use and the advantages of using premium-efficiency or higher efficiency motors; these include: Based on U. S. Department of Energy data, it is estimated that the National Electrical Manufacturers Association premium-efficiency motor program would save 5.8 terawatts of electricity and prevent the release of nearly 80 million metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere over the next ten years. This is equivalent to keeping 16 million cars off the road. 30 million new electric motors are sold each year for industrial purposes. Some 300 million motors are in use in industry and large buildings; these electric motors are responsible for 40% of global electricity used to drive pumps, fans and other mechanical traction equipment.
Motor technology has evolved over the last few decades. Superior so-called "premium" products are now available, ready to change the market toward energy efficiency and to contribute in lowering greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. With using best practice energy efficiency of electrical motors can be improved by 20% to 30% on average. Most improvements have a pay back time of 1 to 3 years; this in addition means a big potential impact on reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. Electric motor systems consume large amounts of electrical energy and can provide an opportunity for significant energy savings. Energy represents more than 97 percent of total motor operating costs over the motor's lifetime. However, the purchase of a new motor tends to be driven by the price, not the electricity it will consume. A small improvement in efficiency could result in significant energy and cost savings. Investing a little more money upfront for a more efficient motor is paid back in energy savings. Improving energy efficiency reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
The efficiency of an electric motor is defined as the ratio of usable shaft power to electric input power. Ηmot = Pshaft ÷ Pin ηmot = motor efficiency Pshaft = shaft Power Pin = electrical input from power supply The shaft power is transferred to the machine driven. Loss in motor efficiency is determined by the difference between the input power and output or shaft power. Ploss = Pin - Pshaft Ploss = losses of electric motor Motor energy loss is heat caused by many factors, including loss from the coil winding, loss in the rotor bars and slip rings, loss due to magnetising of the iron core, loss from friction of bearings. On December 19, 2007, President Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 into law; the National Electrical Manufacturers Association participated in crafting major provisions on EISA. A critical provision that NEMA focused on was increased motor efficiency levels; the Motor Generator section of NEMA joined forces with the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy to draft and recommend new motor efficiency regulations covering both general purpose and some categories of definite and special purpose electrical motors.
The Motor and Generator Section of NEMA established the NEMA Premium program for four main reasons: Electric motors have a significant impact on the total energy operating cost for industrial and commercial buildings. Electric motors vary in terms of energy efficiency; the NEMA Premium program will assist purchasers identify higher efficient motors that will save them money and improve system reliability. NEMA Premium labeled electric motors will assist users to optimize motor systems efficiency in light of power supply and utility deregulation issues. NEMA Premium motors and optimized systems will reduce electrical consumption thereby reducing pollution associated with electrical power generation. Visit NEMA Premium Motors for more information. A summary of EISA standards for motors: In June, 2005, the European Union enacted a Directive on establishing a framework for setting Eco-design requirements for all energy using products in the residential and industrial sectors. Coherent EU-wide rules for eco-design will ensure that disparities among national regulations do not become obstacles to intra-EU trade.
The directive does not introduce directly binding requirements for spec
Merzalben is a municipality in Südwestpfalz district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany. It is a tourist resort recognised by the state. Merzalben's earliest known records date to 1237. In 2007 66.3% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholic and 19.3% were Protestant. The rest either belonged to another none; the local council in Merzalben consists of 16 councillors, who were elected in the local election on 7 June 2009, whose honorary local mayor is the chairman. The 28-metre-high Luitpold Tower was established 1909 on the summit of the 610-metre-high Weißenberg hill as observation tower. Gräfenstein Castle is a castle ruin of about two kilometres east of Merzalben, it gave its name to the region