At the end of each FIFA World Cup final tournament, several awards are presented to the players and teams which have distinguished themselves in various aspects of the game. There are five post-tournament awards, one given during the tournament: the Golden Ball for best player, first awarded in 1982. Two other awards were given between 1994 and 2006: The Most Entertaining Team award for the team that has entertained the public the most, during the World Cup final tournament, as determined by a poll of the general public; the Golden Ball award is presented to the best player at each FIFA World Cup finals, with a shortlist drawn up by the FIFA technical committee and the winner voted for by representatives of the media. Those who finish as runners-up in the vote receive the Silver Ball and Bronze Ball awards as the second and third most outstanding players in the tournament respectively; the current award was introduced in the 1982 FIFA World Cup, sponsored by Adidas and France Football, though fifa.com lists in their player articles as "golden ball winners" Kempes, Pelé, Bobby Charlton and Didi for 1978, 1974, 1970, 1966, 1962 and 1958 respectively.
Barcelona is the only club. The Golden Boot or Golden Shoe Award goes to the top goalscorer of the FIFA World Cup. While every World Cup had a ranking of the goalscorers, the first time an award was given was in 1982, under the name Golden Shoe, it was rechristened Golden Boot in 2010. FIFA sometimes lists the top goalscorers of previous Cups among the Golden Boot winners. If there is more than one player with the same number of goals, since 1994 the tie-breaker goes to the player without a penalty goal, if none has a penalty the tie breaker goes to the person with more assists - with the FIFA Technical Study Group deciding whether an assist is to be counted as such. If there is still more than one player, the tie-breaker since 2006 goes to the player who has played the least amount of time, which translates to a higher goal average; the Golden Glove Award is awarded to the best goalkeeper of the tournament. The award was introduced with the name Lev Yashin Award in 1994, in honor of the late Soviet goalkeeper.
The FIFA Technical Study Group recognises the top goalkeeper of the tournament based on the player's performance throughout the final competition. Although goalkeepers have this specific award for their position, they are still eligible for the Golden Ball as well, as when Oliver Kahn was awarded in 2002. In the event of a tie, the Golden Glove Award goes to the goalkeeper who progressed furthest in the competition; the next tiebreakers are saves made minutes played. Although the Golden Glove Award was first awarded in 1994, every All-Star Team in World Cups prior to 1998 except 1990 included only one goalkeeper; the Best Young Player award was awarded for the first time at the 2006 World Cup in Germany and given to Germany's Lukas Podolski. The award is given to the best player in the tournament, at most 21 years old. For the 2018 World Cup, this meant that the player had to have been born on or after 1 January 1997; the election took place on FIFA's official World Cup website with the help of The FIFA Technical Study Group.
FIFA organised a survey on the Internet for users to choose the "best young player" of the World Cup, between 1958 and 2002, named the best young player of each tournament. With 61% of the overall vote, the winner was Pelé, who finished ahead of the Peruvian Teófilo Cubillas, the best young player at Mexico 1970, England's Michael Owen, who reached similar heights at France 98; the FIFA Fair Play Trophy is given to the team with the best record of fair play during the World Cup final tournament since 1970. Only teams that qualified for the second round are considered; the winners of this award earn the FIFA Fair Play Trophy, a diploma, a fair play medal for each player and official, $50,000 worth of football equipment to be used for youth development. The appearance of the award was a certificate. From 1982 to 1990, it had been a golden trophy based on Sport Billy, a football-playing cartoon character from 1982 who became an icon for FIFA Fair play. Since 1994, it is a trophy with an elegant footballer figure.
Peru was the first nation to win the award after receiving no yellow or red cards in the 1970 FIFA World Cup held in Mexico. The Man of the Match award picks the outstanding player in every game of the tournament since 2002. While the inaugural two editions were chosen by the technical group, the Man of the Match is since 2010 picked by an online poll on FIFA's website. Total awardsAs of 15 July 2018 By CountryAs of 15 July 2018 The FIFA Award for the Most Entertaining Team is a subjectively awarded prize for the team th
In mathematics, there are many different ways to construct a topological tensor product of two topological vector spaces. For Hilbert spaces or nuclear spaces there is a simple well-behaved theory of tensor products, but for general Banach spaces or locally convex topological vector spaces the theory is notoriously subtle. One of the original motivations for topological tensor products ⊗ ^ is the fact that tensor products of the spaces of smooth functions on R n do not behave as expected. There is an injection. For example, the function f = e x y cannot be expressed as a finite linear combination of smooth functions in C ∞ ⊗ C ∞. We only get an isomorphism after constructing the topological tensor product. C ∞ ⊗ ^ C ∞ ≅ C ∞ This article first details the construction in the Banach space case. C ∞ is not a Banach space and further cases are discussed at the end; the algebraic tensor product of two Hilbert spaces A and B has a natural positive definite sesquilinear form induced by the sesquilinear forms of A and B.
So in particular it has a natural positive definite quadratic form, the corresponding completion is a Hilbert space A ⊗ B, called the tensor product of A and B. If the vectors ai and bj run through orthonormal bases of A and B the vectors ai⊗bj form an orthonormal basis of A ⊗ B. We shall use the notation from in this section; the obvious way to define the tensor product of two Banach spaces A and B is to copy the method for Hilbert spaces: define a norm on the algebraic tensor product take the completion in this norm. The problem is. If A and B are Banach spaces the algebraic tensor product of A and B means the tensor product of A and B as vector spaces and is denoted by A ⊗ B; the algebraic tensor product A ⊗ B consists of all finite sums x = ∑ i = 1 n a i ⊗ b i where n is a natural number depending on x and a i ∈ A and b i ∈ B for i = 1, …, n. When A and B are Banach spaces, a cross norm p on the algebraic tensor product A ⊗ B is a norm satisfying the conditions p = ‖ a ‖ ‖ b ‖, p ′ = ‖ a ′ ‖ ‖ b ′ ‖.
Here a′ and b′ are in the topological dual spaces of A and B and p′ is the dual norm of p. The term reasonable crossnorm is used for the definition above. There is a cross norm π called the projective cross norm, given by π = inf where x ∈ A ⊗ B, it turns out. There is a cross norm ε called the injective cross norm, given by
The Pat Finucane Centre is a human rights advocacy and lobbying entity in Northern Ireland. Named in honour of murdered solicitor Pat Finucane, it operates advice centres in Derry and Newry, dealing with complaints from Irish nationalists and republicans; the PFC promotes a nonviolent ethos, believing that the Northern Irish conflict arose due to the government's failure to uphold Article 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law The PFC states that the criminal justice system is not conducive to justice regarding crimes during the Northern Irish conflict, following a relative's request, one of the core activities of the PFC is to research and document individual cases of death during the conflict. "New inquiry call over Army killings". BBC. 2002-06-11. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Civil Liberties/Human Rights: Pat Finucane Centre for Human Rights". Irish Links. 2008-04-20. Archived from the original on November 18, 2007.
Retrieved 2009-01-06. "CD for Northern Ireland's Pat Finucane Centre". Green Left Weekly. Cultural Dissent. 1999-02-24. Archived from the original on 2012-11-27. "Widow opens Newry's Pat Finucane Centre". The Newry Democrat. 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "UK: Northern Ireland Software centre plans under fire". BBC. 1999-08-25. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Family seek answers over shooting". BBC. 2002-10-25. Retrieved 2009-01-06. Official site Entry in Irishlinks