The FAL is a battle rifle designed by Belgian small arms designer Dieudonné Saive and manufactured by FN Herstal. During the Cold War the FAL was adopted by many countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with the notable exception of the United States, it is one of the most used rifles in history, having been used by more than 90 countries. Because of its prevalence and widespread usage among the militaries of many NATO and first world countries during the Cold War, it was given the title "The right arm of the Free World", it is chambered for the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. The British Commonwealth variant of the FAL was redesigned from FN's metrical FAL into British imperial units and was produced under licence as the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle. In 1946, the first FAL prototype was completed, it was designed to fire the intermediate 7.92×33mm Kurz cartridge developed and used by the forces of Germany during World War II. After testing this prototype in 1948, the British Army urged FN to build additional prototypes, including one in bullpup configuration, chambered for their new.280 British caliber intermediate cartridge.
After evaluating the single bullpup prototype, FN decided to return instead to their original, conventional design for future production. In 1950, the United Kingdom presented the redesigned FN rifle and the British EM-2, both in.280 British calibre, to the United States for comparison testing against the favoured United States Army design of the time—Earle Harvey's T25. It was hoped that a common cartridge and rifle could be standardized for issue to the armies of all NATO member countries. After this testing was completed, U. S. Army officials suggested that FN should redesign their rifle to fire the U. S. prototype ".30 Light Rifle" cartridge. FN decided to hedge their bets with the U. S. and in 1951 made a deal that the U. S. could produce FALs royalty-free, given that the UK appeared to be favouring their own EM-2. This decision appeared to be correct when the British Army decided to adopt the EM-2 and.280 British cartridge. This decision was rescinded after the Labour Party lost the 1951 General Election and Winston Churchill returned as Prime Minister.
It is believed that there was a quid pro quo agreement between Churchill and U. S. President Harry Truman in 1952 that the British accept the.30 Light Rifle cartridge as NATO standard in return for the U. S. acceptance of the FN FAL as NATO standard. The.30 Light Rifle cartridge was in fact standardized as the 7.62 mm NATO. S. insisted on continued rifle tests. The FAL chambered for the.30 Light Rifle went up against the redesigned T25, an M1 Garand variant, the T44. The T44 won, becoming the M14. However, in the meantime, most other NATO countries were evaluating and selecting the FAL. FN created what is the classic post-war battle rifle. Formally introduced by its designer Dieudonné Saive in 1951, produced two years it has been described as the "Right Arm of the Free World." The FAL battle rifle has its Warsaw Pact counterpart in the AKM, each being fielded by dozens of countries and produced in many of them. A few, such as Israel and South Africa and issued both designs at various times. Unlike the Soviet AKM assault rifle, the FAL utilized a heavier full-power rifle cartridge.
The FAL operates by means of a gas-operated action similar to that of the Russian SVT-40. The gas system is driven by a short-stroke, spring-loaded piston housed above the barrel, the locking mechanism is what is known as a tilting breechblock. To lock, it drops down into a solid shoulder of metal in the heavy receiver much like the bolts of the Russian SKS carbine and French MAS-49 series of semi-automatic rifles; the gas system is fitted with a gas regulator behind the front sight base, allowing adjustment of the gas system in response to environmental conditions. The piston system can be bypassed using the gas plug, to allow for the firing of rifle grenades and manual operation; the FAL's magazine capacity ranges with most magazines holding 20 rounds. In fixed stock versions of the FAL, the recoil spring is housed in the stock, while in folding-stock versions it is housed in the receiver cover, necessitating a different receiver cover, recoil spring, bolt carrier, a modified lower receiver for the stock.
FAL rifles have been manufactured in both light and heavy-barrel configurations, with the heavy barrel intended for automatic fire as a section or squad light support weapon. Most heavy barrel FALs are equipped with bipods, although some light barrel models were equipped with bipods, such as the Austrian StG58 and the German G1, a bipod was made available as an accessory. Among other 7.62×51mm NATO battle rifles at the time, the FN FAL had light recoil, due to the user-adjustable gas system being able to be tuned via a regulator in fore-end of the rifle, which allowed for excess gas which would increase recoil to bleed off. The regulator is an adjustable gas port opening that adjusts the rifle to function reliably with various propellant and projectile specific pressure behavior, making the FAL not ammunition specific. In automatic mode, the shooter receives considerable abuse from recoil, the weapon climbs off-target making automatic fire only of marginal effectiveness. Many military forces using the FAL eliminated full-automatic firearms training in the light-barrel FAL.
Depending on the variant and the country of adoption, the FAL was issued as either semi-automatic
Florentino D. Tecson was a Filipino Visayan lawyer, editor and labor leader from Cebu, Philippines, he edited pre-war Cebuano periodicals such as Bag-ong Kusog and published his own newspaper, Ang Mamumuo and a book of fiction, Lingawon Ko Ikaw. A known labor leader, he was the president of Federacion Obrero de Filipinas, he was appointed as Vice Mayor of Cebu City. Florentino Tecson was born in Naga, Cebu on March 16, 1906, he attended at the Cebu High School and became a lawyer on April 14, 1953. While studying at the Cebu High School, he worked as compositor for Vicente Rama's Bag-ong Kusog, a Cebuano periodical, he became its reporter and editor. Other pre-war Cebuano papers he edited were Ang Tigmantala and his own newspaper, Ang Mamumuo. A respected Cebuano writer, he wrote under various pseudonyms including D' Ville, Victor Kutsero, F. D. T. F. Lorentino, Victor Florentin, Tinoy-od, he won first prize in a literary contest by Bisaya magazine for his short story, Mga Kasingkasing Dagku. In addition, he translated Victor Hugo's Les Miserables.
Lingawon Ko Ikaw, his only published book of fiction, was a collection of 17 short stories that demonstrated realism and displayed his adept handling of stories of the rural life. While he criticized figures of society such as landlords and politicians for their excess, absence or abuse, he lent the narrative with humor and depicted the poor in sympathetic light without being anti-capitalist. Tecson was known as a labor leader, he first got involved with the labor movement when he conducted a press coverage of an ongoing maritime workers' strike in 1934. He became the auditor, vice president and president of the Federacion Obrero de Filipinas, its other leaders included Jose Ma. Nava, Manuel Palacios, Zacarias Semenio and Jesus Ma. Nava. On June 29, 1939, he was the group's delegate to national convention of labor unions in the country, held in Manila Grand Opera House, he was elected as member of the convention's presidium, he formed his owned labor union called the Philippine Labor Federation.
Like his contemporaries, journalism led him to politics. Earlier newspapermen like Vicente Rama, Vicente Sotto, Sergio Osmeña belonged to the ilustrado class and were voted in elective government positions due to their influence on the reading public. More writers from middle class background like Tecson followed suit, he once served as councilor of the municipality of Naga, later he was elected member of the council of Cebu City on December 10, 1940. On July 17, 1943, in the midst of World War II, he again was appointed and served in the same post as Member of the City Board of Cebu. After the war, he assumed the same position in the City Board together with Honorata Hermosisima, Cecilio de la Victoria, Florencio Urot, Juan Zamora, Ramon Abellanosa, Numeriano Estenzo, Alfonso Frias. On January 28, 1954, he was appointed Vice Mayor of Cebu City; when the charter of City of Cebu was amended on June 8, 1955, the positions Mayor and Vice Mayor were no longer appointive and instead were filled through election.
Tecson was replaced by Ramon Duterte. He died on September 11, 1962. Known as San Jose Extension, the Florentino D. Tecson Street in Cebu City was named in his honor by virtue of the City Ordinance No. 1882. It ends at Rahman Street in Barangay Kamputhaw. For a list of published works, please read his entry in the Cebuano Studies Center. Lingawon Ko Ikaw: Hugpong sa mga Sugilanon Alburo, et al. Sugilanong Sugboanon, Vol. 1: Cebuano Fiction Until 1940, Atene de Manila University Press
Aerospace Bristol is an aerospace museum at Filton, to the north of Bristol, England. The project is run by the Bristol Aero Collection Trust and houses a varied collection of exhibits, including Concorde Alpha Foxtrot, the final Concorde to be built and the last to fly; the museum is situated on Filton Airfield and the main exhibition is housed in a First World War Grade II listed hangar, with Concorde situated in a new, purpose-built hangar. The exhibition covers over 100 years of aviation history through two world wars, exploring the role of aircraft in these conflicts, through the drama and technological advances of the space race and on to the modern day; the collection contains over 8,000 artefacts. There are several Bristol-built aircraft including Concorde Alpha Foxtrot, a Bristol Scout, a Bristol Fighter and a Blenheim IV, as well as many scaled models; the exhibition is themed around seven different eras of aviation with a separate hangar that celebrates the story of Concorde and its local connection.
Era One: Pioneers 1903–1910 First Flights Featuring interactive exhibits and touch screen archive browsers. Era Two: First World War & Beyond c.1914–1920 Shows the impact of World War I on Filton and features a Fighter and a Scout bi-plane. Era Three: The Growth of Flight 1920s–1930s Represents a time of major innovation in aircraft design, including a replica Bristol ‘Babe’. Era Four: World War II c.1935–1945 Depicts the impact of World War II on Filton and aviation. Era Five: Bigger, Further 1945–1960 The huge Brabazon airliner is represented here by its wheels and nameplate, alongside the Britannia fuselage; the two objects represent the growing importance of passenger aircraft to the aviation industry. Era Six: Ocean Floor to Outer Space 1960–1981 Represents Bristol stepping into the space age. Three objects mark the transition into this era: a satellite, a missile and model of a supersonic aircraft. Era Seven: Working across the world 1982-today Featuring a section of an A320 wing, the exhibit gives visitors an insight into the workings of today's aviation industry.
The Concorde Hangar Featuring Concorde Alpha Foxtrot. Designed jointly in Bristol and Toulouse, built in Bristol, she was the last Concorde to be built and the last to fly. On 17 October, Aerospace Bristol opened its doors to the public. On 16 August, the Red Arrows performed a flypast in Concorde formation whilst members of the public formed the shape of Concorde on the ground. On 8 March 2017 a Sea Harrier was delivered to the museum site by an RAF Chinook airlift where it is on display in the exhibition. 7 February saw the arrival of Concorde Alpha Foxtrot into the new purpose-built hangar at Aerospace Bristol. On 26 May 2016, Aerospace Bristol held a ground-breaking ceremony to mark the start of construction of the new Concorde hangar. On 15 September, HRH The Princess Royal became the Patron of Aerospace Bristol for the next two years. On 13 October, she visited the site to attend a'topping out' ceremony celebrating a major milestone in the construction. In December 2012 the Bristol Post reported that BAE Systems, who were selling Filton Airfield for development, would be contributing the site and £2.4million in aid to a new museum including listed hangars, for which other corporate sponsors and a Heritage Lottery grant would be sought.
In 2014, the trust was awarded a grant of £4.7 million by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Plans were begun for construction of a visitor centre named Aerospace Bristol and due to open in Summer 2017; the Concorde Trust was formed in 2007 and produced applications for support for a new museum that would house Concorde. Concorde Alpha Foxtrot flew into Filton in November 2003. List of aerospace museums Official website