BCA Marketplace PLC British Car Auctions, is a used vehicle marketplace. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. In 1946 Royal Navy officer David Wickins decided to sell his Riley Lynx tourer. Placing an advert in the local newspaper, he offered to sell the car to the first person who turned up at his mother's house in Farnham, Surrey with £200. Arriving home late, he found a crowd of eager buyers, so auctioned the car off for £420. Wickins rented a farmer's field at Frimley Bridges, now under junction 4 of the M3 motorway, set up his first public auction; the 14 cars auctioned sold for a total of £8,250. Wickins and one of his brothers founded Southern Counties Car Auctions, after exiting the Royal Navy shortly afterwards, he expanded across the UK by selling surplus ex-British Army and Royal Air Force vehicles for the Ministry of Defence. Renamed "British Car Auctions", Wickins expanded the company across Europe and the United States through acquisition; this included the purchase of the car auctions division of British conglomerate Hawley Goodall, owned by Michael Ashcroft.
This proved to be the start of a lifelong friendship between Wickins and Ashcroft, through his Bermuda and Belize based holdings in various banks, Ashcroft would finance a number of Wickins' business ventures. The company had head offices at the Frimley Bridges site, but moved to purpose-built premises at Blackbushe Airport, Yateley to accommodate the now closed aviation division, which it still occupies. Employing 160 at its head office, Wickins built the company into the largest car auction business in the world before retiring in 1990. A near-scratch golfer, through this and his long association with the Conservative Party, Wickins met and befriended Denis Thatcher. Wickins agreed to sponsor Mark Thatcher's motor racing activities in the 1980s through BCA. Denis Thatcher served on one of Wickins' company boards, while Mark Thatcher served as chairman of Lotus Cars and BCA in North America, which Wickins had led from near-bankruptcy to survival. In the late 1980s, Belize-based Hawley Goodall had undertaken a reverse takeover of ADT Security Services, renamed itself ADT.
As a result of its focus on security systems, ADT sold the North American and European arms of BCA in separate deals. While the residual North American arm was broken-up and sold to trade buyers, the European arm was acquired by a consortia of some 40 private investors, including Lord Ashcroft via his Belize-based investment company, in 1995. In September 2006, the European arm was bought by the investment banking arm of private bank Samuel Montagu & Co. a division of HSBC. In February 2010, BCA was acquired by the private equity investment firm Dubilier & Rice. In March 2015 Haversham Holdings, an investment business, undertook a reverse takeover of BCA and renamed itself BCA Marketplace; the company operates the largest vehicle auction site in Europe and auctions over 50% of all cars sold by auction in the UK. Official site
B & M
B&M European Retail Value S. A. was formed in 1978 and is now one of the leading variety retailers in the United Kingdom, employing over 28,000 staff. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange, is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the retailer has experienced encouraging revenue growth and a store increase of more than 2400% over an eight-year period up to 2016. Over three million customers each week shop at their high home store outlets; the business was founded by Malcolm Billington as Billington & Mayman and the first store opened in Cleveleys, United Kingdom in 1978 and was acquired by Simon and Bobby Arora from Phildrew Investments in December 2004. In September 2006, the business saw significant growth, by acquiring the GlynWebb chain of Do It Yourself stores, converting them into the B&M Homestore format; the company acquired a number of former Kwik Save, Woolworths and Au-Naturale stores. The business moved into a new office and modern 620,000sq ft distribution centre based in Speke, Liverpool in 2010, new operations and finance directors joined the business in 2011.
In May 2011, B&M purchased a number of Focus DIY stores. In December 2012, Dubilier & Rice, one of the world’s leading private equity funds, acquired a significant stake in B&M, Sir Terry Leahy and Vindi Banga joined the Board of Directors. In March 2014, the business acquired a majority stake in German discount retailer Jawoll, opened a new 500,000 sq ft distribution centre in Speke, Liverpool. In June 2014, the business was the subject of an initial public offering. However, upon detailed analysis by the Columbia Business school, it was found the IPO of B&M was overhyped due to an saturated market in the UK. In November 2014, the business opened its 400th store and claimed to serve in excess of three million customers every week. During July 2017, the company completed the acquisition of the smaller frozen food store chain Heron Foods for £152 million. B&M's strategy for acquiring products requires it to purchase directly from factories, or to seek overproduction and bulk buy opportunities, which means the retailer may make less profit by selling these items more cheaply than the competition, but makes up for it with the significant volumes being sold.
Up to 30% of B&M's stock is sourced and purchased directly from China, though the retailer believes it can offset the higher import costs by increased sales volumes. Less than 10% of their products are sold for £1, giving them an advantage over single-priced competitors such as Poundland and Poundworld. Since September 2012, some stores have been selling National Lottery goods. During the period 2008 to 2016, the retailer underwent a significant store expansion, increasing their outlets from 20 to over 500 throughout this period, with at least one new store opening every week as of 2016. Over the next two years it opened another 100 stores as it reached 600 stores in November 2018; the financial performance has been as follows: B&M retail website B&M corporate website
A. G. BARR p.l.c. Known as Barr's, is a Scottish soft drink manufacturer, based in Cumbernauld, Scotland, it manufactures Irn-Bru. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the company was founded in 1875 by Robert Barr in Falkirk. In 1887 his son, Robert Fulton Barr, set up a division of the original company in Glasgow, which had a much larger population. In 1892 the Glasgow branch passed to a brother of the founder of that branch. Irn-Bru was launched in 1901; the Falkirk and Glasgow divisions merged in 1959. The company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1965. In 1972, the Tizer brand was purchased. 1980 saw the introduction of Low Calorie Irn-Bru: this changed its name in 1991 to Diet Irn-Bru, in 2010 to Irn-Bru sugar free. In 2001 the company acquired Findlays Mineral Water, sourced in the Lammermuir Hills. In 2002 Roger White joined A. G. Barr as managing director and in 2004 became Barr's first non-family chief executive; the Company acquired Forfar-based Strathmore Mineral Water in May 2006.
The Irn-Bru 32 energy drink variant was launched in 2006. In 2008 the company purchased the Taut sports drink exotic fruit drink company Rubicon. On 14 November 2012 the Company agreed to merge with Britvic, which produces drinks like J2O, Tango and Robinsons, as well as holding the authority to produce Pepsi for the UK market, to create one of Europe's largest soft drinks companies. On 11 July 2013, AG Barr Chairman Ronnie Hanna announced that the proposed merger of Britvic and AG Barr had been abandoned. A. G. Barr produces a variety of soft drinks from production sites at Cumbernauld, Tredegar, Milton Keynes and Pitcox in East Lothian. Official site
Avast Software s.r.o. is a Czech multinational cybersecurity software company headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic that researches and develops computer security software, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Avast has more than 435 million monthly active users and the largest market share among anti-malware application vendors worldwide as of January 2018; the company has 1,700 employees across its 25 offices worldwide. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera in 1988 as a cooperative, it had been a private company since 2010 and had its IPO in May 2018. In July 2016, Avast acquired competitor AVG Technologies for $1.3 billion. At the time, AVG was the third-ranked antivirus product, it is dual-listed on the Prague Stock Exchange and on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera and Pavel Baudiš in 1988; the founders met each other at the Research Institute for Mathematical Machines in Czechoslovakia. They studied math and computer science, because the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia would require them to join the communist party to study physics.
At the Institute, Pavel Baudiš discovered the Vienna virus on a floppy disk and developed the first program to remove it. Afterwards, he asked Eduard Kucera to join him in cofounding Avast as a cooperative; the cooperative was called Alwil and only the software was named Avast. The cooperative was changed to a joint partnership in 1991, two years after the velvet revolution caused a regime change in Czechoslovakia; the new regime severed ties with the Soviet Union and reverted the country's economic system to a market economy. In 1995, Avast employee Ondřej Vlček wrote the first antivirus program for the Windows 95 operating system. In the 1990s security researchers at the Virus Bulletin, an IT security testing organization, gave the Avast an award in every category tested, increasing the popularity of the software. However, by the late 1990s, the company was struggling financially. Alwil rebuffed acquisition offers by McAfee, licensing the Avast antivirus engine. By 2001, Alwil was experiencing financial difficulties, when it converted to a freemium model, offering a base Avast software product at no cost.
As a result of the freemium model, the number of users of the software grew to one million by 2004 and 20 million by 2006. Former Symantec executive Vince Steckler was appointed CEO of Avast in 2009. In 2010, Alwil changed its name to Avast, adopting the name of the software, raised $100 million in venture capital investments; the following December, Avast filed for an initial public offering, but withdrew its application the following July, citing changes in market conditions. In 2012, Avast fired its outsourced tech support service iYogi, after it was discovered that iYogi was using misleading sales tactics to persuade customers to buy unnecessary services. By 2013, Avast had been translated into 43 languages. At the time, the company had 350 employees. In 2014, CVC Capital bought an interest in Avast for an undisclosed sum; the purchase valued Avast at $1 billion. That year, Avast acquired mobile app developer Inmite in order to build Avast's mobile apps. Additionally, in 2014 Avast's online support forum was compromised, exposing 400,000 names and email addresses.
By 2015, Avast had the largest share of the market for antivirus software. In July 2016, Avast reached an agreement to buy AVG for $1.3 billion. AVG was a large IT security company that sold software for mobile devices. In July 2017, Avast acquired UK-based Piriform for an undisclosed sum. Piriform was the developer of CCleaner. Shortly afterwards it was disclosed that someone may have created a malicious version of CCleaner with a backdoor for hackers. Avast had its IPO on the London Stock Exchange in May 2018, which valued it at £2.4bn and was one of the UK’s biggest technology listings. Avast develops and markets business and consumer IT security products for servers and mobile devices; the company sells both the acquired AVG-branded products. As of late 2017, the company had merged the AVG and Avast business product lines and were working to integrate the corporate departments from both companies. Additionally, Avast has developed utility software products to improve battery life on mobile devices, cleanup unnecessary files on a hard drive, find secure wireless networks or create a VPN connection to the internet.
Avast and AVG consumer security software are sold on a freemium model, where basic security features are free, but more advanced features require purchasing a premium version. The free version is supported by ads. Additionally, all Avast users provide data about their PC or mobile device to Avast, used to identify new security threats. Antivirus scanning, browser cleanup, a secure browser, password management, network security features are provided for free, while firewall, anti-spam, online banking features have to be purchased. According to PC Pro, the software does not "nag" users about upgrading. About 3% of Avast's users pay for a premium version; the Avast business product family includes features for endpoint protection, Wi-Fi security, identity protection, password management, data protection. For example, the desktop product will look for vulnerabilities in the wi-fi network and run applications suspect of having malicious hardware in an isolated sandbox; the Avast Business Managed Workplace monitors and manages desktops, assesses on-site security protocols.
The company sells management software for IT administrators to deploy and manage Avast installations. PC Magazine gave the Avast free antivirus software an overall score of 8.8 out of 10 and gave AVG a score of 8.4
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1
Market capitalization is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding; as outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation. Market cap reflects only the equity value of a company, it is important to note that a firm's choice of capital structure has a significant impact on how the total value of a company is allocated between equity and debt. A more comprehensive measure is enterprise value, which gives effect to outstanding debt, preferred stock, other factors. For insurance firms, a value called. Market capitalization is used by the investment community in ranking the size of companies, as opposed to sales or total asset figures, it is used in ranking the relative size of stock exchanges, being a measure of the sum of the market capitalizations of all companies listed on each stock exchange.
In performing such rankings, the market capitalizations are calculated at some significant date, such as June 30 or December 31. The total capitalization of stock markets or economic regions may be compared with other economic indicators; the total market capitalization of all publicly traded companies in the world was US$51.2 trillion in January 2007 and rose as high as US$57.5 trillion in May 2008 before dropping below US$50 trillion in August 2008 and above US$40 trillion in September 2008. In 2014 and 2015, global market capitalization was US$68 trillion and US$67 trillion, respectively. Market cap is given by the formula MC = N × P, where MC is the market capitalization, N is the number of shares outstanding, P is the closing price per share. For example, if a company has 4 million shares outstanding and the closing price per share is $20, its market capitalization is $80 million. If the closing price per share rises to $21, the market cap becomes $84 million. If it drops to $19 per share, the market cap falls to $76 million.
This is in contrast to mercantile pricing where purchase price, average price and sale price may differ due to transaction costs. Not all of the outstanding shares trade on the open market; the number of shares trading on the open market is called the float. It is equal to or less than N; the free-float market cap uses just the floating number of shares in the calculation resulting in a smaller number. Traditionally, companies were divided into large-cap, mid-cap, small-cap; the terms mega-cap and micro-cap have since come into common use, nano-cap is sometimes heard. Different numbers are used by different indexes; the cutoffs may be defined as percentiles rather than in nominal dollars. The definitions expressed in nominal dollars need to be adjusted over decades due to inflation, population change, overall market valuation, market caps are to be different country to country. List of corporations by market capitalization List of finance topics List of stock exchanges London Stock Exchange Market price Market trend Middle-market company NASDAQ New York Stock Exchange Public float Shares authorized Treasury stock How to Value Assets – from the Washington State government web site Year-end market capitalization by country – World Bank, 1988–2010
Cairn Energy PLC is one of Europe's leading independent oil and gas exploration and development companies and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. Cairn has developed oil and gas reserves in a variety of locations around the world. Cairn Energy has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the company was founded in 1981 by Sir Bill Gammell, the former international Rugby player, his father James, his brother Pete and others. Its initial operations were in the USA and, following its listing on the London Stock Exchange in 1988, it expanded into the UK North Sea and internationally. Cairn acquired Conoco's UK onshore acreage in 1988 and became one of the largest operators of UK onshore oil production with the Palmers Wood oil field just south of London, near Junction 6 of the M25, at Humbly Grove. Cairn's expansion started with a substantial gas discovery Bangladesh near Chittagong, in 1996. In parallel, Cairn launched a series of takeovers of public listed companies – Teredo Petroleum in 1994, Holland Sea Search NV in 1995 and Command Petroleum in 1996.
In 1996, Cairn farmed out a 25% interest in the Sangu field to Halliburton in return for Halliburton bearing a 50% share of the development costs. In 1997, it sold half of all its Bangladeshi interests to Royal Dutch Shell in return for Shell assuming a $330 million carry of Cairn's exploration and development costs; this agreement gave Cairn an interest in Shell's huge acreage position in Rajasthan onshore in North West India. Cairn drilled two unsuccessful exploration wells and Shell sold its 50% share to Cairn for $7.5 million: Cairn's third well, now 100% owned, found the Mangala oil field. In December 2010, Cairn agreed to sell a stake of 58.5% of Cairn India, its India-focused subsidiary, to Vedanta Resources for $8.67 billion. Talks between the two companies started in August 2010. However, approval did not come from the Indian government until September 2011 and the deal had to be restructured; the company sold an additional 3.5 per cent of its shares in its Cairn India for about USD 360 million in June 2012.
In March 2014, the company announced that Bill Gammell would step down as chairman after the annual general meeting on 15 May 2014. Cairn's business operations are now focused on frontier exploration acreage in Senegal and the United Kingdom as well as Africa and the Mediterranean. Official website