Military vehicles are armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire. Such vehicles include armoured fighting vehicles like tanks and ships. Civilian vehicles may be armoured; these vehicles include cars used by officials and others in conflict zones or where violent crime is common. Civilian armoured cars are routinely used by security firms to carry money or valuables to reduce the risk of highway robbery or the hijacking of the cargo. Armour may be used in vehicles to protect from threats other than a deliberate attack; some spacecraft are equipped with specialised armour to protect them against impacts from micrometeoroids or fragments of space junk. Modern aircraft powered by jet engines have them fitted with a sort of armour in the form of an aramid composite kevlar bandage around the fan casing or debris containment walls built into the casing of their gas turbine engines to prevent injuries or airframe damage should the fan, compressor, or turbine blades break free.
The design and purpose of the vehicle determines the amount of armour plating carried, as the plating is very heavy and excessive amounts of armour restrict mobility. In order to decrease this problem, some new materials and material compositions are being researched which include buckypaper, aluminium foam armour plates. Rolled homogeneous armour is strong and tough. Steel with these characteristics are produced by processing cast steel billets of appropriate size and rolling them into plates of required thickness. Rolling and forging irons out the grain structure in the steel, removing imperfections which would reduce the strength of the steel. Rolling elongates the grain structure in the steel to form long lines, which enable the stress the steel is placed under when loaded to flow throughout the metal, not be concentrated in one area. Aluminium is used, it is most used on APCs and armoured cars. Wrought iron was used on ironclad warships. Early European iron armour consisted of 10 to 13 cm of wrought iron backed by up to one meter of solid wood.
Titanium has twice the density of aluminium, but is as strong as iron. So, despite being more expensive, it finds an application in areas where weight is a concern, such as personal armour and military aviation; some notable examples of its use include the USAF A-10 Thunderbolt II and the Soviet/Russian-built Sukhoi Su-25 ground-attack aircraft, utilising a bathtub-shaped titanium enclosure for the pilot, as well as the Soviet/Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. Because of its high density, depleted uranium can be used in tank armour, sandwiched between sheets of steel armour plate. For instance, some late-production M1A1HA and M1A2 Abrams tanks built after 1998 have DU reinforcement as part of the armour plating in the front of the hull and the front of the turret, there is a program to upgrade the rest. Plastic metal was a type of vehicle armour developed for merchant ships by the British Admiralty in 1940; the original composition was described as 50% clean granite of half-inch size, 43% of limestone mineral, 7% of bitumen.
It was applied in a layer two inches thick and backed by half an inch of steel. Plastic armour was effective at stopping armour piercing bullets because the hard granite particles would deflect the bullet, which would lodge between plastic armour and the steel backing plate. Plastic armour could be applied by pouring it into a cavity formed by the steel backing plate and a temporary wooden form. Bulletproof glass is a colloquial term for glass, resistant to being penetrated when struck by bullets; the industry refers to it as bullet-resistant glass or transparent armour. Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using a strong but transparent material such as polycarbonate thermoplastic or by using layers of laminated glass; the desired result is a material with the appearance and light-transmitting behaviour of standard glass, which offers varying degrees of protection from small arms fire. The polycarbonate layer consisting of products such as Armormax, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak, is sandwiched between layers of regular glass.
The use of plastic in the laminate provides impact-resistance, such as physical assault with a hammer, an axe, etc. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance; the glass, much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet and thereby prevents penetration. This type of bullet-resistant glass is 70–75 mm thick. Bullet-resistant glass constructed of laminated glass layers is built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, polyurethane or ethylene-vinyl acetate; this type of bullet-resistant glass has been in regular use on combat vehicles since World War II. Newer materials are being developed. One such, aluminium oxynitride, is much lighter but at US$10–15 per square inch is much more costly. Ceramic's precise mechanism for defeating HEAT was uncovered in the 1980s. High speed photography showed that the ceramic material shatters as the HEAT round penetrates, the energetic fragments destroying the geometry of the metal jet generated by the hollow charge diminishing the penetration.
Ceramic layers can be used as part of composite armour solutions. The high hardness of some ceramic materials serves as a disruptor that shatters and spreads the kinetic energy of pr
The Irish Guards, part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army and, together with the Royal Irish Regiment, it is one of the two Irish infantry regiments in the British Army. The regiment has participated in campaigns in the First World War, the Second World War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan as well as numerous other conflicts throughout their history; the Irish Guards claims six Victoria Cross recipients, four from the First World War and two from the Second World War. The Irish Guards recruit in Northern Ireland and the Irish neighbourhoods of major British cities. Although restrictions in Ireland's Defence Act make it illegal to induce, procure or persuade enlistment of any citizen of Ireland into the military of another state, people from the Republic do enlist in the regiment. One way to distinguish between the five regiments of Foot Guards is the spacing of the buttons on their tunics; the Irish Guards have buttons arranged in groups of four as they were the fourth Foot Guards regiment to be founded.
They have a prominent St. Patrick's blue plume on the right side of their bearskins; the Irish Guards regiment was formed on 1 April 1900 by order of Queen Victoria to commemorate the Irishmen who fought in the Second Boer War for the British Empire. Following the outbreak of the First World War, 1st Battalion, The Irish Guards was deployed to France immediately, they remained on the Western Front for the duration of the war. During the early part of the war, the battalion took part in the Battle of Mons and formed the Allied rearguard during the Great Retreat; the battalion took part in one of the bloodiest battles of 1914, the First Battle of Ypres, which began on 19 October, which left major casualties among the old Regular Army. The 1st Battalion was involved in fighting for the duration of'First Ypres', at Langemarck and Nonne Bosschen; the 1st Battalion suffered huge casualties between 1–8 November holding the line against near defeat by German forces, while defending Klein Zillebeke. In May 1915, the 1st Irish Guards took part in the Battle of Festubert, though did not see much action.
Two further battalions were formed for the regiment in July. In September that year, the battalion, as well as the 2nd Irish Guards, who had reached France in August, took part in the Battle of Loos, which lasted from 25 September until early October. Both battalions did not fight in any major engagements; this relative quiet period for the regiment was broken on 1 July 1916 when the Battle of the Somme began. The 1st Irish Guards took part in an action at Flers–Courcelette where they suffered severe casualties in the attack in the face of withering fire from the German machine-guns; the battalion took part in the action at Morval before they were relieved by the 2nd Irish Guards. In 1917 the Irish Guards took part in the Battle of Pilckem which began on 31 July during the Third Battle of Ypres; the Irish Guards took part in the Battle of Cambrai in that year, the first large use of the tank in battle took place during the engagement. In 1918 the regiment fought in a number of engagements during the Second Battle of the Somme, including at Arras and Albert.
The regiment went on to take part in a number of battles during the British offensives against the Hindenburg Line. On 11 November 1918 the Armistice with Germany was signed; the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards were at Maubeuge. The regiment's continued existence was threatened when Winston Churchill, who served as Secretary of State for War between 1919 and 1921, sought the elimination of the Irish Guards and Welsh Guards as an economy measure; this proposal, did not find favour in government or army circles and was dropped. Between the wars, the regiment was deployed at various times to Turkey, Gibraltar and Palestine. During the Second World War, battalions of the regiment fought in Norway, North Africa and Italy and following D-Day in France, the Netherlands and Germany; the regiment first saw combat during the Norwegian Campaign. Following a challenging sea voyage to Norway, the 1st Irish Guards arrived in May 1940 and fought for two days at the town of Pothus before they were forced to retreat.
The Irish Guards served as the Allied rearguard. The battalion were evacuated along with the rest of the expeditionary force in June. While the 1st Irish Guards were fighting in Norway, the 2nd Battalion was deployed to the Hook of Holland to cover the evacuation of the Dutch Royal Family and Government in May 1940. 2nd Battalion were deployed to France and ordered to defend the port of Boulogne. The guardsmen held out against overwhelming odds for three days, buying valuable time for the Dunkirk Evacuation, before they were evacuated themselves. In November 1942, during the Second World War, Grand Duke of Luxembourg joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards. All three battalions of the regiment remained based in the United Kingdom until March 1943 when the 1st Battalion landed, with the rest of the 24th Guards Brigade, in Tunisia, to fight in the final stages of the campaign in North Africa; the battalion saw extensive action while fighting through Tunisia and were subsequently deployed to the Italian Front in December of that year.
The battalion took part in the Anzio landings on 22 January 1944. The Irish Guards returned to France in June 1944 when the 2nd and 3rd Irish Guards took part in the Normandy Campaign. Both battalions served as part of the Guards Armoured Division and took part in the attempt to capture Caen as part of Operation Goodwood, they saw action in the Mont Pincon area. On 29 August, the 3rd Irish Guards crossed the Seine and began the advance into Belgium
The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998 and lasted until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which controlled Kosovo before the war, the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army, with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation from 24 March 1999, ground support from the Albanian army; the KLA was formed in 1991 and initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks targeting Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents.
After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war". This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia. By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of three thousand victims of all ethnicities, in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population; the war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence. The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley and others joining the National Liberation Army and Albanian National Army during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia, while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.
After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict. The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians. After the war, around 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse. Serbia became home to the highest number of IDPs in Europe; the NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths, including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees. The modern Albanian-Serbian conflict has its roots in the expulsion of the Albanians in 1877-1878 from areas that became incorporated into the Principality of Serbia. Tensions between the Serbian and Albanian communities in Kosovo simmered throughout the 20th century and erupted into major violence during the First Balkan War, World War I, World War II.
After 1945 the socialist government under Josip Broz Tito systematically repressed all manifestations of nationalism throughout Yugoslavia, seeking to ensure that no republic or nationality gained dominance over the others. In particular, Tito diluted the power of Serbia—the largest and most populous republic—by establishing autonomous governments in the Serbian province of Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo and Metohija in the south. Kosovo's borders did not match the areas of ethnic Albanian settlement in Yugoslavia. Kosovo's formal autonomy, established under the 1945 Yugoslav constitution meant little in practice; the secret police cracked down hard on nationalists. In 1956 a number of Albanians went on trial in Kosovo on charges of subversion; the threat of separatism was in fact minimal, as the few underground groups aiming for union with Albania had little political significance. Their long-term impact became substantial, though, as some—particularly the Revolutionary Movement for Albanian Unity, founded by Adem Demaçi—would form the political core of the Kosovo Liberation Army.
Demaci himself was imprisoned in 1964 along with many of his followers. Yugoslavia underwent a period of economic and political crisis in 1969, as a massive government program of economic reform widened the gap between the rich north and poor south of the country. Student demonstrations and riots in Belgrade in June 1968 spread to Kosovo in November, but Yugoslav security forces quelled them. Tito conceded some of the students' demands—in particular, representative powers for Albanians in both the Serbian and Yugoslav state bodies and better recognition of the Albanian language; the University of Pristina was established as an independent institution in 1970, ending a long period when the institution had been run as an outpost of Belgrade University. The lack of Albanian-language educational materials in Yugoslavia hampered Albanian education in Kosovo, so an agreement was struck with Albania itself to supply textbooks. In 1969 the Serbian Orthodox Church ordered its clergy to compile data on the ongoing problems of Serbs in Kosovo, seeking to pressure the government in Belgrade to do more to protect the interests of Serbs there.
In 1974 Kosovo's political status improved further when a new Yugoslav constitutio
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing
A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used. The sabot component in projectile design is more than the thin and deformable seal known as a driving band or obturation ring needed to trap propellant gases behind a projectile, keep the projectile centered in the barrel, when the outer shell of the projectile is only smaller in diameter than the caliber of the barrel. Driving bands and obturators are used to seal these full-bore projectiles in the barrel because of manufacturing tolerances. Driving bands and obturator rings are made from material that will deform and seal the barrel as the projectile is forced from the chamber into the barrel. Small caliber jacketed bullets do not employ driving bands or obturators because the jacket material, for example copper or gilding metal, is deformable enough to serve that function, the bullet is made larger than the barrel for that purpose.
Sabots use driving bands and obturators, because the same manufacturing tolerance issues exist when sealing the saboted projectile in the barrel, but the sabot itself is a more substantial structural component of the in-bore projectile configuration. Refer to the two APFSDS pictures on the right to see the substantial material nature of a sabot to fill the bore diameter around the sub-caliber arrow-type flight projectile, compared to the small gap sealed by a driving band or obturator to mitigate what is known classically as windage. More detailed cutaways of the internal structural complexity of advanced APFSDS saboted long rod penetrator projectiles can be found at reference 2; the function of a sabot is to provide a larger bulkhead structure that fills the entire bore area between an intentionally designed sub-caliber flight projectile and the barrel, giving a larger surface area for propellant gasses to act upon than just the base of the smaller flight projectile. Efficient aerodynamic design of a flight projectile does not always accommodate efficient interior ballistic design to achieve high muzzle velocity.
This is true for arrow-type projectiles, which are long and thin for low drag efficiency, but too thin to shoot from a gun barrel of equal diameter to achieve high muzzle velocity. The physics of interior ballistics demonstrates why the use of a sabot is advantageous to achieve higher muzzle velocity with an arrow-type projectile. Propellant gasses generate high pressure, the larger the base area that pressure acts upon the greater the net force on that surface. Force, pressure times area, provides an acceleration to the mass of the projectile. Therefore, for a given pressure and barrel diameter, a lighter projectile can be driven from a barrel to a higher muzzle velocity than a heavier projectile. However, a lighter projectile may not fit in the barrel. To make up this difference in diameter, a properly designed sabot provides less parasitic mass than if the flight projectile were made full-bore, in particular providing dramatic improvement in muzzle velocity for APDS and APFSDS ammunition.
Seminal research on two important sabot configurations for long rod penetrators used in APFSDS ammunition, namely the "saddle-back" and "double-ramp" sabot was performed by the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory during the development and improvement of modern 105mm and 120mm kinetic energy APFSDS penetrators, permitted by the significant recent advancement in the computerized Finite element method in structural mechanics at that time. Upon muzzle exit, the sabot is discarded, the smaller flight projectile flies to the target with less drag resistance than a full-bore projectile. In this manner high velocity and slender, low drag projectiles can be fired more efficiently; the weight of the sabot represents parasitic mass that must be accelerated to muzzle velocity, but does not contribute to the terminal ballistics of the flight projectile. For this reason, great emphasis is placed on selecting strong yet lightweight structural materials for the sabot, configuring the sabot geometry to efficiently employ these parasitic materials at minimum weight penalty.
The purpose of the sabot is to allow a smaller diameter flight projectile to be launched at greater muzzle velocity than if the flight projectile alone were fired from a gun of equal caliber. Firing a smaller-sized projectile wrapped in a sabot raises the muzzle velocity of the projectile. Made of some lightweight material; the sabot consists of several longitudinal pieces held in place by the cart
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
A reconnaissance vehicle known as a scout vehicle, is a military vehicle used for forward reconnaissance. Both tracked and wheeled reconnaissance vehicles are in service. In some nations, light tanks such as the M551 Sheridan and AMX-13 have been used by scout platoons. Reconnaissance vehicles are designed with a low profile or small size and are armoured, relying on speed and cover to escape detection, their armament ranges from a medium machine gun to a large cannon. Modern examples are fitted with ATGMs and a wide range of sensors. Smaller caliber weapons help reduce the vehicle's noise signatures. In contrast, French doctrine was to fit reconnaissance vehicles, such as the EBR and the AMX 10 RC, with the heaviest weaponry possible on their light chassis, so as to allow them a further role for defence of the flanks. During World War II, the British used armoured cars for reconnaissance, from the machine gun armed Humber Light Reconnaissance Car and Daimler Dingo to the 6-pdr gun equipped AEC Armoured Car.
Post war the British Army used the Ferret and Fox scout cars. In Japan, the Kurogane Type 95 was introduced as a reconnaissance vehicle for operations in China; the U. S. and UK experimented with the Future Scout and Cavalry System and Tactical Reconnaissance Armoured Combat Equipment Requirement programs in the 2000s aimed at creating a stealth reconnaissance vehicle capable of C-130 airlift. Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Iraqi Army placed an emphasis on the use of light wheeled vehicles for reconnaissance Soviet-manufactured BRDM-2 and French-designed Panhard AML armoured cars; each corps had AML battalion. These were allocated by division; the Iraqis did not make competent use of these assets during the Gulf War, opting to depend on signals intelligence against the comparatively sophisticated Coalition. South African expeditionary forces in Angola employed wheeled reconnaissance vehicles for their strategic and tactical mobility, sometimes engaging Angolan units up to brigade strength.
Scout cars such as the Eland Mk7 were used to lure hostile T-34s or T-54/55s into prepared ambushes, where they were destroyed by heavier vehicles, ATGMs, artillery. Reconnaissance of enemy positions can involve firing upon the enemy in hopes of receiving return fire that gives away the enemy's position; this can make the reconnaissance vehicle vulnerable to return fire that may destroy the vehicle before the enemy's position can be relayed. Dismounted operations by armed scouts include observation post manning, reconnaissance of areas not traversable by vehicle, marking enemy mine fields. CBRN reconnaissance vehicles can detect weapons of mass destruction, they accompany regular reconnaissance vehicles and are protected against airborne threats. Alvis FV601 Saladin AMX-10 RC ASLAV BRDM-1 BRDM-2 Cadillac Gage Commando Scout Coyote Lynx D-442 FÚG Dozor-B EBRC Jaguar EE-3 Jararaca EE-9 Cascavel Eland / Fennek FV702 Ferret FV722 Fox FV101 Scorpion FV102 Striker FV107 Scimitar Sabre Gagamba Type 87 ARV LAV-25 Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle M1127 Mowag Spy Otokar Cobra Panhard AML Panhard ERC 90 Panhard VBL RBY MK 1 RG-35 4x4 RPU Rooikat Schützenpanzer SPz 11-2 Kurz Spähpanzer Luchs Namco Tiger VEC-M1 VBC-90 Wiesel XAV Scout car