SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fabaceae

The Fabaceae or Leguminosae known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. It includes trees and perennial or annual herbaceous plants, which are recognized by their fruit and their compound, stipulate leaves. Many legumes have characteristic fruits; the family is distributed, is the third-largest land plant family in number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and about 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus, Indigofera and Mimosa, which constitute about a quarter of all legume species; the ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species. Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa. Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family; this conclusion has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the Leguminosae and their closest relations, but by all the recent phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences.

These studies confirm that the Fabaceae are a monophyletic group, related to the families Polygalaceae and Quillajaceae and that they belong to the order Fabales. Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots, a number of Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is related to human evolution; the family Fabaceae includes a number of important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Medicago sativa, Arachis hypogaea, Ceratonia siliqua, Glycyrrhiza glabra. A number of species are weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulex europaeus, Pueraria montana, a number of Lupinus species; the name'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, appears to mean "bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes. Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees to small annual herbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials.

Plants have indeterminate inflorescences. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single carpel with a short gynophore, after fertilization produce fruits that are legumes; the Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms, including trees, herbaceous plants, vines or lianas. The herbaceous plants can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, without basal or terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils, they are epiphytes, or vines. The latter support themselves by means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or foliar tendrils. Plants can be mesophytes, or xerophytes; the leaves are alternate and compound. Most they are even- or odd-pinnately compound trifoliate and palmately compound, in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae bipinnate, they always have stipules, which can be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or serrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils.

Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants which protect the plant from herbivore insects. Extrafloral nectaries are common among the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae, are found in some Faboideae. In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are known as domatia. Many Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called root nodules; these bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen, usable to the host plant. This process is called nitrogen fixation; the legume, acting as a host, rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. The flowers have five fused sepals and five free petals, they are hermaphroditic and have a short hypanthium cup-shaped. There are ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary, with a curved style, they are arranged in indeterminate inflorescences. Fabaceae are entomophilous plants, the flowers are showy to attract pollinators. In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, as in Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals, as in Bauhinia.

The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some species, like some in the genus Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, the style bent to one side; the calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this group. In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in globose inflorescences; the petals are small and the stamens, which can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence open at once. In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygomorp

Lumwana

Lumwana is a mining town located in the Kalumbila District, within the North-Western Province of Zambia. The town is located on the T5 Highway 170 kilometres by road west of Solwezi and 96 kilometres east of Mwinilunga. Lumwana is 660 kilometres by road northwest of Lusaka, the capital and largest city of Zambia, it is in the Copperbelt mineral deposits and mining region of southern Africa. The population of Lumwana was estimated at less than 1,000 in 1999. With 1,000 new homes constructed in the town since it is estimated that the population of the town in 2010 was 5,000. Prior to 1999, Lumwana was a rural village. In 1999, Equinox Minerals Limited acquired the nearby Lumwana Copper Mine. Over the next 10 years, working with its Zambian subsidiary, Lumwana Mining Company Limited, Equinox carried out feasibility studies, sourced financing and constructed the present infrastructure; the mine is the largest employer in the town. In July 2011, Barrick Gold acquired a 100% interest in Lumwana mine; as of second quarter 2013, the mine employed 1,850 employees and 4,400 contractors.

In addition to copper, the mine produces cobalt and uranium. Lumwana Multi-Facility Economic ZoneAn economic development zone, called Lumwana Multi-Facility Economic Zone, is being developed around the mining operations, to include among others. Lumwana is connected to Solwezi, the capital of North Western Province, by an 175 kilometres paved road; the closest air transport facilities are in Mwinilunga. There are two old gravel airstrips within 10 kilometres of Lumwana; these can handle light aircraft. One of the airstrips, located in the northern part of Chief Mukumbi’s area has been used by the Flying Doctor Service. Plans to build a rail line from Chingola, through Lumwana, to join the Angolan Benguela Railway east of Luacano, have reached an advanced stage. In September 2013, the Government of the Republic of Zambia expressed its intentions to advertise the North-West Railway project to both local and foreign investors who would be interested to develop the infrastructure. Points of interest within the town of Lumwana or in the local area include: The offices of the Lumwana Town Council Lumwana Farmers Market — the largest source of fresh produce in the town.

Lumwana Copper Mine - A private copper mine that employs over 3,800 people, owned by Equinox Minerals Limited and its Zambian subsidiary, the Lumwana Mining Company Limited. A branch of Investrust Bank — A medium-sized commercial bank, licensed by the national banking regulator, the Bank of Zambia. Lumwana Premier Resort — a hotel in Manyama, near the Lumwana Copper Mine, within an hour's drive of Solwezi and Kalumbila. Copper mines in Zambia Populated places in North-Western Province, Zambia Google Maps.com: map of Lumwana Infomine.com: Profile of Lumwana Allafrica.com: "Planning of Lumwana Central Business District In Progress"

La Casa Alvarado

La Casa Alvarado known as the Alvarado Adobe, is a historic adobe structure built in 1840 and located on Old Settlers Lane in Pomona, California. It was declared a historic landmark in 1954 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the Casa Alvarado is located on a portion of the 22,000-acre Rancho San Jose granted to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejas in 1837. In 1840, Palomares invited his close friend, Ygnacio Alvarado, to live on the ranch and gave him a plot of land near Palomares' own home, La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose; the land was given to Alvarado with the stipulation that Alvarado would build a chapel in his home to be used for church services when padres visited from the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The large 18-foot by 42-foot living room of the Casa Alvarado was used for church services for 45 years; the Alvarado's adobe living room was the site of the first public school classes in the Pomona Valley, starting in 1870 or 1871. For more than 120 years, the house had only three owners.

It remained in the Alvardo family from 1840 to 1886, when it was purchased and occupied by Dr. Benjamin S. Nichols and his family. Prior to 1900, Dr. Nichols added redwood frame additions to the house; the house remained in the Nichols family for 65 years. In 1951, Alphonse and Isabel Fages purchased the home. Alphonse was born in Pomona and a descendant of Ricardo Vejar, who in 1837 was the co-grantee of the Rancho San Jose along with Ygnacio Palomares. Isabel was the descendant of Spanish settlers and had served as the president of the Historical Society of Pomona Valley and the editor of the official publication of the Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West; the Fages bought the adobe with plans to preserve it. The house included two-and-a-half acres of land, but the Fages sold several lots reducing it to one acre. In 1954, the Native Daughters of the Golden West declared the Casa Alvarado to be a historic landmark and dedicated a historical marker on the site; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

Though designated as a historic site, the Casa Alvarado remains a private home and is not open to the public. It is for sale. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles County, California Rancho San Jose Ygnacio Palomares Adobe La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose