Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen, a Russian naval officer and explorer of Baltic German extraction, who rose to the rank of admiral. He participated in the First Russian circumnavigation of the globe and subsequently became a leader of another circumnavigation expedition that discovered the continent of Antarctica. Bellingshausen started his service in the Russian Baltic Fleet, after distinguishing himself joined the First Russian circumnavigation of the Earth in 1803–1806, serving on the merchant ship Nadezhda under the captaincy of Adam Johann von Krusenstern. After the journey he published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, he commanded several ships of the Black Sea Fleets; as a prominent cartographer, Bellingshausen was appointed to command the Russian circumnavigation of the globe in 1819–1821, intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. Mikhail Lazarev prepared the expedition and was made Bellingshausen's second-in-command and the captain of the sloop Mirny, while Bellingshausen himself commanded the sloop Vostok.
During this expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see the land of Antarctica on 27 January 1820. They never lost each other from view, thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice-fields. The expedition discovered and named Peter I Island, Zavodovski and Visokoi Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island, made other discoveries in the tropical waters of the Pacific. Made counter admiral on his return, Bellingshausen participated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829. Promoted to vice-admiral, he again served in the Baltic Fleet in 1830s, from 1839 he was the military governor of Kronstadt, where he died. In 1831 he published the book on his Antarctic travels, called Double Investigation of the Southern Polar Ocean and the Voyage Around the World. Russians remember him as one of their greatest explorers. Multiple geographical features and locations in the Antarctic, named in honor of Bellingshausen, commemorate his role in the exploration of the southern polar region.
Bellingshausen was born to a Baltic German noble Bellingshausen family in the Lahhentagge manor, Ösel County in the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. His paternal family had Holsteinish origins, the surname Bellingshausen was first recorded in Lübeck, he enlisted as a cadet in the Imperial Russian Navy at the age of ten. After graduating from the Kronstadt naval academy at age eighteen, Bellingshausen rose to the rank of captain. A great admirer of Cook's voyages, Bellingshausen served from 1803 in the first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth, he was one of the officers of the vessel Nadezhda, commanded by Adam Johann von Krusenstern. The mission was completed in 1806. After the journey Bellingshausen published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Bellingshausen's career continued with the command of various ships in the Black Seas. From 1812 to 1816 he commanded the frigate Minerva and from 1817 to 1819 the frigate Flora, both in the Black Sea Fleet.
During 1812 he met on Macquarie island Richard Siddins, the Australian captain of the ship Campbell Macquarie. When Emperor Alexander I authorized an expedition to the south polar region in 1819, the authorities selected Bellingshausen to lead it as an experienced captain and explorer, a prominent cartographer; the expedition was intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The preparation work on the two ships, the 985-ton sloop-of-war Vostok and the 530-ton support vessel Mirny was carried out by Mikhail Lazarev, who had captained his own circumnavigation of the globe before. Bellingshausen became the captain of Vostok, Lazarev captained Mirny; the journey started from Kronstadt on 4 June 1819. They stopped in England, where Bellingshausen met with Sir Joseph Banks, the president of the Royal Society. Banks had sailed with Captain James Cook fifty years earlier and supplied the Russians with books and charts for their expedition. Leaving Portsmouth on 5 September 1819 the expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle on 26 January 1820.
On 27 January the expedition discovered the Antarctic mainland approaching the Antarctic coast at a point with coordinates 69º21'28"S 2º14'50"W and seeing ice-fields there. The point in question lies within twenty miles of the Antarctic mainland. Bellingshausen's diary, his report to the Russian Naval Minister on 21 July 1821 and other documents, available in the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic in Saint Petersburg, were compared with the log-books of other claimants by the British polar historian A. G. E. Jones in his 1982 study Antarctica Observed. Jones concluded that Bellingshausen, rather than the Royal Navy's Edward Bransfield on 30 January 1820 or the American Nathaniel Palmer on 17 November 1820, was indeed the discoverer of the sought-after Terra Australis. During the voyage Bellingshausen visited Ship Cove in New Zealand, the South Shetland Islands, discovered and named Peter I, Zavodovski and Visokoi Islands, a peninsula of the Antarctic mainland that he named the Alexander Coast but that has more borne the designation of Alexander Island.
Discreet Desires is the debut full-length studio album by German DJ and record producer Helena Hauff. It was released on 4 September 2015 by Ninja Tune. Debuting in 2013 with a brand of "hardware-driven" and "dark acid techno-influenced music", Hauff worked with various different labels, including James Dean Brown's Hypnobeat record label, Following the release of Lex Tertia EP in 2014, Hauff collaborated with Werkdiscs and Ninja Tune labels to release her debut album; the press material described the record as "the embodiment of Helena’s deep-seated beliefs about music as a radical force and unifying movement." The record is based on an old photograph Hauff found and "felt compelled to make music around." "The atmosphere of that photo seemed to project a certain sound to me, so I tried to replicate it in musical form, to somehow try to make the music sound how the photo looked". Rejecting that Discreet Desires is a conceptual album, Hauff stated that she "just had a conceptual approach to it."
The photograph which served as an inspiration on the record was to be its artwork before Hauff switched it at the last minute. Drowned in Sound critic Nick Roseblade labeled Discreet Desires as "a classic electro album with techno leanings," with all tracks sounding "authentically retro and filthy." AllMusic's Paul Simpson thought that the record retains the "grittiness of her previous releases, but has a much wider scope, sounding much fuller and more melodic while avoiding sounding polished or sterile." Noting the "spooky goth melodies and snapping, marching beats", Simpson remarked that the vintage electro and industrial/EBM influences, which were "always evident in Hauff's work", came into full focus with Discreet Desires. Andy Battaglia of Rolling Stone regarded that the "vintage-signifying synth and drum-machine sounds plus a blocky, patterned approach to programming of the album peer back to the Eighties/Nineties early age of techno." The Irish Times' Jim Carroll described the release's sound as "tough, bleepy electro and industrial techno".
Upon its release, Discreet Desires received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 70, which indicates "generally favorable reviews", based on 7 reviews. AllMusic critic Paul Simpson described the record as a "fascinating debut album" and stated that it "demonstrates the right way to transition from an underground, 12"-only electronic producer to a full-scale album artist expanding upon previous ideas while avoiding sounding overblown and remaining rough and exhilarating." Nick Roseblade of Drowned in Sound wrote: "The melodies are polymerous, Hauff’s deft technical flourishes mean that different instruments merge in and out of each other to create changing, but constant patterns." Labelling the album as "more introverted than Hauff's previous material", Exclaim!'s Daryl Keating "She's attempted to present a unified piece with this album, rather than a selection of similar tracks, it's a gambit that's paid off in spades."The Irish Times critic Jim Carroll described the release as "a hugely inventive record which indicates that there’s much more to come in time from Hauff."
Mixmag's Joseph Twin wrote: "It may sound dark, cold and rough around the edges compared to software-produced music, but these sounds have proved over the decades that they will set your synapses alight with delight." Matt McDermott of Resident Advisor stated: "Some of the best moments on Discreet Desires occur when she's flexing these unexpected songwriting chops." The Skinny critic Andrew Gordon thought that "individually, a number of the tracks make strong impressions but digested as a whole, their mechanical repetition and minimal melodic nuance becomes a little wearying."The album was listed as number 19 on Rolling Stone's list of "20 Best EDM and Electronic Albums of 2015." All tracks are written by Helena Hauff. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Discreet Desires. Helena Hauff – writing, production Discreet Desires at Discogs
The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation is the public transit operator serving suburban Metro Detroit. It partners with the Detroit Department of Transportation. Beginning operations in 1967 as the Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority, it operates 44 linehaul and three park-and-ride bus routes in Wayne and Macomb Counties, its name was changed to SMART in 1989. As of 2008, SMART has the third highest ridership of Michigan's transit systems, surpassed by Capital Area Transportation Authority and Detroit Department of Transportation. SMART has its headquarters in the Buhl Building in Downtown Detroit; some of SMART's routes enter the City of Detroit and serve the Downtown and Midtown cores during "peak hours". Elsewhere in Detroit city limits, a local ordinance bars passengers from being dropped off on outbound routes, or boarding on inbound routes; this is intended to avoid service duplication with Detroit Department of Transportation, which supplements the city of Detroit with its own bus service.
The Michigan Legislature passed the Metropolitan Transportation Authorities Act of 1967, which included the creation of Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority. SEMTA was charged to take over the ownership and operations of the fractured regional transit systems in Macomb and Wayne counties, including the city of Detroit; the new authority acquired several suburban transit bus operations including Lake Shore Coach Lines, Pontiac Municipal Transit Service, Dearborn's Metropolitan Transit, Birmingham's Great Lakes Transit, Royak Oak's Martin Lines. However, the 1967 transportation act did not provide the regional authority with any means to levy taxes. By 1974, the Detroit Department of Street Railways had been reorganized as a city department of Detroit, leaving SEMTA only coordination over the suburban services; that same year, SEMTA acquired a commuter train service between downtown Detroit and Pontiac from the Grand Trunk Western Railroad. Due to declining ridership and a lack of funding, the commuter rail service was discontinued in October 1983.
In 1979, SEMTA approved a regional transit plan, which included improved bus service and new rail transit, but the plan was never implemented due to lack of funds. The last commuter rail service was a former Penn Central route, named the Michigan Executive, that ran from the Michigan Central Depot in Detroit to Jackson, its final operator was as funded by the State of Michigan. The pared down Executive service ended in 1984. Beginning in 1983, SEMTA oversaw the construction of the Detroit People Mover, conceived as part of a much larger which consisted of light rail lines and a downtown subway. Mismanagement of the project resulted in tens-of-millions of dollars of cost overruns, causing the federal government to pull out of the project. In 1985, with the half-built project in limbo, the city of Detroit negotiated with SEMTA to take over the project, it was transferred to the newly created Detroit Transportation Corporation. With little interest in the suburbs for expanding mass transit and Detroit not interested in joining the system, SEMTA was restructured as SMART in 1989, reducing the authorities service area from seven counties to three and excluding the city of Detroit.
In October 2011, the authority cut 22% of its service and laid off 123 employees due to declining property values which fund the system through its millage, the inability of the authority to reach an agreement with its unions. In January 2018, SMART began operation of its first major service expansion since the 2011 cuts to the system, adding three high frequency, limited-stop bus services branded FAST along Michigan and Gratiot avenues connecting downtown and Midtown to the Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Wayne County, Pontiac in Oakland County, Chesterfield Township in Macomb County, respectively; the adult cash fare for fixed routes is US$2 or $0.5 for all others, which includes 4-hour pass, if needed. The fare for "park-and-ride" express routes is $2.5, $1 for children 6-17, disabled/Medicare. SMART offers 31-day passes for each of the above fare categories, a regional monthly pass, permitting unlimited rides on both SMART and DDOT for $49.50. Kids below 3 feet 8 inches tall pay no fare with fare-paying rider.
When transferring to higher-cost service, the difference must be paid. A 24-Hour pass is $5 or $2 for all others. On December 1, 2009, SMART raised its fares by $0.50. There was a $0.50 charge added to regional monthly pass users and DDOT transfers. Fare increases were made to prevent possible cuts in bus services; the following routes were removed as part of the introduction of the FAST routes on January 1, 2018. 475 Woodward Limited - Troy 565 Gratiot Limited 598 Gratiot RefleX to Downtown Detroit 599 Gratiot RefleX to DMC/WSUThe following routes were removed as part of the service cuts made on December 12, 2011. The Groesbeck Shuttle still exists as a Connector service, but its early morning fixed route has been removed. 112 Wyandotte Schools 135 Southshore Express 145 Carlysle 150 Allen-Wick 190 Taylor Flyer 196 Peterson Academy 202 Romulus 203 Edsel Ford High School 245 Cherry Hill 265 Warren Road 305 Grand River 385 Orchard Lake 525 Groesbeck Shuttle 559 Auburn Hills-Roseville 655 Grosse Pointe SchoolsThe following routes were removed prior to 2011.
Official SMART Website Transportation Riders United