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Fabian Society

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow. As one of the founding organisations of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, as an important influence upon the Labour Party which grew from it, the Fabian Society has had a powerful influence on British politics. Other members of the Fabian Society have included political leaders from countries part of the British Empire, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, who adopted Fabian principles as part of their own political ideologies; the Fabian Society founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895. Today, the society functions as a think tank and is one of 21 socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Canada, in Sicily and in New Zealand; the Fabian Society was founded on 4 January 1884 in London as an offshoot of a society, founded a year earlier called The Fellowship of the New Life, a forebear of the British Ethical and humanist movements.

Early Fellowship members included the visionary Victorian elite, among them poets Edward Carpenter and John Davidson, sexologist Havelock Ellis, early socialist Edward R. Pease, they wanted to transform society by setting an example of clean simplified living for others to follow. Some members wanted to become politically involved to aid society's transformation. All members were free to attend both societies; the Fabian Society additionally advocated renewal of Western European Renaissance ideas and their promulgation throughout the world. The Fellowship of the New Life was dissolved in 1899, but the Fabian Society grew to become a leading academic society in the United Kingdom in the Edwardian era, it was typified by the members of its vanguard Coefficients club. Public meetings of the Society were for many years held at Essex Hall, a popular location just off the Strand in central London; the Fabian Society was named—at the suggestion of Frank Podmore—in honour of the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus.

His Fabian strategy sought gradual victory against the superior Carthaginian army under the renowned general Hannibal through persistence and wearing the enemy down by attrition rather than pitched, climactic battles. An explanatory note appearing on the title page of the group's first pamphlet declared:For the right moment you must wait, as Fabius did most patiently, when warring against Hannibal, though many censured his delays. According to author Jon Perdue, "The logo of the Fabian Society, a tortoise, represented the group’s predilection for a slow, imperceptible transition to socialism, while its coat of arms, a'wolf in sheep’s clothing', represented its preferred methodology for achieving its goal." The wolf in sheep's clothing symbolism was abandoned, due to its obvious negative connotations. Its nine founding members were Frank Podmore, Edward R. Pease, William Clarke, Hubert Bland, Percival Chubb, Frederick Keddell, H. H. Champion, Edith Nesbit, Rosamund Dale Owen. Havelock Ellis is sometimes mentioned as a tenth founding member, though there is some question about this.

Upon its inception, the Fabian Society began attracting many prominent contemporary figures drawn to its socialist cause, including George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Charles Marson, Sydney Olivier, Oliver Lodge, Ramsay MacDonald and Emmeline Pankhurst. Bertrand Russell became a member, but resigned after he expressed his belief that the Society's principle of entente could lead to war. At the core of the Fabian Society were Beatrice Webb. Together, they wrote numerous studies of industrial Britain, including alternative co-operative economics that applied to ownership of capital as well as land. Many Fabians participated in the formation of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900 and the group's constitution, written by Sidney Webb, borrowed from the founding documents of the Fabian Society. At the meeting that founded the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, the Fabian Society claimed 861 members and sent one delegate; the years 1903 to 1908 saw a growth in popular interest in the socialist idea in Great Britain and the Fabian Society grew accordingly, tripling its membership to nearly 2500 by the end of the period, half of whom were located in London.

In 1912, a student section was organised called the University Socialist Federation and by the outbreak of World War I this contingent counted its own membership of more than 500. The first Fabian Society pamphlets advocating tenets of social justice coincided with the zeitgeist of Liberal reforms during the early 1900s, including eugenics; the Fabian proposals however were more progressive than those that were enacted in the Liberal reform legislation. The Fabians lobbied for the introduction of a minimum wage in 1906, for the creation of a universal health care system in 1911 and for the abolition of hereditary peerages in 1917. Fabian socialists were in favour of reforming Britain's imperialist foreign policy as a conduit for internationalist reform, were in favour of a capitalist welfare state modelled on the Bismarckian German model.

Clayton/Tamm, St. Louis

Clayton-Tamm is a traditionally Irish-American neighborhood located near the western border of St. Louis, Missouri, USA, just south of Forest Park, its borders are Hampton Avenue to the east, Manchester Road to the south, Louisville Avenue on the west and Oakland and I-64 to the north. Its name is derived from the intersecting streets of Clayton Avenue and Tamm Avenue, the center of the neighborhood's business district; the Clayton-Tamm neighborhood is one of five which make up the renowned Irish section of St. Louis called "Dogtown"; the earliest development in the neighborhood was by Charles Gratiot, who in 1785 requested use of the land from Spanish authorities in the French-owned land before the Louisiana Purchase "to cultivate wheat, corn, etc. etc." The grant was formalized by the Spanish governor in 1798 and reaffirmed in 1808 by the US after the Louisiana Purchase. After Charles' Death his large land grant was given as inheritance. Major growth in Cheltenham defined the region in the late 19th century as it developed into a coal and clay mining community.

Growth was further accelerated by preparations and construction for the 1904 World's Fair, "The Louisiana Purchase Exposition" held in nearby Forest Park. While there are a number of theories as to why this neighborhood is known as Dogtown, the most credible account describes a group of coal miners working in what is today Forest Park; when the city acquired the land to build the park in 1876, these people found sparsely populated areas south of the new park and built shacks to live in as they found new work. In order to secure their ramshackle homes, many of the squatters used watchdogs, which would defend their territory. Dogtown is home to the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade, the more authentic of the two St. Louis parades for this holiday. On March 17, thousands gather to watch the Ancient Order of Hibernians' parade, which runs down Tamm Avenue and features many local Irish Schools of Dance. In 2010 Clayton/Tamm's racial makeup was 89.0% White, 6.0% Black, 0.2% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 2.1% Two or More Races, 0.6% Some Other Race.

2.6 % of the population was of Latino origin. Clayton/Tamm is the setting for much of the 1990 film White Palace, with protagonist Nora Baker's home being close to the junction of Manchester and Hampton Avenues in W. Billon Ave. VisitDogtown.com, Great resource for Dogtown restaurants, stores and events The Official Website of the Clayton Tamm Community Association

List of townships in Ohio

The list of Ohio Townships provides an alphabetic list of the 1362 current and historic townships in Ohio. While some have been absorbed into cities or villages, becoming paper townships, the list does not give historic names for any that were renamed; the 2016–2017 Ohio Municipal and School Board Roster maintained by the Ohio Secretary of State lists 1,309 townships with a 2010 population totaling 5,680,042, meaning 49% of the State's population were residents of townships. When paper townships are excluded, but name variants counted separately, there are 618 different names used by townships statewide, including 451 names used only once. On the opposite end of the spectrum, forty-three townships are named "Washington", eight other names are used for twenty or more townships each. Adams Township, Champaign County, Ohio Adams Township, Clinton County, Ohio Adams Township, Coshocton County, Ohio Adams Township, Darke County, Ohio Adams Township, Defiance County, Ohio Adams Township, Guernsey County, Ohio Adams Township, Lucas County, Ohio Adams Township, Monroe County, Ohio Adams Township, Muskingum County, Ohio Adams Township, Seneca County, Ohio Adams Township, Washington County, Ohio Addison Township, Gallia County, Ohio Aid Township, Lawrence County, Ohio Alexander Township, Athens County, Ohio Allen Township, Darke County, Ohio Allen Township, Hancock County, Ohio Allen Township, Ottawa County, Ohio Allen Township, Union County, Ohio Amanda Township, Allen County, Ohio Amanda Township, Fairfield County, Ohio Amanda Township, Hancock County, Ohio Amboy Township, Fulton County, Ohio American Township, Allen County, Ohio Ames Township, Athens County, Ohio Amherst Township, Lorain County, Ohio Anderson Township, Hamilton County, Ohio Andover Township, Ashtabula County, Ohio Antrim Township, Wyandot County, Ohio Archer Township, Harrison County, Ohio Ashtabula Township, Ashtabula County, Ohio Athens Township, Athens County, Ohio Athens Township, Harrison County, Ohio Atwater Township, Portage County, Ohio Auburn Township, Crawford County, Ohio Auburn Township, Geauga County, Ohio Auburn Township, Tuscarawas County, Ohio Auglaize Township, Allen County, Ohio Auglaize Township, Paulding County, Ohio Augusta Township, Carroll County, Ohio Aurelius Township, Washington County, Ohio Aurora Township, Portage County, Ohio Austinburg Township, Ashtabula County, Ohio Austintown Township, Mahoning County, Ohio Avon Township, Lorain County, Ohio Bainbridge Township, Geauga County, Ohio Ballville Township, Sandusky County, Ohio Barlow Township, Washington County, Ohio Bartlow Township, Henry County, Ohio Batavia Township, Clermont County, Ohio Bath Township, Allen County, Ohio Bath Township, Greene County, Ohio Bath Township, Summit County, Ohio Baughman Township, Wayne County, Ohio Bay Township, Ottawa County, Ohio Bazetta Township, Trumbull County, Ohio Bearfield Township, Perry County, Ohio Beaver Township, Mahoning County, Ohio Beaver Township, Noble County, Ohio Beaver Township, Pike County, Ohio Beavercreek Township, Greene County, Ohio Bedford Township, Coshocton County, Ohio Bedford Township, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Bedford Township, Meigs County, Ohio Belpre Township, Washington County, Ohio Bennington Township, Licking County, Ohio Bennington Township, Morrow County, Ohio Benton Township, Hocking County, Ohio Benton Township, Monroe County, Ohio Benton Township, Ottawa County, Ohio Benton Township, Paulding County, Ohio Benton Township, Pike County, Ohio Berkshire Township, Delaware County, Ohio Berlin Township, Delaware County, Ohio Berlin Township, Erie County, Ohio Berlin Township, Holmes County, Ohio Berlin Township, Knox County, Ohio Berlin Township, Mahoning County, Ohio Bern Township, Athens County, Ohio Berne Township, Fairfield County, Ohio Bethel Township, Clark County, Ohio Bethel Township, Miami County, Ohio Bethel Township, Monroe County, Ohio Bethlehem Township, Coshocton County, Ohio Bethlehem Township, Stark County, Ohio Big Island Township, Marion County, Ohio Big Spring Township, Seneca County, Ohio Biglick Township, Hancock County, Ohio Black Creek Township, Mercer County, Ohio Black River Township, Lorain County, Ohio Blanchard Township, Hancock County, Ohio Blanchard Township, Hardin County, Ohio Blanchard Township, Putnam County, Ohio Blendon Township, Franklin County, Ohio Bloom Township, Fairfield County, Ohio Bloom Township, Morgan County, Ohio Bloom Township, Scioto County, Ohio Bloom Township, Seneca County, Ohio Bloom Township, Wood County, Ohio Bloomfield Township, Jackson County, Ohio Bloomfield Township, Logan County, Ohio Bloomfield Township, Trumbull County, Ohio Blooming Grove Township, Richland County, Ohio Blue Creek Township, Paulding County, Ohio Blue Rock Township, Muskingum County, Ohio Boardman Township, Mahoning County, Ohio Bokes Creek Township, Logan County, Ohio Boston Township, Summit County, Ohio Bowling Green Township, Licking County, Ohio Bowling Green Township, Marion County, Ohio Braceville Township, Trumbull County, Ohio Brady Township, Williams County, Ohio Bratton Township, Adams County, Ohio Brecksville Township, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Bridgewater Township, Williams County, Ohio Brighton Township, Lorain County, Ohio Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio Bristol Township, Morgan County, Ohio Bristol Township, Trumbull County, Ohio Bronson Township, Huron County, Ohio Brookfield Township, Noble County, Ohio Brookfield Township, Trumbull County, Ohio Brooklyn Township, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Brown Township, Carroll County, Ohio Brown Township, Darke County, Ohio Brown Township, Delaware County, Ohio Brown Township, Franklin County, Ohio Brown Township, Knox County, Ohio Brown Township, Miami County, Ohio Brown Township, Paulding County, Ohio Brown Township, Vint