Santa Fe Province
The Province of Santa Fe is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Chaco, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero. Together with Córdoba and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economico-political association known as the Center Region. Santa Fe's most important cities are Rosario, the capital Santa Fe, Villa Gobernador Gálvez, Venado Tuerto and Santo Tomé; the adult literacy rate in the province is 96.3% The aboriginal tribes who inhabited this region were the Tobas, Timbúes, Mocovíes, Pilagás, Guaycurúes, Guaraníes. They were nomadic, lived from hunting and fruit recollection; the first European settlement was established in 1527, at the confluence of the Paraná and Carcarañá rivers, when Sebastián Gaboto, on his way to the north, founded a fort named Sancti Spiritus, destroyed two years by the natives. In 1573 Juan de Garay founded the city of Santa Fe in the surroundings of present town Cayastá, but the city was moved in 1651 and 1660 to its present location.
In 1812 the lawyer and general Manuel Belgrano created and displayed for the first time the Argentine flag on the banks of the Paraná River, at Rosario, 160 km south of Santa Fe. In 1815, while Alvear's central government felt due to Ignacio Álvarez Thomas' rebellion, Francisco Candioti, the local militia chief, took over, peacefully, of government, thus starting the era of Santa Fe as an autonomous province; this period was short lived, since that same year Candioti died and central government reestablished the dependent government. However, in 1816, the caudillos Mariano Vera and Estanislao López deposed the governor delegate and proclaimed the sovereignty of the province and its membership into Artigas's Free Peoples League. López drew, in 1818, a provincial constitution of a conservative flavour, after rejecting a project proposed by a provincial assembly. During the civil strifes of 1820, Santa Fe troops were decisive in the defeat of Buenos Aires' centralist army. So, in time, López became the Federation's Patriarch, establishing himself as the central figure of the Federal Party until his death in 1838.
After López's death it was José María Cullen the one elected governor. However, being Cullen a potential rival of Buenos Aires governor and Confederation's Foreign Affairs Representative, Juan Manuel de Rosas, he sought and got Cullen's capture and execution, naming pro-Rosas Juan Pablo López as governor; the new governor maintained in power, alterning with Pascual Echagüe, until the province invasion by Justo José de Urquiza's Great Army in 1851, during his term the province adopted a new constitution in 1841. After the organization of the nation, the province entered an era of prosperity; the political hegemony of the conservative groups was challenged by the new ideas brought by the European immigrants gave birth to the Radical Civic Union and the Progressive Democratic Party, the creation of the Argentine Agrarian Federation. These two parties had many strong electoral contests with the province's conservative parties. After the Electoral Reform of Roque Sáenz Peña in 1912, the UCR reached the government and stayed until the coup of 1930.
During this time, more in 1919, the National University of the Littoral was founded. In 1932 it was the PDP; the contentious 1958 elections brought an ally of President-elect Arturo Frondizi to power in Santa Fe, Dr. Carlos Sylvestre Begnis. Gov. Begnis steered budgets into sorely needed public works, most notably the construction of the Hernandarias Tunnel, a 10-mile -long connection between the city of Santa Fe and neighboring Paraná; the tunnel, most of which runs under the massive Paraná River, is the longest in Argentina. Forced to resign after conservative pressure drove Pres. Frondizi from office in 1962, Begnis had the satisfaction of seeing Hernandarias open in 1969 and voters overwhelmingly return him to office in 1973. Santa Fe suffered the violence of the late'70s and the depression of the 1980s more than most other provinces, it continued to languish economically during the prosperous 1990s, as the revalued Argentine peso put pressure on its productive sectors. Touching bottom around 2002, its economy has grown by 7% a year since then.
The heart of Argentina's lucrative soy harvest, the province's importance has continued to grow, now rivaling Buenos Aires Province as the nation's leading agricultural producer, with Rosario as one of the most important ports in Argentina. Most of the province consists of green flatlands, part of the humid Pampas, bordering to the north with the Gran Chaco region. There are low sierras to the west; the north has higher temperatures, with an annual average of 19 °C and precipitations of up to 1,100 millimetres in the east, decreasing towards the west, where there is a distinctive dry season during the winter. The south presents lower temperatures, averaging 14 °C, less precipitations. Summers are hot and humid throughout the province, with average highs ranging from 30 °C in the south to 34 °C
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Mauricio Macri is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentina's history and is the first democratically-elected non-Radical or Peronist president since 1916, he was chief of government of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015, represented the city in the lower house of the Congress of Argentina from 2005 to 2007. The reintegration of Argentina into the international community is central to Macri's agenda. Born in Tandil, Buenos Aires Province, Macri is the son of Franco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors, was raised in an upper class home, he received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and studied at Columbia Business School in New York City. Macri became president of Boca Juniors, one of Argentina's two most popular football clubs, in 1995. In 2005, he created the centre-right Republican Proposal party.
Although Macri was a potential presidential candidate in the 2011 general elections, he ran instead for reelection as mayor. He received about 47 percent of the vote in the mayoral election, which led to a runoff election on 31 July 2011 against Daniel Filmus in which Macri was reelected for a second consecutive term. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of the presidential elections on 25 October, he received 51.34 percent of the vote to defeat Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the Argentine Congress. In 2016, Macri was named one of the world's 100 most influential people and the most powerful president in Latin America by the U. S. news magazine Time. Macri was born in Tandil in the province of Buenos Aires, the son of Italian-born tycoon Francesco "Franco" Macri and Alicia Blanco-Villegas Cinque; the family moved to Buenos Aires a short time and kept their houses in Tandil as vacation properties. His father, his uncle Jorge Blanco Villegas, influenced Macri to become a businessman, Franco expected his son to succeed him as leader of his firms.
Macri preferred his uncle's company to constant scrutiny by his father. He was educated at Colegio Cardenal Newman, received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina. At this time Macri became interested in neoliberalism and joined the now-defunct Union of the Democratic Centre and a think tank led by former minister Álvaro Alsogaray. In 1985, he attended Columbia Business School, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the Universidad del CEMA in Buenos Aires. Macri's professional experience began at SIDECO Americana, a construction company, part of his father's Socma Group holding company, where he worked for three years as a junior analyst and became a senior analyst. In 1984, he worked in the credit department of Citibank Argentina in Buenos Aires. Macri joined Socma Group the same year, became its general manager in 1985. In 1992, he became vice president of Sevel Argentina, became president two years later. In 1991, Macri was kidnapped for 12 days by officers of the Argentine Federal Police.
Kept in a small room with a chemical toilet and a hole in the roof to receive food, he was freed when his family paid a multimillion-dollar ransom. Macri has said, his first wife was daughter of race-car driver Juan Manuel Bordeu. They had three sons: Agustina and Francisco. After they divorced, Macri married model Isabel Menditeguy in 1994. Although the marriage reached a crisis when Macri became chairman of Boca Juniors, they did not divorce until 2005, he began a romance with María Laura Groba. Macri left Groba in 2010, began a relationship with businesswoman Juliana Awada and married Awada that year. At the wedding reception, he wore a fake moustache as part of his impersonation of singer Freddie Mercury. Macri accidentally swallowed the moustache, Minister of Health Jorge Lemus performed first aid to save his life. Macri intended to run for chairman of Boca Juniors in 1991, but his father convinced him to keep working at Sevel, he tried to buy the Deportivo Español team, but could not get support from the team's board of directors.
Macri supported Boca Juniors, paying coach César Luis Menotti's salary and buying players for the team. Franco, skeptical about his son's prospects for success allowed him to run Boca Juniors, he instructed aide Orlando Salvestrini to work with Mauricio for two reasons: to help him and to monitor his activities. Mauricio met with former Boca Juniors chairmen Antonio Alegre and Carlos Heller, tried to convince them to work with him. Macri sought the support of other groups in Boca Juniors winning the team's internal elections in 1995 with 7058 votes, his first years were unsuccessful. The only initial improvement was a partial reconstruction of the stadium, he arranged that the Boca Juniors institution worked in the stock exchange, to earn enough money to buy new players. Macri's first coach was Carlos Salvador Bilardo, who brought 14 new players to the team and finished the 1996 Apertura league in 10th place, his second coach, Héctor Veira performed poorly. New coach C
Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego
Río Grande is a city in Argentina, on the north coast of the eastern part of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. It has a population of 67,038, is the industrial capital of the Tierra del Fuego Province, it is served by Hermes Quijada International Airport. Sheep farming, as many other places in Patagonia, was the main impetus for population settlements beginning in the late 19th century. Abundant rivers, the seacoast, good pastures were some of the reasons that fueled population growth. Río Grande was founded on July 11, 1921, when the central government issued a decree recognising this locality as the "Agricultural Colony of Río Grande". In the beginning, the land was subdivided among a few families, owning large estates until the agrarian reform of 1925. Cattle raising became one of the most important economic activities in the area. To promote industrial development, Tierra del Fuego is excluded from federal income tax; as a result, several manufacturing companies those involving electronic products, have opened factories in this city.
One of the most growing sectors is the production of laptops and netbooks. These products were imported until 2006 but by 2010, 42% of the Argentine market for these goods was supplied by firms established in Río Grande and Vicente López. Portfolio investments announced in 2011 plan the production of 6.9 million units in Tierra del Fuego Province, principally in Río Grande. The city's population has grown since 1980. Many people have relocated from the northern parts of Argentina and from other countries, such as Bolivia, to work in factories that offer higher wages than other parts of Argentina. Rio Grande's climate is influenced by the ocean: quite cool, sometimes windy, it has a subantarctic climate or a subpolar oceanic climate depending on the isotherm used, with cool temperatures year round. It closely borders on a cold semi-arid climate and a tundra climate. Temperatures in the warmest months and February average 11 °C while temperatures in the coolest month average 0 °C. With a mean temperature of −0.3 °C in the coldest month, Río Grande has the coldest mean monthly temperature amongst cities in Argentina.
Precipitation is low at around 330 millimetres. Due to its latitude, the length of the day varies tremendously across the year. Winter days can have as few as seven hours of sunlight. Frost occurs throughout the year, winter temperatures can remain below freezing for long periods of time; as such, the frost free period is short with the first date of frost being February 23 and the last date of frost being November 22. During the summer, conditions are very windy and cloudy, nights remain cold. Freak snowfalls can occur in midsummer; the highest recorded temperature was 30.8 °C on February 4, 2019 while the lowest recorded temperature was −22.2 °C on July 19, 1984. Ushuaia Government website
1998–2002 Argentine great depression
The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002. It immediately followed the 1974–1990 Great Depression after a brief period of rapid economic growth; the depression, which began after the Russian and Brazilian financial crises, caused widespread unemployment, the fall of the government, a default on the country's foreign debt, the rise of alternative currencies and the end of the peso's fixed exchange rate to the US dollar. The economy shrank by 28 percent from 1998 to 2002. In terms of income, over 50 percent of Argentines were poor and indigent. By the first half of 2003, however, GDP growth had returned, surprising economists and the business media, the economy grew by an average of 9% for five years. Argentina's GDP exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2005, Argentine debt restructuring that year were resumed payments on most of its defaulted bonds. Bondholders who participated in the restructuring have been paid punctually and have seen the value of their bonds rise.
Argentina repaid its International Monetary Fund loans in full in 2006, but had a long dispute with the 7% of bond-holders left. In April 2016 Argentina came out of the default when the new government decided to repay the country's debt, paying the full amount to the vulture/hedge funds. Argentina's many years of military dictatorship had caused significant economic problems prior to the 2001 crisis during the self-styled National Reorganization Process in power from 1976 to 1983. A right-wing executive, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, was appointed Economy Minister at the outset of the dictatorship, a neoliberal economic platform centered around anti-labor, monetarist policies of financial liberalization was introduced. Budget deficits jumped to 15% of GDP as the country went into debt for the state takeover of over $15 billion in private debts as well as unfinished projects, higher defense spending, the Falklands War. By the end of the military government in 1983, the foreign debt had ballooned from $8 billion to $45 billion, interest charges alone exceeded trade surpluses, industrial production had fallen by 20%, real wages had lost 36% of their purchasing power, unemployment, calculated at 18%, was at its highest point since the 1929 Great Depression.
Democracy was restored in 1983 with the election of President Raúl Alfonsín. The new government intended to stabilize the economy and in 1985 introduced austerity measures and a new currency, the Argentine austral, the first of its kind without peso in its name. Fresh loans were required to service the $5 billion in annual interest charges and when commodity prices collapsed in 1986, the state became unable to service this debt. During the Alfonsin administration, unemployment did not increase, but real wages fell by half to the lowest level in fifty years. Prices for state-run utilities, telephone service, gas increased substantially. Confidence in the plan, collapsed in late 1987, inflation, which had averaged 10% per month from 1975 to 1988, spiraled out of control. Inflation reached 200 % for the month in July 1989. Amid riots, Alfonsín resigned five months before the end of his term. After a second bout of hyperinflation, Domingo Cavallo was appointed Minister of the Economy in January 1991.
On 1 April, he fixed the value of the austral at 10,000 per US dollar. Australs could be converted to dollars at banks; the Central Bank of Argentina had to keep its US dollar foreign-exchange reserves at the same level as the cash in circulation. The initial aim of such measures was to ensure the acceptance of domestic currency because after the 1989 and 1990 hyperinflation, Argentines had started to demand payment in US dollars; this regime was modified by a law that restored the Argentine peso as the national currency. The convertibility law reduced inflation preserved the value of the currency; that raised the quality of life for many citizens, who could again afford to travel abroad, buy imported goods or ask for credit in dollars at traditional interest rates. The fixed exchange rate reduced the cost of imports, which produced a flight of dollars from the country and a massive loss of industrial infrastructure and employment in industry. Argentina, still had external public debt that it needed to roll over.
Government spending remained too high, corruption was rampant. Argentina's public debt grew enormously during the 1990s without showing that it could service the debt; the IMF kept extending its payment schedules. Massive tax evasion and money laundering contributed to the movement of funds toward offshore banks. A congressional committee started investigations in 2001 over accusations that Central Bank Governor Pedro Pou, a prominent advocate of dollarization, members of the board of directors had overlooked money laundering within Argentina's financial system. Clearstream was accused of being instrumental in this process. Other Latin American countries, including Mexico and Brazil faced economic crises of their own, leading to mistrust of the regional economy; the influx of foreign currency provided by the privatization of state companies had ended. After 1999, Argentine exports were harmed by the dev
National University of Rosario
The National University of Rosario is a research public university located in the city of Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Rosario National University was created in 1968 by Law 17.987. Its foundational structure consisted of numerous academic and administrative entities belonging to the Rosario campus of the National University of the Littoral, established in 1918; the schools incorporated in the original university at the time included: the Colleges of Medicine, Biochemistry Sciences, Architecture, Economic Sciences and Arts, Psychology, Political Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Veterinarian Sciences. Other institutions under the original university's aegis included hospitals and secondary schools, the Rosario Music Institute, the Fine Arts Institute, the Center of Foreign and Modern Languages. From its beginnings Rosario National University promoted an active relationship with Rosario society; this relationship allowed it to complete every initiated project and sustain growth in accordance to regional demands.
Its present structure consists of 3 high schools and one interdisciplinary academy. It has a building surface of 68,000 square meters, where the following academic courses are provided: 124 postgraduate courses, 63 college degrees, 15 technical degrees, 53 intermediate level college degrees, 16 degrees for articulation with the non-university higher education system, 32 professional degrees. An on-line campus was incorporated, providing distance learning courses by using Web support as a teaching tool. Rosario National University is committed to: "providing higher education with scientific characteristics towards the formation of researchers and technicians with broad cultural integration and conscious of their social responsibility, with the duty of fostering interrelationships among faculty and students through national and international scientific and cultural centers." Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura Surveying Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Electronic Engineering Industrial Engineering Mechanical Engineering Physics Mathematics Computer Science Teacher of Mathematics Facultad de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales Political Science International Relations Social Communication Social Work Facultad de Ciencias Médicas Medicine Nursery Phonaudiology Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas Biochemical Pharmacy Biotechnology Chemistry Teacher of Chemistry Facultad de Arquitectura, Planeamiento y Diseño Architecture Facultad de Derecho Law Notary public Facultad de Odontología Odontology Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Agronomy Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias Veterinary medicine Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Estadística Public Accountant Administration Economy Statistic Teacher of Accounting Teacher of Economy Teacher of Statistic Logistics Facultad de Psicología Psychology Teacher of Psychology Facultad de Humanidades y Artes Anthropology Philosophy History Fine Arts Letters Portuguese Sciences of the Education Musical Education Instrumentation Song Composition Teacher of Philosophy Teacher of History Teacher of Letters Teacher of Sciences of the Education Teacher of Instrumentation Teacher of Song Teacher of Composition Teacher of Music in Basic General Education Teacher of Musical Education Instituto Politécnico Superior "Gral.
San Martín" Instituto Superior de Comercio "Libertador Gral. San Martín" Escuela Agrotécnica "Libertador San Martín" List of universities in Argentina Science and technology in Argentina University Revolution Virtual campus Students' website Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Science and Education in Argentina Argentine Higher Education Official Site
Argentine Chamber of Deputies
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress. It is made up of 257 national deputies who are elected in multi-member constituencies corresponding with the territories of the 23 provinces of Argentina by party list proportional representation. Elections to the Chamber are held every two years; the Constitution of Argentina lays out certain attributions that are unique to the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber holds exclusive rights to levy taxes. Additionally, the Chamber of Deputies receives for consideration bills presented by popular initiative; the Chamber of Deputies is presided over by the President of the Chamber, deputized by three Vice Presidents. It has 257 seats and one-half of the members are elected every two years to serve four-year terms by the people of each district using proportional representation, D'Hondt formula with a 3% of the district registered voters threshold, the following distribution: All data from official website. In order for an Argentine citizen to be elected to congress, they have to fulfil certain requirements: He or she has to be at least twenty five years old with at least four years of active citizenship and it has to be naturalized in the province, being elected to or at least have two years of immediate residency in said province, according to art.
48 or the Argentine Constitution. The Chamber of Deputies was provided for in the Constitution of Argentina, ratified on May 1, 1853. Eligibility requisites are that members be at least twenty-five years old, have been a resident of the province they represent for at least four years. Otherwise patterned after Article One of the United States Constitution per legal scholar Juan Bautista Alberdi's treatise, Bases de la Constitución Argentina, the chamber was apportioned in one seat per 33,000 inhabitants; the constitution made no provision for a national census and because the Argentine population doubled every twenty years from 1870 to 1930 as a result of immigration, censuses were conducted generationally, rather than every decade, until 1947. The distribution of the Chamber of Deputies is regulated since 1983 by Law 22.847 called Ley Bignone, enacted by the last Argentine dictator, General Reynaldo Bignone, ahead of the 1983 general elections. This law established that each province shall have one deputy per 161,000 inhabitants, with standard rounding.
If a province has fewer than five deputies, the number of deputies for that province is increased to reach that minimum. Controversially, apportionment remains based on the 1980 population census, has not been modified since 1983; the minimum of five seat per province allots the smaller ones a disproportionately large representation, as well. Accordingly, this distribution does not reflect Argentina's current population balance; the President of the Chamber is elected by the majority caucus. The officeholders for this post since 1983 have been: Leadership positions include: List of current Argentine deputies Argentine Senate Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Argentina - Official Site