SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fabrice Luchini

Fabrice Luchini is a French stage and film actor. He has appeared in films such as Potiche, The Women on the 6th Floor, In the House. For his role in the 2015 film Courted he won the Volpi Cup for Best Actor at the 72nd Venice International Film Festival. Fabrice Luchini was born in Paris, into an Italian immigrant family from Assisi who were greengrocers, he grew up around the neighbourhood of Goutte d'Or in Paris's 18th arrondissement. When he was 13, his mother apprenticed him to a hairdresser in a trendy parlour in Avenue Matignon, where he would take the name of the hairdresser's son, Fabrice, in place of his real name, Robert, his first film role was in Tout peut arriver in 1969. He appeared in Éric Rohmer's Le Genou de Claire in 1970 playing a small role as an adolescent, he went on to appear in Rohmer's Perceval le Gallois and Les Nuits de la pleine lune, in films directed by Nagisa Oshima, Pierre Zucca, Claude Lelouch, Cedric Klapisch and Édouard Molinaro. In 1990 he appeared in Christian Vincent's La Discrète.

TelevisionLa chaîne – Laurent Fantômas – Bonardin"L'étreinte du diable" "L'échafaud magique" Le beau monde – Jean-Pierre Davin Série noire"Adieu la vie" – Kowal "La fée carabine" – Pastor Tous en boîte – Minimax Les dossiers de l'écran L'argent du mur – Bernd Au nom du peuple français – Robespierre Les nuits révolutionnaires – Huguenot sans-culotte Six crimes sans assassin – Simon Lampias Call My Agent! - Himself In 2010, Fabrice Luchini wrote the preface of two books: A la rencontre de Sacha Guitry, published by Editions Oxus, Seul avec tous by Laurent Terzieff, published by Presses de la Renaissance. In 2011, he collaborated in a book by Philippe Muray, published by les Cahiers d'histoire de la philosophie. In 2011, he released Fabrice Luchini lit fragments d'un discours amoureux through Audiolib. In 2012, he released Variations on CD and DVD on Barclay / Universal Music France Prix Jean Gabin César Award for Best Supporting Actor, for Tout ça... pour ça! Prix du Brigadier Silver George for Best Actor at the 29th Moscow International Film Festival Fabrice Luchini on IMDb

Expansin

Expansin refers to a family of related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in plant cell growth, fruit softening, emergence of root hairs, pollen tube invasion of the stigma and style, meristem function, other developmental processes where cell wall loosening occurs. Expansins were discovered as mediators of acid growth, which refers to the widespread characteristic of growing plant cell walls to expand faster at low pH than at neutral pH. Expansins are thus linked to auxin action, they are linked to cell enlargement and cell wall changes induced by other plant hormones such as gibberellin, cytokinin and brassinosteroids. A subset of the β-expansins are the major group-1 allergens of grass pollens. So far, two large families of expansin genes have been discovered in plants, named alpha-expansins and beta-expansins. Both families of expansins have been identified in a wide range of land plants, from angiosperms and gymnosperms to ferns and mosses; the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains around 26 different α-expansin genes and 6 β-expansin genes.

A subset of β-expansins has evolved a special role in grass pollen, where they are known as group 1 grass pollen allergens. Plants have a small set of expansin-like genes whose function has not been established; some proteins in bacteria and fungi are known to have distant sequence similarity to plant expansins. Strong evidence that at least some of these sequences are indeed expansins came in 2008 when the crystal structure of the YOAJ protein from a bacterium was shown to be similar to the structure of plant expansins, despite the low sequence similarity; this study noted that proteins related to YOAJ were found in diverse species of plant pathogenic bacteria, but not in related bacteria that did not attack or colonize plants, thus suggesting that these bacterial expansins have a role in plant-microbe interactions. Some animals, such as Globodera rostochiensis, a plant-parasitic nematode, can produce a functional expansin which uses it to loosen cell walls when invading its host plant. To be designated as expansin or expansin-like and their protein products must contain both domain I and domain II.

Non-plant expansins can be designated with the symbol EXLX, but they do not constitute a monophyletic group. Nomenclature of genes and proteins of expansins and expansin-like: e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana EXPANSIN A1 is named "AtEXPA1" as for the gene, "AtEXPA1" as for the protein. Expansins characteristically cause irreversible wall extension; this process is essential for cell enlargement. Expansins are expressed in ripening fruit where they function in fruit softening, in grass pollen, where they loosen stigmatic cell walls and aid pollen tube penetration of the stigmain germinating seeds for cell wall disassembly, in floral organs for their patterning, in developing nitrogen-fixing nodules in legumes, in abscissing leaves, in parasitic plants, in ‘resurrection’ plants during their rehydration. No enzymatic activity has been found for expansin and in particular, no glucanase activity: they don't hydrolyze the matrix polysaccharides. Expansins are proteins. Speaking, α- and β-expansins and expansin-like are composed of 300 amino acids, with a MW of ~25–28 kDa for the mature protein.

The peptidic sequence of an expansin consists, in particular, of: a signal peptide of around 20–30 amino acids at the N-terminal end, the putative catalytic domain, a His-Phe-Asp motif in central region, the C-terminal putative cellulose-binding domain with conserved Trp residues. Sequence analysis of expansin genes shows seven introns named A, B, C, D, E, F, G. In the N-terminal signal sequences of α-expansin genes, the general absence of endoplasmic reticulum retention signal confirms that the proteins are targeted to the cell wall. A promoter analysis of expansin genes indicates that expression of these genes may be regulated by auxin, cytokinin or ethylene, this being more frequent in α-expansins than in β-expansins; the plant cell wall must be loosened to enable the cell to grow. Within the cell wall, this expansion of surface area involves slippage or movement of cellulose microfibrils, coupled to simultaneous uptake of water. In physical terms, this mode of wall expansion requires cell turgor pressure to stretch the cell wall and put the network of interlinked cellulose microfibrils under tension.

By loosening the linkages between cellulose microfibrils, expansins allow the wall to yield to

Karl Bohnenkamp

Vizefeldwebel Karl Bohnenkamp was a World War I flying ace credited with 15 aerial victories. He scored his first victory on 21 September 1917 and continued through 28 October 1918, his 15 victories made him the leading ace in his squadron. He was awarded the Military Merit Cross on the latter date. Before Bohnenkamp qualified as a pilot, he was a radio operator for Feldflieger Abteilung 39 from May 1915 to August 1916. After undergoing pilot's training, he was assigned to FFA 208 in February 1917. On 25 July 1917, he was "promoted" to flying fighter aircraft for Royal Saxon Jagdstaffel 22, his first aerial success came on 21 September 1917. He would continue to score victories until war's end, his last one coming on 28 October 1918; the latter date, he was presented with the Golden Military Merit Cross–the highest military decoration that could be awarded to a German noncommissioned officer. Franks, Norman. Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918.

Grub Street, 1993. ISBN 0-948817-73-9, ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1. Franks, Norman. Fokker D. VII Aces of World War I Part 2. Osprey. P. 72. ISBN 1841767298. Frontflieger.de