A Fachhochschule, abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences is a German tertiary education institution. Each institution specializes in a particular of applied science or applied arts, such as engineering, technology or business. Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, were adopted in Austria, Switzerland and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule, the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften. Universities of Applied Sciences are designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. Fachhochschulen do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities.
However, they may run doctoral programs if the degree itself is awarded by a partner institution. Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom, but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities are equivalent. With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany. With the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst career for civil servants; the Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines.
It differs from the traditional university through its more practical orientation. Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, other professional fields; the traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom. Coursework totaled eight semesters of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments; the program concluded after five years, with the final examination and a thesis, an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree; the Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them attractive to employers.
Today, Fachhochschulen conduct research. Research projects are either publicly funded or sponsored by industry. In Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to Universitäten. In 2016, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad. There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses; the Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies.
The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen. They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale in Italian; the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008; the public UAS are run by one or more cantons. UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes, continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science.
The UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are
Gregor Žugelj is a Slovenian football midfielder who plays for SC Waterloo Region in the Canadian Soccer League. Žugelj began his professional career in 2009 in the Slovenian PrvaLiga with NK Olimpija Ljubljana. Žugelj was subsequently loaned to the Slovenian Third League to play with NK Kamnik. In 2011, he received a second loan spell with NK Bela Krajina in the Slovenian Second League, signed a permanent deal in 2012, he returned to the top tier in 2013 with NK Krka, played two seasons with the club. In 2015, he played abroad in the Landesliga Burgenland with SV St. Margarethen/Rosental. In 2016, Žugelj returned to the 3. SNL to play with NK Kolpa. After the relegation of Kolpa he played abroad for the second time in the Canadian Soccer League with SC Waterloo Region
Flora is a painting by Francesco Melzi, completed circa 1520. It depicts the Roman mythological figure Flora, the goddess of springtime and flowers, a popular subject among Renaissance artists; the painting was in the collection of Maria de’ Medici in 1649 and has been in the collection of Hermitage Museum since 1850. Flora was painted in the style typical of the Leonardeschi, utilizing Leonardo da Vinci's female facial type with downcast eyes, Leonardo's sfumato technique, displaying Leonardo's penchant for careful observation of plants and hair. In the composition, Flora is seated in a grotto, surrounded by ferns and ivy, she wears the costume of an ancient Roman, with a white stola embroidered in gold and with a blue palla thrown over one shoulder. In her lap are white jasmines, in her left hand she holds a spray of columbine that gave the painting its title; the plants surrounding Flora held symbolic meaning for 17th century viewers. For example, the columbine known as aquilegia, are a symbol of fertility.
Alongside Flora's exposed breast, the columbine emphasizes her role as a'mother of flowers.' The jasmine in her proper right hand are symbolic of purity. The anemones in the folds of her palla in the lower left of the image represent rebirth. In ancient Greece, anemones were the flower of the wind; the ivy in the upper right represents eternity, the fern in the upper left reflects the solitude of the grotto. Melzi was a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci and the technique he used in this painting mirrors that of his teacher so well that the painting was thought to be an autograph work by Leonardo when it was purchased on behalf of Tsar Nicholas I for the Hermitage. Once at the museum, scholars attributed the painting to a variety of different Leonardeschi: In 1871, Joseph Crowe and Giovanni Cavalcaselle argued that it should be attributed to Andrea Solari. Claude Phillips called Flora a "puzzle" and felt that the painting had an underdrawing by Leonardo but was painted by a pupil; the attribution of Flora to Melzi is based on close similarities between the painting and other works by the artist Vertumnus and Pomona at the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin.
Adolfo Venturi wrote how the "same seductive, tender feminine charms, the same Hellenic spirit recur in the Columbina" as in Vertumnus and Pomona. Rodman Henry noted this similarity, though argued there was no evidence Melzi was an artist and so the paintings couldn't be attributed to him. Traces of Melzi's signature were, uncovered in the lower left corner of Flora in 1963, further strengthening the attribution. Along with Flora and Columbine, the painting has at times been called "Vanity" as well as "Gioconda." It was once named "Portrait of Mme Babou de la Bourdaisière" when it was thought it might be a portrait of the mistress of Francis I. The known history of the painting's ownership is. 1649, listed in the posthumous collection of Maria de’ Medici. Collection of the Duc d’Orleans collected by Philippe II. By inheritance to Louis and to Louis Philippe II. 1790, Sold to Viscount Edouard de Walckiers in Brussels. 1824, sold from the collection of Danoot in Brussels to King Willem II of the Netherlands.
1850, sold at The Hague to Fëdor Bruni, agent of tsar Nicholas I, for ƒ40,000. Acquired by the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Flora was painted on wood panel, transferred to canvas in the nineteenth century. Despite this, the paint layers are reported to be in good condition with a well-preserved underdrawing and minor losses and abrasions to the surface. In 2019, the painting underwent a conservation treatment performed by Maria Vyacheslavovna Shulepova of the State Hermitage Museum. Before, the painting was covered in a yellowed varnish which obscured details and flattened the appearance of the background; the varnish made the ultramarine palla worn by Flora to appear green. Analysis of the paint layers further revealed that Melzi did not "cheat" in painting the palla by glazing expensive ultramarine over a less expensive azurite. Flora appears on the cover of Italian singer Mango's 2009 album Gli amori son finestre. In 2012, a sixteenth-century copy of Flora sold at Christie's for £937,250 to a private collector in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
E. de Bruyn, ‘’De schilderijenverzameling van Zijne Koninklijke Hoogheid de prins van Oranje te Brussel’’, Bulletin de la Classe des Beaux Arts, Académie Royale de Belgique 28, 155-63. H. E. van Gelder, ‘’De kinsteverzameling van kning Willem II’’, Maandlad voor de Beeldende Kunsten 24, 137-48. Erik Hinterding and Femy Horsch, ‘‘’A Small but choice collection’’: the art gallery of King Willem II of the Netherlands ’, Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 19, no.1/2, 4-122. Tatyana K. Kustodieva, The Hermitage: Catalogue of Western European Painting. Darius A. Spieth, Revolutionary Paris and the Market for Netherlandish Art, 99 note 194 and 270-1. Wilhelm Suida, Leonardo und sein Kreis, 232-33, fig. 302