Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags. Many kinds of paper are made from wood with nothing else mixed into them; this includes newspapers and toilet paper. Pulp is one of the most abundant raw materials. Pulp for papermaking was produced by macerating mulberry bark as early as the 2nd century in Han dynasty China, where the invention of paper is traditionally attributed to Cai Lun. Lu Ji, in his 3rd century commentary on the Classic of Poetry, mentions that people residing south of the Yangtze River would traditionally pound mulberry bark to make paper or clothing. By the 6th century, the mulberry tree was domesticated by farmers in China for the purpose of producing pulp to be used in the papermaking process. In addition to mulberry, pulp was made from bamboo, hibiscus bark, blue sandalwood and cotton. Papermaking using pulp made from hemp and linen fibers from tattered clothing, fishing nets and fabric bags spread to Europe in the 13th century, with an ever-increasing use of rags being central to the manufacture and affordability of rag paper, a factor in the development of printing.
By the 1800s, demand exceeding the available supply of rags, the manual labor of papermaking resulted in paper being still a pricey product. Using wood pulp to make paper is a recent innovation, concurrent to the invention of automatic papermaking machines, both together resulting in paper and cardboard becoming an inexpensive commodity in modern times. Although the first use of paper made from wood pulp dates from 1800, as seen in some pages of a book published by Matthias Koops that year in London, large-scale wood paper production began with the development of mechanical pulping in Germany by Friedrich Gottlob Keller in the 1840s, by the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty in Nova Scotia, Chemical processes followed, first with J. Roth's use of sulfurous acid to treat wood by Benjamin Tilghman's U. S. patent on the use of calcium bisulfite, Ca2, to pulp wood in 1867. A decade the first commercial sulfite pulp mill was built, in Sweden, it was based on work by Carl Daniel Ekman. By 1900, sulfite pulping had become the dominant means of producing wood pulp, surpassing mechanical pulping methods.
The competing chemical pulping process, the sulfate, or kraft, was developed by Carl F. Dahl in 1879; the invention of the recovery boiler, by G. H. Tomlinson in the early 1930s, allowed kraft mills to recycle all of their pulping chemicals. This, along with the ability of the kraft process to accept a wider variety of types of wood and to produce stronger fibres, made the kraft process the dominant pulping process, starting in the 1940s. Global production of wood pulp in 2006 was 175 million tons. In the previous year, 63 million tons of market pulp was sold, with Canada being the largest source at 21 percent of the total, followed by the United States at 16 percent; the wood fiber sources required for pulping are "45% sawmill residue, 21% logs and chips, 34% recycled paper". Chemical pulp made up 93 percent of market pulp; the timber resources used to make wood pulp are referred to as pulpwood. While in theory, any tree can be used for pulp-making, coniferous trees are preferred because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species are longer, therefore make stronger paper.
Some of the most used softwood trees for paper making include spruce, fir and hemlock, hardwoods such as eucalyptus and birch. There is increasing interest in genetically modified tree species, because of several major benefits these can provide, such as increased ease of breaking down lignin and increased growth rate. A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fiberboard which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Pulp can be manufactured using mechanical, semi-chemical or chemical methods; the finished product may be either non-bleached, depending on the customer requirements. Wood and other plant materials used to make pulp contain three main components: cellulose fibers and hemicelluloses; the aim of pulping is to break down the bulk structure of the fibre source, be it chips, stems or other plant parts, into the constituent fibres. Chemical pulping achieves this by degrading the lignin and hemicellulose into small, water-soluble molecules which can be washed away from the cellulose fibres without depolymerizing the cellulose fibres.
The various mechanical pulping methods, such as groundwood and refiner mechanical pulping, physically tear the cellulose fibres one from another. Much of the lignin remains adhering to the fibres. Strength is impaired. There are a number of related hybrid pulping methods that use a combination of chemical and thermal treatment to begin an abbreviated chemical pulping process, followed by a mechanical treatment to separate the fibres; these hybrid methods include thermomechanical pulping known as TMP, chemithermomechanical pulping known as CTMP. The chemical and thermal treatments reduce the amount of energy subsequently required by the mechanical treatment, al
A Post-it Note is a small piece of paper with a re-adherable strip of glue on its back, made for temporarily attaching notes to documents and other surfaces. A low-tack pressure-sensitive adhesive allows the notes to be attached, removed and re-posted elsewhere without leaving residue. Small yellow squares, Post-it Notes and related products are available in various colors, shapes and adhesive strengths. Although 3M's patent expired in 1997, "Post-it" and the original notes' distinctive yellow color remain registered company trademarks, with terms such as "repositionable notes" used for similar offerings manufactured by competitors. While use of the trademark'Post-it' in a representative sense refers to any sticky note, no legal authority has held the trademark to be generic. In 1968, Dr. Spencer Silver, a scientist at 3M in the United States, was attempting to develop a super-strong adhesive. Instead, he accidentally created a "low-tack", pressure-sensitive adhesive. For five years, Silver promoted his "solution without a problem" within 3M both informally and through seminars, but failed to gain acceptance.
In 1974, a colleague who had attended one of his seminars, Art Fry, came up with the idea of using the adhesive to anchor his bookmark in his hymn book. Fry utilized 3M's sanctioned "permitted bootlegging" policy to develop the idea; the original notes' yellow color was chosen by accident, as the lab next-door to the Post-It team had only yellow scrap paper to use.3M launched the product as "Press'n Peel" bookmark in stores in four cities in 1977, but results were disappointing. A year 3M instead issued free samples directly to consumers in Boise, with 94 percent of those who tried them indicating they would buy the product; the product was sold as "Post-Its" in 1979 when the rollout introduction began, was sold across the United States from April 6, 1980. The following year, they were launched in Europe. In 2003, the company came out with "Post-it Brand Super Sticky Notes", with a stronger glue that adheres better to vertical and non-smooth surfaces; until 3M's patent expired in the 1990s, Post-it type notes were produced only in the company's plant in Cynthiana, Kentucky.
In 2018, 3M launched the new "Post-It Extreme Notes", designed to be more durable and water-resistant, to stick to a variety of surfaces to which regular Post-It notes do not adhere. The Post-It Extreme Notes were designed with work environments like construction and manufacturing in mind. Inventor Alan Amron has made claims to be the inventor who in 1973 disclosed the technology used on the Post-it Note to 3M in 1974, his 1997 suit against 3M was settled and 3M paid Amron. As part of the settlement, Amron undertook not to make future claims against the company except if a breach of the settlement agreement should occur. However, in 2016, he launched a further suit against 3M, asserting that 3M were wrongly claiming to be the inventors, seeking $400 million in damages. At a preliminary hearing, a federal judge ordered the parties to undergo mediation; the suit was subsequently dismissed declaring the previous 1998 settlement agreement to be upheld. In July 2016 a former 3M marketing department employee, Daniel Dassow, voluntarily came forward as an eyewitness that in 1974 Alan Amron had in fact disclosed his Press-on memo sticky notes invention to 3M.
"The Yellow Stickee Diary of a Mad Secretary," by Rosa Maria Arenas, is the mini graphic journal of an office worker/artist, exhibited July 7 - August 25, 2013, at the Michigan Institute of Contemporary Art Gallery in Lansing, Michigan. The 41 drawings displayed are a tiny percentage of the more than 2000 original drawings that constitute the Yellow Stickee Diary Project which Arenas created while working temp jobs from 1994 to 2005. Printed with archival inks on archival paper, the reproductions include "stickee sized" framed prints and enlargements of the original drawings. In 2012, Turkish artist Ardan Özmenoğlu was selected to have a solo exhibition at Bertrand Delacroix Gallery in the art district of Chelsea, Manhattan; the exhibition, titled "E Pluribus Unum", opened November 15, 2012 and featured large scale works on Post-It Notes. In 2004, Paola Antonelli, a curator of architecture and design, included Post-it Notes in a show entitled "Humble Masterpieces". Rebecca Murtaugh, a California artist who uses Post-it Notes in her artwork, in 2001 created an installation by covering her whole bedroom with $1000 worth of the notes, using the ordinary yellow for objects she saw as having less value and neon colors for more important objects, such as the bed.
In 2000, the 20th anniversary of Post-it Notes was celebrated by having artists create artworks on the notes. One such work, by the artist R. B. Kitaj, sold for £ 640 in an auction; the Lennon Wall, a message board created during the 2014 Hong Kong protests from a stretch of curved staircase in the Central Government Complex, is covered in multi-coloured Post-It Notes with handwritten messages from supporters. Satiregram, a parody account on Instagram by Euzcil Castaneto, showcases handwritten messages on Post-it Notes that describe typical pictures people would post on Instagram. Virtual Post-It Notes have been created for computer in the form of desktop notes; these include 3M's own Post-it Brand Software Notes, Stickies in Mac OS, Sticky Notes in Windows, or other applications like ShixxNOTE. Virtual Post-It–like notes are available online using Evernote, Google Keep, or Microsoft OneNote. In 1997, 3M sued Microsoft for trademark infringement for using the term "Post-It" in a help file. U. S.
Patent 3,691,140—Acrylate-copolymer microsphe
A calender is a series of hard pressure rollers used to finish or smooth a sheet of material such as paper, textiles, or plastics. Calender rolls are used to form some types of plastic films and to apply coatings; some calender rolls are cooled as needed. Calenders are sometimes spelled calendars; the word "calender" itself is a derivation of the word κύλινδρος kylindros, the Greek word, the source of the word "cylinder". In eighteenth century China, workers called "calenderers" in the silk and cotton cloth trades, used heavy rollers to press and finish cloth. In 1836, Edwin M. Chaffee, of the Roxbury India Rubber Company, patented a four-roll calender to make rubber sheet. Chaffee worked with Charles Goodyear with the intention to "produce a sheet of rubber laminated to a fabric base". Calenders were used for paper and fabrics long before applications for thermoplastics. With the expansion of the rubber industry the design of calenders grew as well, so when PVC was introduced the machinery was capable of processing it into film.
As recorded in an overview on the history of the development of calenders, "There was development in both Germany and the United States and the first successful calendering of PVC was in 1935 in Germany, where in the previous year the Hermann Berstorff Company of Hannover designed the first calender to process this plastic". In the past, for paper, sheets were worked on with a polished hammer or pressed between polished metal sheets in a press. With the continuously operating paper machine it became part of the process of rolling the paper; the pressure between the rollers, the "nip pressure", can be reduced by heating the rolls or moistening the paper surface. This helps to keep the bulk and the stiffness of the web paper, beneficial for its use. Modern calenders have "hard" heated rollers made from chilled cast iron or steel, "soft" rollers coated with polymeric composites; the soft roller is non-cylindrical, tapered in diameter toward both ends, to widen the working nip and distribute the specific pressure on the paper more evenly.
In a principal paper application, the calender is located at the end of a papermaking process. Those that are used separately from the process are called supercalenders; the purpose of a calender is to make the paper smooth and glossy for printing and writing, as well as of a consistent thickness for capacitors that use paper as their dielectric membrane. The calender section of a paper machine consists of other equipment; the paper web is run between in order to further smooth it out, which gives it a more uniform thickness. The pressure applied to the web by the rollers determines the finish of the paper, there are three types of finish that the paper can have; the first is Machine Finish, or MF Paper and it can range from a Rough/ Matt look, to a Smooth high quality finish. The second is called a Supercalendered Finish, or MG Paper, Glossy/ Glazed, suitable for a high degree fine-screened halftone printing; the third type of finish is called a plater finish, whereas the first two types of finish are accomplished by the calender stack itself, a plater finish is obtained by placing cut sheets of paper between zinc or copper plates that are stacked together put under pressure and heating.
A special finish such as a linen finish would be achieved by placing a piece of linen between the plate and the sheet of paper, or else an embossed steel roll might be used. After calendering, the web has a moisture content of about 6%, it is wound onto a roll called a tambour, stored for final cutting and shipping. A supercalender is a stack of calenders consisting of alternating steel and fiber-covered rolls through which paper is passed to increase its density and gloss, it is similar to a calender except softer rolls are used. The rolls used to supercalender uncoated paper consist of cast iron and compressed paper, while the rolls used for coated paper are cast iron and compressed cotton; the finish produced varies according to the raw material used to make the paper and the pressure exerted on it, ranges from the highest English finish to a glazed surface. Supercalendered papers are sometimes used for books containing fine line blocks or halftones because they print well from type and halftones, although for the latter they are not as good as coated paper.
Calendering is a finishing process used on cloth and fabrics. A calender is employed to smooth, coat, or thin a material. With textiles, fabric is passed under rollers at high pressures. Calendering is used on fabrics such as moire to produce its watered effect and on cambric and some types of sateens. Calenders can be applied to materials other than paper when a smooth, flat surface is desirable, such as cotton, linens and various man-made fabrics and polymers such as vinyl and ABS polymer sheets, to a lesser extent HDPE, polypropylene and polystyrene; the calender is an important processing machine in the rubber industries in the manufacture of tires, where it is used for the inner layer and fabric layer. Calendering can used for polishing, or making uniform, coatings applied to substrates- an older use was in polishing magnetic tapes, for which the contact roller rotates much faster than the web speed. More it is used in the production of certain types of secondary battery cells to achieve uniform thickness of electrode material coatings on current collector foils.
Glassine Paper mill Roller mill Rolling (
Washi is traditional Japanese paper. The word "washi" comes from wa meaning'Japanese' and shi meaning'paper'; the term is used to describe paper that uses local fiber, processed by hand and made in the traditional manner. Washi is made using fibers from the inner bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub, or the paper mulberry bush; as a Japanese craft, it is registered as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage. Washi is tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, is used in many traditional arts. Origami and Ukiyo-e were all produced using washi. Washi was used to make various everyday goods like clothes, household goods, toys, as well as vestments and ritual objects for Shinto priests and statues of Buddha, it was used to make wreaths that were given to winners in the 1998 Winter Paralympics. Several kinds of washi, referred to collectively as Japanese tissue, are used in the conservation and mending of books. Washi is produced in a way similar to that of ordinary paper, but relies on manual methods.
It involves a long and intricate process, undertaken in the cold weather of winter, as pure, cold running water is essential to the production of washi. Cold inhibits bacteria. Cold makes the fibres contract, producing a crisp feel to the paper, it is traditionally the winter work of a task that supplemented a farmer's income. Kozo, a type of mulberry, is the most used fiber in making Japanese paper; the kozo branches are boiled and stripped of their outer bark, dried. The fibers are boiled with lye to remove the starch and tannin, placed in running water to remove the lye; the fibers are bleached and any remaining impurities in the fibers are picked out by hand. The kozo is beaten. Wet balls of pulp are mixed in a vat with water and one of two traditional methods of paper making is employed. In both methods, pulp is shaken to spread the fibers evenly. Nagashi-zuki produces a thinner paper. With enough processing any grass or tree can be made into a washi. Gampi and paper mulberry are three popular sources.
Ganpishi – In ancient times, it was called Hishi. Ganpishi is used for books and crafts. Kōzogami – Kōzogami is made from paper mulberry and is the most made type of washi, it has a toughness closer to cloth than to ordinary paper and does not weaken when treated to be water-resistant. Mitsumatagami – Mitsumatagami has an ivory-colored, fine surface and is used for shodō as well as printing, it was used to print paper money in Meiji period. Until the early 20th century, the Japanese used washi in applications where Western style paper or other materials are used; this is because washi was the only type of paper available at that time in Japan, but because the unique characteristics of washi made it a better material. The different uses of washi include: Chiyogami – a method of stenciling or screenprinting paper with traditional Japanese designs Ikebana – the art of flower arrangement known as kadō Inkjet printings Kami-ito – pure-fiber washi paper spun into thread Katazome – a method of dyeing fabrics using a resist paste Kitemaking Mokuhanga Nihonga Origami – the art of paper folding Printmaking Sculpture Sewing Shibori – several methods of dyeing cloth with a pattern Shifu – washi, spun into yarn and woven into cloth Shodo – the art of calligraphy Sumi-e – the art of Ink wash painting Sumingashi – a form of paper marbling Ukiyo-e – a genre of woodblock prints Washi eggs – covering eggs with washi paper Chigiri-e – using Washi for "painting" pictures Cosplay Kimono Obi Zori Tempura Cushion Futon Shoji Bags Bento box Harae-Gushi, the washi whisk used for ritual purification by Shinto priests Japanese banknotes Loudspeaker cones.
Mitsubishi Ofuda for Shinto Plates Scale models Toys Umbrellas Printing Japanese festivals Sumo Fire balloons Gundo gami Awa washi Ecchu washi Echizen washi IseWashi Mino washi Sekisyū washi Sugihara gami Tosa washi Yame washi Uchiyama gami Genkō yōshi Japanese tissue List of Washi Sir Harry Parkes Tissue paper Ukiyo-e Hughes, Sukey. Washi: the World of Japanese paper. Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN 0-87011-318-6. Fukushima, Kurio. Handbook on the Art of Washi. All Japan Handmade Washi Association. "Washi". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Washi
A generic trademark known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide. A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic; this happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service. A trademark thus popularized has its legal protection at risk in some countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, as its intellectual property rights in the trademark may be lost and competitors enabled to use the genericized trademark to describe their similar products, unless the owner of an affected trademark works sufficiently to correct and prevent such broad use.
Thermos, Kleenex, Q-Tip, ChapStick, Dumpster, Band-Aid, Hoover, Jet Ski, Speedo are examples of trademarks that have become genericized in the US and elsewhere. Genericization or "loss of secondary meaning" may be either among the general population or among just a subpopulation, for example, people who work in a particular industry; some examples of the latter type from the vocabulary of physicians include the names Luer-Lok and Port-a-Cath, which have genericized mind share because: The users may not realize that the term is a brand name rather than a medical eponym or generic-etymology term. No alternative generic name for the idea comes to mind. Most genericization occurs because of heavy advertising that fails to provide an alternative generic name or that uses the trademark in similar fashion to generic terms. Thus, when the Otis Elevator Company advertised that it offered "the latest in elevator and escalator design," it was using the well-known generic term "elevator" and Otis's trademark "Escalator" for moving staircases in the same way.
The Trademark Office and the courts concluded that, if Otis used their trademark in that generic way, they could not stop Westinghouse from calling its moving staircases "escalators", a valuable trademark was lost through genericization. The pharmaceutical industry affords some protection from genericization of trade names due to the modern practice of assigning a nonproprietary name for a drug based upon chemical structure. Brand-name drugs have well-known nonproprietary names from the beginning of their commercial existence while still under patent, preventing the aforementioned problem of "no alternative generic name for the idea coming to mind". For example when Abilify was new, its nonproprietary name, was well documented. Another example is Warfarin, known as an ingredient in rat poison before it was approved for human use under the brand name of Coumadin. Examples of genericization before the modern system of generic drugs include aspirin, introduced to the market in 1897, heroin, introduced in 1898.
Both were trademarks of Bayer AG. However, U. S. court rulings in 1918 and 1921 found the terms to be genericized, stating the company's failure to reinforce the brand's connection with their product as the reason. Bayer's involvement in the Great Phenol Plot during World War I, subsequently the U. S. declaration of war on Germany, were involved in the case of aspirin and heroin. A different sense of the word genericized in the pharmaceutical industry refers to products whose patent protection has expired. For example, Lipitor was genericized in the U. S. when the first competing generic version was approved by the FDA in November 2011. In this same context, the term genericization refers to the process of a brand drug losing market exclusivity to generics. Trademark erosion, or genericization, is a special case of antonomasia related to trademarks, it happens when a trademark becomes so common that it starts being used as a common name and the original company has failed to prevent such use. Once it has become an appellative, the word cannot be registered any more.
Nintendo is an example of a brand that fought trademark erosion, having managed to replace excessive use of its name by the then-neologism game console. Whether or not a mark is popularly identified as genericized, the owner of the mark may still be able to enforce the proprietary rights that attach to the use or registration of the mark, as long as the mark continues to identify the owner as the commercial origin of the applicable products or services. If the mark does not perform this essential function and it is no longer possible to enforce rights in relation to the mark, the mark may have become generic. In many legal systems a generic mark forms part of the public domain and can be commercially exploited by anyone. There exists the possibility of a trademark becoming a revocable generic term in German trademark law; the process by which trademark rights are diminished or lost as a result of common use in the marketplace is known as genericization. This process occurs over a period of time in which a mark is not used as a trademark (i.e. where it is not used to identify the pr
Corrugated box design
Corrugated box design is the process of matching design factors for corrugated fiberboard boxes with the functional physical and end-use requirements. Packaging engineers work to meet the performance requirements of a box while controlling total costs throughout the system. In addition to the structural design discussed in this article, printed bar codes and graphic design are vital. Corrugated boxes are used as shipping containers. Boxes need to contain the product from manufacturing through distribution to sale and sometimes end-use. Boxes provide some measure of product protection by themselves but require inner components such as cushioning and blocking to help protect fragile contents; the shipping hazards depend upon the particular logistics system being employed. For example, boxes unitized into a unit load on a pallet do not encounter individual handling while boxes sorted and shipped through part of their distribution cycle as mixed loads or express carriers can receive severe shocks, etc...
Ordinary shipping containers require printing and labels to identify the contents, provide legal and regulatory information, bar codes for routing. Boxes that are used for marketing and point-of-sale have high graphics to help communicate the contents; some boxes are designed for display of contents on the shelf. Others are designed to help dispense the contents. Popular for their strength, lightness and cost-effectiveness, corrugated boxes are used for the shipping of a variety of items. Due to the quality and safety of packaging items in corrugated boxes, they are used in the food industry; the boxes handle the pressure that comes with making them ideal for easy transporting. More than 95% of all products in the United States are shipped in corrugated boxes. Corrugated paperboard accounts for more than half of all the paper recycled in the US. One of the important functions of a corrugated box is to provide crush resistance and adequate strength for stacking in warehouses. A box can be designed by optimizing the grade of corrugated board, box design, flute direction, inner supports.
Support from the product provides "load sharing" and can be an important factor. Box closures sometimes can have effects on box stacking strength. If long-term storage of corrugated boxes in high humidity is expected, extra strength and moisture resistance is called for; the method of loading boxes on pallets affects stacking. Vertical columns provide the best box performance while interlocking patterns of boxes reduce performance; the interaction of the boxes and pallets is important. Box compression testing is a means of evaluating boxes, stacks of boxes, unit loads under controlled conditions. Field conditions of stacking and dynamic compression do not have the same degree of control. Compression strength can be estimated based on container construction and use parameters: actual package testing is conducted to verify these estimates. Many packaging engineers find it beneficial to periodically audit warehouses and visit customer's package receiving operations; when field performance is observed or documented to have problems, a new cycle of design and testing may be justified.
For a corrugated box to withstand the deformation while stacking or storage. Where stack load=gross weight of box *stack height. Fiber Box Association has a method for estimating compression strength which includes the following factors: Time Moisture Palletizing type Pallet patterns Pallet type Handling Packaging engineers design corrugated boxes to meet the particular needs of the product being shipped, the hazards of the shipping environment, the needs of retailers and consumers Engineers and designers start with the needs of the particular project: cost constraints, machinery capabilities, product characteristics, logistics needs, applicable regulations, consumer needs, etc. Designs are made with Computer Aided Design programs connected to automated sample making tables. Several design and construction options might be considered. Samples are submitted to performance testing based on ASTM or other standard test protocols such as the International Safe Transit Association. Structural design is matched with graphic design.
For consumer based designs, marketing personnel sometimes use Focus groups or more quantitative means of assessing acceptance. Test markets are employed for major programs; the process starts by making corrugated board on a corrugating line, a long series of linked machines which may be in size of a football field. A finished piece of singlewall corrugated board is a single corrugated layer sandwiched between two liners. Skilled workers prepare job tickets for each stack of box blanks and route the blanks to fabrication machines. Printing dies and patterns are prepared on large, rubber or tin sheets, they are loaded onto rollers and the box blanks are fed through it, where each is trimmed, cut, scored and glued to form a box. Finished boxes are stacked and sent to a banding machine to be wrapped and shipped; the most common box style is the Regular Slotted Container. All flaps are the same length from score to edge; the major flaps meet in the middle and the minor flaps do not, unless the width is equal to the length.
Box styles in Europe are specified by a 4-digit code provided by the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers: A regular slotted container is coded 0201. The manufacturer's joint is most joined with adhesive but may be taped or stitched; the box is shipped flat to the packag
Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. They are shared during formal introductions as a memory aid. A business card includes the giver's name, company or business affiliation and contact information such as street addresses, telephone number, fax number, e-mail addresses and website. Before the advent of electronic communication business cards might include telex details. Now they may include social media addresses such as LinkedIn and Twitter. Traditionally many cards were simple black text on white stock. Business cards are printed on some form of card stock, the visual effect, method of printing and other details varying according to cultural or organizational norms and personal preferences; the common weight of a business card varies some by location. Business cards are printed on stock, 350 g/m2, 45 kg, or 12 pt. High quality business cards without full-color photographs are printed using spot colors on sheet-fed offset printing presses; some companies have gone so far as to trademark their spot colors.
If a business card logo is a single color and the type is another color, the process is considered two-color. More spot colors can be added depending on the needs of the card. With the onset of digital printing, batch printing, it is now cost effective to print business cards in full color. To simulate the effect of printing with engraved plates, a less-expensive process called thermography was developed that uses the application of a plastic powder, which adheres to the wet ink; the cards are passed through a heating unit, which melts the plastic onto the card. Spot UV varnish onto matte laminate can have a similar effect. Full color cards, or cards that use many colors, are printed on sheetfed presses as well. Screens of each color overprinted on one another create a wide gamut of color; the downside to this printing method is that screened colors if examined will reveal tiny dots, whereas spot color cards are printed solid in most cases. Spot colors should be used for simple cards with line art or non-black type, smaller than 5 points.
Some terminology in reference to full-color printing: 4/0 - Full color front / No print on back 4/1 - full color front / One color on reverse 4/4 - full color front / Full color backThese names are pronounced as "four over zero," "four over one," and "four over four". A business card can be coated with a UV glossy coat; the coat is applied just like another ink using an additional unit on a sheetfed press. That being said, UV coats can be applied as a spot coating - meaning areas can be coated, other areas can be left uncoated; this creates additional design potential. UV Coating is not to be confused with coated stock, which has a gloss or semi gloss finish, applied before printing. Business cards can be printed with a digital copier, which uses toner fused onto the surface of the card, however many modern printing firms instead utilise high end "Digital Presses," now distinct from office copiers, which range from light production units such as the Bizhub 5500 from Konica Minolta, to state of the art units such as the latest HP Indigo Digital Presses.
While some of the older office copiers may have had problems running heavy business card stock, the newest digital presses can print on stock as heavy as 407 g/m2, special substrates such as polypropylene. Available in both sheet-fed and web-fed models, many modern digital presses can emulate Pantone spot colors, print in up to seven colours in one pass, some contain embedded spectrophotometers and air-assisted feeding systems. UV coats, other coatings such as aqueous coatings are used to speed manufacturing of the cards. Cards that are not dry will "offset", i.e. the ink from the front of one card will mark up back of the next one. UV coatings are highly glossy but are more to fingerprint, while aqueous coatings are not noticeable but increase the life of the card, it is possible to use a dull aqueous coating on uncoated stock and get some durable uncoated cards, using UV coating or plastic lamination can be applied to thicken thin stocked cards and make them more durable as well. When cards are designed, they are given bleeds if color extends to the edge of the finished cut size.
This is to help ensure that the paper will cut without white edges due to small differences in where the blade cuts the cards, it is impossible to cut the cards properly without. Just being a hair off can result in white lines, the blade itself will pull the paper while cutting; the image on the paper can shift from page to page, called a bounce, off by a hairline on an offset press, but can be quite large on lower end equipment such as a copier or a duplicator press. Bleeds are an extra 3.175 to 6.35 mm to all sides of the card. Bleed size: 95.25 × 57.15 mm Standard cut size: 89 × 51 mm Bleed size: 91 × 61 mm Standard cut size: 85 × 55 mm Fold-over or "tent" cards, side fold cards are popular as well. These cards will fold to the standard size. Cards can be printed with a different language on each side. Aspect ratios range from 1.42 t