Fado is a music genre that can be traced to the 1820s in Lisbon, but has much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar Rui Vieira Nery states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best, but that information was modified within the generational transmission process that made it reach us today."Although the origins are difficult to trace, today fado is regarded as a form of song which can be about anything, but must follow a certain traditional structure. In popular belief, fado is a form of music characterized by mournful tunes and lyrics about the sea or the life of the poor, infused with a sentiment of resignation and melancholia; this is loosely captured by longing, symbolizing a feeling of loss. This is similar to the character of several musical genres in Portuguese ex-colonies such as morna from Cape Verde, which may be linked to fado in its earlier form but has retained its rhythmic heritage; this connection to the music of a historic Portuguese urban and maritime proletariat can be found in Brazilian modinha and Indonesian kroncong, although all these music genres subsequently developed their own independent traditions.

Famous singers of fado include Amália Rodrigues, Dulce Pontes, Carlos do Carmo, Mafalda Arnauth, António Zambujo, Ana Moura, Camané, Helder Moutinho, Carminho, Mísia, Cristina Branco, Gisela João and Katia Guerreiro. On 27 November 2011, fado was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, it is one of two Portuguese music traditions part of the other being Cante Alentejano. The word "fado" comes from the Latin word fatum; the word is linked to the music genre itself, although both meanings are the same in the two languages. Many songs play on the double meaning, such as the Amália Rodrigues song "Com que voz", which includes the lyric "Com que voz chorarei meu triste fado"; the English-Latin term vates, the Scandinavian fata and the French name fatiste have been associated with the term fadista. Fado appeared during the early 19th century in Lisbon, is believed to have its origins in the port districts such as Alfama and Bairro Alto. There are numerous theories about the origin of fado.

Some trace its origins or influences to the Medieval "cantigas de amigo", some ancient Moorish influence and the chants of Africans sailing at sea, but none is conclusive. It evolved and formed, from a mixture of several older musical genres. Fado performers in the middle of the 19th century were from the urban working-class, namely sailors and courtesans, who not only sang, but danced and beat the fado. During the second half of the 19th century, the dance rhythms would fade away, the performers became singers; the 19th century's most renowned fadista was Maria Severa. More Amália Rodrigues, known as the "Rainha do Fado" was most influential in popularizing fado worldwide. Fado performances today may be accompanied by a full orchestra. Fado employs the Dorian mode, Ionian mode, sometimes switching between the two during a melody or verse change. A particular stylistic trait of fado is the use of rubato, where the music pauses at the end of a phrase and the singer holds the note for dramatic effect.

The music uses triple time. There are two main varieties of fado, namely those of the cities of Coimbra; the Lisbon style is more well known - alongside the status of Amália Rodrigues, while that of Coimbra is traditionally linked to the city's University and its style is linked to the medieval serenading troubadours. Modern fado is popular in Portugal, has produced many renowned musicians. According to tradition, to applaud fado in Lisbon one claps one's hands, while in Coimbra one coughs as if clearing one's throat; this fado is linked to the academic traditions of the University of Coimbra and is sung by men. Dating to the troubadour tradition of medieval times, it is sung at night in the dark, in city squares or streets; the most typical venues are the stairsteps of the Santa Cruz Monastery and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra. It is customary to organize serenades where songs are performed before the window of a woman to be courted; as in Lisbon, Coimbra fado is accompanied by viola. The Coimbra guitar has evolved into an instrument different from that of Lisbon, with its own tuning, sound colouring, construction.

Artur Paredes, a progressive and innovative singer, revolutionised the tuning of the guitar and its accompaniment style to Coimbra fado. Artur Paredes was the father of Carlos Paredes, who followed in his father's footsteps and expanded on his work, making the Portuguese guitar an instrument known around the world. In the 1950s, a new movement led the singers of Coimbra to adopt the folklore, they began interpreting lines of the great poets, both classical and contemporary, as a form of resistance to the Salazar dictatorship. In this movement names such as Adriano Correia de Oliveira and José Afonso had a leading role in

Southern Illinois 100

The Southern Illinois 100 is an ARCA Racing Series stock car race held annually on the DuQuoin State Fairgrounds Racetrack during the DuQuoin State Fair on Labor Day weekend. The first 100-mile stock car race at the track was held in 1950, it has been a part of a national stock car circuit annually since 1954. AAA sanctioned the race until 1955, USAC from 1956 to 1984, ARCA took over in 1985 after co-sanctioning the race in 1983 and 1984. In the 2000s, the race has seen participation from Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series regulars Tony Stewart and Ken Schrader. Stewart won the race in 2003, Schrader in 2006 and 2007. References

Ville Juurikkala

Ville Akseli Juurikkala is a Finnish photographer and music video director. He is best known as a "rock photographer", having had a long working relationship with bands such as HIM, Nightwish and Apocalyptica. Other notable figures Juurikkala has worked with include Mika Häkkinen, Andrea Bocelli and Ban Ki-moon, he has illustrated several books. During his career, Ville Juurikkala has been awarded several times, he is the first Finnish photographer to have his work featured at the prestigious Morrison Hotel Gallery. Ville Akseli Juurikkala was born 6 March 1980 in Finland, his mother is film director Kaija Juurikkala, while his father Matti Tukiainen worked for the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions. Juurikkala has a jounger brother Oskari Juurikkala, a priest and a member of the Opus Dei movement. After his parents' divorce, Juurikkala moved to Vantaa with his brother. At age ten, Juurikkala took up keyboards, but switched to guitar six months having been inspired by Guns N' Roses and Metallica.

As a teenager, Juurikkala played in several different bands. He worked as a lighting technician on several films and television productions, he acted in his mother's films Rosa Was Here and Taking Moses for a Ride. Juurikkala was interested in a career in film, but was encouraged to first familiarize himself with photography. At age sixteen, Juurikkala began to like it more than film. After gymnasium, Juurikkala was rejected. Juurikkala worked as a commercial and portrait photographer, until he was hired as a freelancer by City magazine. Through City, he got his first chance to illustrate a book, when Helsinki restaurant Papà Giovanni needed a photographer for their cook book. During the early 2000s, Juurikkala worked for the magazines Suosikki and Katso; this introduced him to artists. Juurikkala shot his first album cover for Darude's second record Rush. In 2005, he was asked to join The 69 Eyes on tour as their photographer; this resulted in a book titled Route 69 – a Photographic Journey with The 69 Eyes, published in 2006.

Juurikkala soon found work with other bands and artists including HIM and Hanoi Rocks. Nightwish and Apocalyptica have released photography books shot by Juurikkala. In 2007, he was named City's Best Rock Photographer by City magazine, he won the Kultajyvä–prize and was awarded at the Vuoden huiput ceremony the same year. In 2008, Good Charlotte's lead singer Joel Madden asked Juurikkala to join the band on tour as their photographer; the collaboration soon led to Juurikkala moving to Los Angeles, where he worked with Kat Von D and Chester Bennington among others. He shot the cover for Slash's album Live in Manchester, released in 2010. Other prominent figures Juurikkala has since worked with include Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon, Formula One World Champion Mika Häkkinen and opera singer Andrea Bocelli. In 2015, Juurikkala's work was on display at the It’s Only Rock’n Roll exhibition, held at the Tiketti Galleria in Helsinki; some of the pieces were included in the Sinä & Minä portrait exhibition at the Vantaa Art Museum Artsi.

In 2017, the Helsinki Art Museum held an exhibition titled HIM: Right Here In My Eyes, which featured Juurikkala's newly shot photographs of HIM preparing for their farewell tour. The exhibition was also held at the prestigious Morrison Hotel Gallery in New York, which specializes in rock photography. Juurikkala is the first Finnish photographer to be featured by the Gallery. Juurikkala has worked as a still photographer on films, such as Keisarikunta and Imaginaerum, he works as portrait and nature photographer. In 2019, Juurikka illustrated the book Metsässä – Uppoudu metsään, itseesi ja elämään by Jarko Taivasmaa. An exhibition of the same name was held at the Espoo Culture Center in September of that year. Juurikkala's work with The 69 Eyes was on display at Finland's Motorcycle Museum in September. Juurikkala directed his first music video in 2007 for the song ”Black Ice” by Hanna Pakarinen. In 2012, he was asked to direct the music video for The Voice of Finland finalist Jesse Kaikuranta's song ”Vie mut kotiin”.

Since Juurikkala has directed several music videos for various Finnish bands and artists. Michael Monroe, Santa Cruz and Jonne Aaron are among his most frequent collaborators. Juurikkala's video for Michael Monroe's ”Ballad of the Lower East Side” won the audience poll at the 2013 Oulu Music Video Festival; the music video for Lauri Tähkä's ”Mä en pelkää” was nominated for Music Video of the Year at the 2018 Emma Gala. Juurikkala has directed videos for Bullet for My Valentine and Amaranthe. In 2011, Juurikkala and Jan-Olof Svarvar directed the documentary Lakeuksilta Hollywoodiin, based on musician and producer Jimmy Westerlund. Among Ville Juuriikkala's biggest influences are Anton Corbijn, his visual style has its roots in a popular technique during the 1990s. When Juurikkala began working as a professional photographer, cross processing was not as used anymore. Still Juurikkala has stayed true to his visual style, stating: ”This is what I want to do. It's not trendy, doesn't bother me.” For Juurikkala the most essential part of his work is ”getting close to the person, getting that presence across to other people.”

In regards to his shooting style, Juurikkala has stated: ”My tonal palette is quite rock in its starkness, but I strive for a certain painting-like-look with my colors. Maybe it's; the compositions and poses aren't rock most of the time. Maybe it's this slight dichotomy that brings something extra to my sho