Fagaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes beeches and oaks, comprises eight genera with about 927 species. The Fagaceae are deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, fruit in the form of cup-like nuts, their leaves are lobed and both petioles and stipules are present. Leaf characteristics of Fagaceae can be similar to those of Rosaceae and other rose motif families, their fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. In the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit is a non-valved nut called an acorn; the husk of the acorn in most oaks only forms a cup. Other members of the family have enclosed nuts. Fagaceae is one of the most ecologically important woody plant families in the Northern Hemisphere, as oaks form the backbone of temperate forest in North America and Asia and one of the most significant sources of wildlife fodder.
Several members of the Fagaceae have important economic uses. Many species of oak and beech are used as timber for floors, furniture and wine barrels. Cork for stopping wine bottles and myriad other uses is made from the bark of cork oak, Quercus suber. Chestnuts are the fruits from species of the genus Castanea. Numerous species from several genera are prominent ornamentals, wood chips from the genus Fagus are used in flavoring beers; the Fagaceae are divided into five or six subfamilies and are accepted to include 8 genera. Monophyly of the Fagaceae is supported by both morphological and molecular data; the Southern Hemisphere genus Nothofagus the southern beeches, was placed in the Fagaceae sister to the genus Fagus, but recent molecular evidence suggests otherwise. While Nothofagus shares a number of common characteristics with the Fagaceae, such as cupule fruit structure, it differs in a number of ways, including distinct stipule and pollen morphology, as well as having a different number of chromosomes.
The accepted view by systematic botanists is to place Nothofagus in its own family, Nothofagaceae. Fagoideae K. Koch Fagus L.—beeches. 1754—chestnuts. 1948—golden chinkapins. H. Oh 2008 —Tanoaks; the genus Nothofagus included in the Fagaceae, is now treated in the separate family Nothofagaceae. The Fagaceae are distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. Genus-level diversity is concentrated in Southeast Asia, where most of the extant genera are thought to have evolved before migrating to Europe and North America. Members of the Fagaceae are ecologically dominant in northern temperate forests. Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: Fagaceae in Topwalks Family Fagaceae - diagnostic photos of many species at The Morton Arboretum
"Ma Belle Amie" is a single by Tee-Set off the album Ma Belle Amie. The song reached #5 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and #3 in Australia and Canada in 1970. In South Africa, it was a #1 hit; the song reached the Top 10 across central Europe. The original issue of the single in the Netherlands was released in 1969 on Tee Set Records, selling over 100,000 copies. There are available at least three studio recorded versions of the song - the US hit on Colossus Records, released in 1969, a British issue on Major Minor Records, released in 1970, a Black and White video featuring the band miming along a waterfront; this video version appears to be the same as the hit US rendering but for minor differences to the repeated chorus ending of the song. The British release is different, slower in tempo and starting in a lower key; the group recorded an Italian language version of the song. Lyrics of this song Listen to "Ma Belle Amie" on YouTube
Number 601 Squadron is a squadron of the RAF Reserves, based in London. The squadron battle honours most notably include the Battle of Britain, the first Americans to fly in the Second World War were members of this squadron. Reactivated in 2017, it is a specialist squadron "tapping into the talents of leaders from industry and research to advise and shape and inspire ". No. 601 Squadron was formed at RAF Northolt on 14 October 1925 when a group of wealthy aristocratic young men, all of whom were amateur aviators, decided to form themselves into a Reserve Squadron of the RAF after a meeting in White's Club, London. The original officers were picked by the first commanding officer, Lord Edward Grosvenor, youngest son of Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster. Grosvenor tested potential recruits by plying them with alcohol to see if they would behave inappropriately. Grosvenor wanted officers "of sufficient presence not to be overawed by him and of sufficient means not to be excluded from his favourite pastimes, eating and Whites".
The Squadron was known as "the millionaires squadron", a nametag gained because of a reputation for filling their ranks with the very'well-heeled'. Most of these affluent young pilots had little regard for the rigid discipline of the regular service, they played polo on brand-new Brough Superior motor cycles, drove fast sports cars and most of the pilots owned their own private aircraft. The Squadron became a day fighter unit in 1940 and operated both the Hawker Hurricane and the Supermarine Spitfire. Aircrew attrition and transfers to other units, war took its toll on the pre-war personnel and as replacements were drafted in from all walks of life and all parts of the Commonwealth to cover casualties and promotions, the Squadron became as cosmopolitan as any other; the unit reformed in 1946 as a fighter squadron within the Royal Auxiliary Air Force equipped with the Spitfire, followed by the jet powered De Havilland Vampire and the Gloster Meteor twin-jet. The squadron disbanded along with all other RAuxAF units during the defence cuts of early 1957.
Reforming on 20 April 2017 at RAF Northolt, 601 Squadron is now a Specialist Support Squadron of the RAuxAF. The 3 principal roles of the Squadron are to provide advice to the Chief of the Air Staff and the RAF to help address important issues. Sqn Ldr Roger Bushell – took part in the Great Escape Sqn Ldr Gordon "Mouse" Cleaver DFC – Battle of Britain pilot whose accident aided the development of artificial optical lenses. Flt Lt Carl Davis DFC – American who flew with 601 Sqn during the Battle of Britain Plt Off "Billy" Fiske – American who flew with 601 Sqn during the Battle of Britain Gp Cpt Sir Archibald Philip Hope, 17th Baronet OBE DFC Plt Off B P Legge DFC Plt Off H C Mayers DSO DFC – Australian who flew with 601 Sqn during the Battle of Britain Gp Cpt J A O'Neill Fg Off W H Rhodes-Moorhouse DFC Sqn Ldr "Jack" Riddle & Sqn Ldr Hugh Riddle – brothers and last surviving aircrew who flew with 601 Sqn during the Battle of Britain Sqn Ldr Stanislaw Skalski D. S. O. DFC and Two Bar 1939-1945 Star Africa Star Air Crew Europe Star Defence Medal War Medal 1939-1945 and many Pole and inner honourable medal,- Polish ace, the second Pole to command an RAF Squadron, Polish Air Force general Air Cdre Whitney Straight CBE MC DFC Plt Off D R W Stubbs OBE DSO DFCFor more pilots who flew with the Squadron during the Battle of Britain, see List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain.
Note: Sir Philip Sassoon was Member of Parliament during his Squadron Leadership of 601 Squadron. Squadron history on Battle of Britain website Squadron history on RAF website History of No.'s 600–604 Squadrons at RAF Web Squadron locations 601 Squadron Recreated Jones, Huw. "601 Squadron: Millionaire flying aces of World War II". BBC News Magazine