Lusterware or Lustreware is a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic glaze that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides in an overglaze finish, given a second firing at a lower temperature in a "muffle kiln", reduction kiln, which excludes oxygen. Lustre decoration was first used as a glass-painting technique. While some scholars see this as a purely Islamic invention originating in Fustat, others place the origins of lustre decoration in Roman and Coptic Egypt during the centuries preceding the rise of Islam. Staining glass vessels with copper and silver pigments was known from around the 3rd century AD, although true lustre technology began sometime between the 4th and 8th centuries AD. Lustre glazes were applied to pottery in Mesopotamia in the 9th century. In the Great Mosque of Kairouan, the upper part of the mihrab is adorned with polychrome and monochrome lusterware tiles. Islam forbade the use of precious metal dishes and vessels for eating, normal for pre-Islamic elites, there was therefore a market for elaborate and expensive glass and ceramic equivalents.
The reminiscence of shining metal gold, made lustreware attractive. Lusterware was produced in quantity in Egypt during the Fatimid dynasty in the 10th–12th centuries. While the production of lusterware continued in the Middle East, it spread to Europe through Al-Andalus. Málaga was the first centre of Hispano-Moresque ware, before it developed in the region of Valencia, to Italy, where it was used to enhance maiolica. In the 16th century lustred maiolica was a specialty of Gubbio, noted for a rich ruby red, at Deruta. After a gap of several centuries in Persian production, it was revived in the Safavid period from about the 1630s, in a rather different style producing small pieces with designs in a dark copper colour over a dark blue background. Unlike other Persian wares of the period, these use traditional Middle Eastern shapes and decoration rather than Chinese-inspired ones, do not take their shapes from metalware. Designs featured plant forms and animals, flowed over the whole surface taking up over half the surface area.
Production, never large, appears to have been from about 1650 to 1750, but with rather inferior wares produced into the 19th century. It is thought to have been centred in Kirman, though firm evidence is lacking. Metallic lustre of another sort produced English lustreware, which imparts to a piece of pottery the appearance of an object of silver, gold or copper. Silver lustre employed the new metal platinum, whose chemical properties were analyzed towards the end of the 18th century, John Hancock of Hanley invented the application of a platinum technique, "put it in practice at Mr Spode's manufactory, for Messrs. Daniels and Brown", about 1800. Dilute amounts of powdered gold or platinum were dissolved in aqua regia and added to spirits of tar for platinum and a mixture of turpentine, flowers of sulfur and linseed oil for gold; the mixture was applied to the glazed ware and fired in an enameling kiln, depositing a thin film of platinum or gold. Platinum produced the appearance of solid silver, was employed for the middle class in shapes identical to those uses for silver tea services, ca.
1810-1840. Depending on the concentration of gold in the lustring compound and the under slip on which it was applied, a range of colours could be achieved, from pale rose and lavender, to copper and gold; the gold lustre could be painted or stenciled on the ware, or it could be applied in the resist technique, in which the background was solidly lustred, the design remained in the body color. In the resist technique, similar to batik, the design was painted in glue and size in a glycerin or honey compound, the lustre applied by dipping, the resist washed off before the piece was fired. Lustreware became popular in Staffordshire pottery during the 19th century, where it was used by Josiah Wedgwood, who introduced pink and white lustreware simulating mother o' pearl effects in dishes and bowls cast in the shapes of shells, silver lustre, introduced at Wedgwood in 1805. In 1810 Peter Warburton of New Hall patented a method of transfer-printing in gold and silver lustre. Sunderland Lustreware in the North East is renowned for its mottled pink lustreware, lustreware was produced in Leeds, where the technique may have been introduced by Thomas Lakin.
Wedgwood's lusterware made in the 1820s spawned the production of mass quantities of copper and silver lustreware in England and Wales. Cream pitchers with appliqué-detailed spouts and meticulously applied handles were most common, featured stylized decorative bands in dark blue, cream yellow, and, most rare, dark green and purple. Raised, multicolored patterns depicting pastoral scenes were created, sand was sometimes incorporated into the glaze to add texture. Pitchers were produced in a range of sizes from cream pitchers to large milk pitchers, as well as small coffeepots and teapots. Tea sets came a bit usually featuring creamers, sugar bowls, slop bowls. Large pitchers with transfer printed commemorative scenes appear to have arrived around the middle of the 19th century; these were purely decorative and today command high prices because of their historical connections. Delicate lustre imitating mother-of-pearl was produced by Wedgwood and at Belleek in the mid-century, derived from bismuth nitrate.
Under the impetus of the Aesthetic Movement, William de Morgan revived lustrewares in a manner drawing
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china; the category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions. Porcelain evolved in China and was achieved at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago slowly spread to other East Asian countries, Europe and the rest of the world, its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, it has been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, can be modelled well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares and figurines.
It has many uses in technology and industry. The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low elasticity. Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, impermeable, white or artificially coloured and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common". Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares and high-fired wares, without the European concept of stoneware, high-fired but not white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency.
Kaolin is the primary material from which porcelain is made though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of the whole. The word paste is an old term for both the fired materials. A more common terminology for the unfired material is "body"; the composition of porcelain is variable, but the clay mineral kaolinite is a raw material. Other raw materials can include feldspar, ball clay, bone ash, quartz and alabaster; the clays used are described as being long or short, depending on their plasticity. Long clays have high plasticity. In soil mechanics, plasticity is determined by measuring the increase in content of water required to change a clay from a solid state bordering on the plastic, to a plastic state bordering on the liquid, though the term is used less formally to describe the ease with which a clay may be worked. Clays used for porcelain are of lower plasticity and are shorter than many other pottery clays, they wet quickly, meaning that small changes in the content of water can produce large changes in workability.
Thus, the range of water content within which these clays can be worked is narrow and must be controlled. The following section provides background information on the methods used to form, finish and fire ceramic wares. Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining. Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the celadon wares of Longquan, were designed for their striking effects on porcelain. Biscuit porcelain is unglazed. Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze using pigments that include cobalt and copper or over the glaze using coloured enamels. Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are biscuit-fired at around 1,000 °C, coated with glaze and sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1,300 °C or greater. Another early method is "once-fired", where the glaze is applied to the unfired body and the two fired together in a single operation.
In this process, "green" ceramic wares are heated to high temperatures in a kiln to permanently set their shapes. Porcelain is fired at a higher temperature than earthenware so that the body can vitrify and become non-porous. Porcelain originated in China, it took a long time to reach the modern material; until recent times all East Asian porcelain was of the hard-paste type. There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang dynasty, by the time of the Eastern Han dynasty period, glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain, which Chinese defined as high-fired ware. By the late Sui dynasty and early Tang dynasty the additional Western requirements of whiteness and translucency had b
Blue and white pottery
"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment cobalt oxide. The decoration is applied by hand by brush painting, but nowadays by stencilling or by transfer-printing, though other methods of application have been used; the cobalt pigment is one of the few that can withstand the highest firing temperatures that are required, in particular for porcelain, which accounts for its long-lasting popularity. Many other colours required overglaze decoration and a second firing at a lower temperature to fix that; the origin of this decorative style is thought to lie in Iraq, when craftsmen in Basra sought to imitate imported white Chinese stoneware with their own tin-glazed, white pottery and added decorative motifs in blue glazes, developed by preexisting Mesopotamian cultures. Such Abbasid-era "blue and white" pieces have been found in present-day Iraq dating to the 9th century A. D. decades after the opening of a direct sea route from Iraq to China.
In China, a style of decoration based on sinuous plant forms spreading across the object was perfected and most used. Blue and white decoration first became used in Chinese porcelain in the 14th century, after the cobalt pigment for the blue began to be imported from Persia, it was exported, inspired imitative wares in Islamic ceramics, in Japan, European tin-glazed earthenware such as Delftware and after the techniques were discovered in the 18th century, European porcelain. Blue and white pottery in all of these traditions continues to be produced, most of it copying earlier styles. Blue glazes were first developed by ancient Mesopotamians to imitate lapis lazuli, a prized stone. A cobalt blue glaze became popular in Islamic pottery during the Abbasid Caliphate, during which time the cobalt was mined near Kashan and Northern Hejaz; the first Chinese blue and white wares were produced as early as the first century in Henan province, China during the Tang Dynasty, although only shards have been discovered.
Tang period blue-and-white is more rare than Song blue-and-white and was unknown before 1985. The Tang pieces are not porcelain however, but rather earthenwares with greenish white slip, using cobalt blue pigments; the only three pieces of complete "Tang blue and white" in the world were recovered from Indonesian Belitung shipwreck in 1998 and sold to Singapore. It appears. In the early 20th century, the development of the classic blue and white Jingdezhen ware porcelain was dated to the early Ming period, but consensus now agrees that these wares began to be made around 1300-1320, were developed by the mid-century, as shown by the David Vases dated 1351, which are cornerstones for this chronology. There are still those arguing that early pieces are mis-dated, in fact go back to the Southern Song, but most scholars continue to reject this view. In the early 14th century, mass-production of fine, translucent and white porcelain started at Jingdezhen, sometimes called the porcelain capital of China.
This development was due to the combination of Islamic trade. The new ware was made possible by the export of cobalt from Persia, combined with the translucent white quality of Chinese porcelain. Cobalt blue was considered with a value about twice that of gold. Motifs draw inspiration from Islamic decorations. A large portion of these blue-and-white wares were shipped to Southwest-Asian markets through the Muslim traders based in Guangzhou. Chinese blue and white porcelain was once-fired: after the porcelain body was dried, decorated with refined cobalt-blue pigment mixed with water and applied using a brush, coated with a clear glaze and fired at high temperature. From the 16th century, local sources of cobalt blue started to be developed, although Persian cobalt remained the most expensive. Production of blue and white wares has continued at Jingdezhen to this day. Blue and white porcelain made at Jingdezhen reached the height of its technical excellence during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The true development of blue and white ware in China started with the first half of the 14th century, when it progressively replaced the centuries-long tradition of unpainted bluish-white southern Chinese porcelain, or Qingbai, as well as Ding ware from the north. The best, the main production was in Jingdezhen porcelain from Jiangxi Province. There was a considerable tradition of painted Chinese ceramics represented at that time by the popular stoneware Cizhou ware, but this was not used by the court. For the first time in centuries the new blue and white appealed to the taste of the Mongol rulers of China. Blue and white ware began making its appearance in Japan, where it was known as sometsuke. Various forms and decorations were influenced by China, but developed its own forms and styles. With the advent of the Ming dynasty in 1368, blue and white ware was shunned for a time by the Court under the Hongwu and Yongle Emperors, as being too foreign in inspiration. Blue and white porcelain however came back to prominence with the Xuande Emperor, again developed from that time on.
In this century a number of experiments were made combining underglaze blue and other colours, both underglaze and overglaze enamels. Copper and iron reds were the most common, but these were much more difficult to fire reliably than cobalt blue, produced a high rate of mi
Glazed architectural terra-cotta
Glazed architectural terra-cotta is a ceramic masonry building material used as a decorative skin. It has been popular in the United States from the late 19th century until the 1930s, still one of the most common building materials found in U. S. urban environments. It is the glazed version of architectural terra-cotta. Glazed terra-cotta played a significant role in architectural styles such as the Chicago School and Beaux-Arts architecture; the material known in Great Britain as faience and sometimes referred to as "architectural ceramics", was associated with the work of Cass Gilbert, Louis Sullivan, Daniel H. Burnham, among other architects. Buildings incorporating glazed terra-cotta include the Woolworth Building in New York City and the Wrigley Building in Chicago. Glazed architectural terra-cotta offered a modular and inexpensive approach to wall and floor construction, it was adaptable to vigorous and rich ornamental detailing. It was created by Luca della Robbia, was used in most of his works.
Terra-cotta is block. It was hollow cast in blocks which were open in the back, with internal stiffeners called webbing. Webbing strengthened the hollow blocks with minimal weight increase; the blocks were finished with a glaze, with a clay wash or an aqueous solution of metal salts, before firing. Late 19th century advertising for the material promoted the durable and adaptable nature of glazed architectural terra-cotta, it could accommodate subtle nuances of modeling and color. Compared to stone, it was easier to handle set and lower cost; the cost of producing the blocks, when compared to carving stone, was a considerable saving when casts were used in a modular fashion—that is, used repeatedly. It never needed paint, periodic washings restored its appearance. Variations in the color and pattern of the glaze could make it look like limestone. Four major types of terra-cotta were used Brownstone was the earliest type. A dark red or brown block, not glazed, it was used as imitation sandstone, brick or with real brownstone and associated with the architectural styles of Richard Upjohn, James Renwick, Jr. H. H. Richardson.
Fireproof was developed as a direct result of the growth of the high rise building in America. Cheap and fireproof, the rough-finished hollow blocks were ideally suited to span the I-beam members in floor and ceiling construction. Certain varieties are still in production today. Veneer is still used today. Unlike traditional architectural terra-cotta, ceramic veneer is not hollow cast, it is a veneer of glazed ceramic tile, ribbed on the back like bathroom tile and attached to a grid of metal ties which have been anchored to the building. Glazed architectural terra-cotta was the most complex building material developed; the hollow units were hand cast in molds or carved in clay and glazed fired. This is the terra-cotta associated with the architecture of Cass Gilbert, Louis Sullivan and Daniel H. Burnham; the American Terra Cotta Corporation, founded in 1881, operated for eighty-five years in the little town of Terra Cotta in the heart of Illinois dairy country. The company fabricated architectural terra cotta for more than 8,000 buildings throughout the U.
S. and Canada. It was the last exclusive manufacturer of architectural terra cotta by the time it ceased production in 1966. From its founding, in time to rebuild the fire-ravished city of Chicago, until its closing, it was the major producer of architectural glazed terra cotta in North America. Guastavino tile was used in many places, including the Bridgemarket under the Manhattan side of the Queensboro Bridge. Illinois examples Although glazed terra-cotta was much more common in the US, it was used in central Canada starting around 1900, on many of the area's first skyscrapers; the glazed terra-cotta used in central Canada was imported from the US or England. From around 1880 unglazed terra-cotta was supplanted by the glazed version - faience, glazed brick - which were cleaned, not blackened by city smoke, notably by the Burmantofts Pottery company which exported to Paris and Montreal. Faience was popularised in Melbourne in the 1920s by architects such as Harry Norris. One of the leading commercial architects of the time in the city, Norris was influenced by trends in American architecture and used faience on projects such as the Nicholas Building and the Kellow Falkiner Showrooms in South Yarra.
In Sydney, it featured on notable buildings such as BMA House, designed by Joseph Charles Fowell. Australian-made tiles were available from Wunderlich Tiles, a company founded by London-born Frederick Wunderlich. Architectural terra-cotta Gladding, McBean Guastavino tile Tile Heritage Foundation Brick - A World History, James W P Campbell & Will Pryce, 2003, ISBN 0-500-34195-8 National Park Service.gov: The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-Cotta Gladding, McBean — California architectural terra cotta company. Boston Valley Terra Cotta — architectural terra cotta company. TerraGlas terra cotta composite company — with CAD drawings, historical replacement information and specifications. Heritage Ottawa.org: "Ottawa's Former Bowles Lunch" Graciano.com: Renovation of Bridgemarket under the Queensboro Bridge — project architect's website. Harvard Graduate School of Design.edu: Ceramics Res
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery, fired below 1200°C. Porcelain, bone china and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify, are the main other important types of pottery. Earthenware comprises "most building bricks, nearly all European pottery up to the seventeenth century, most of the wares of Egypt and the near East. Pit fired earthenware dates back to as early as 29,000–25,000 BC, for millennia, only earthenware pottery was made, with stoneware developing some 5,000 years ago, but apparently disappearing for a few thousand years. Outside East Asia, porcelain was manufactured only from the 18th century AD, initially as an expensive luxury. After it is fired, earthenware is opaque and non-vitreous and capable of being scratched with a knife; the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities describes it as being made of selected clays sometimes mixed with feldspars and varying amounts of other minerals, white or light-colored. Earthenware bodies exhibit higher plasticity than most whiteware bodies and hence are easier to shape by RAM press, roller-head or potter's wheel than bone china or porcelain.
Due to its porosity, with a water absorption of 5-8%, must be glazed to be watertight. Earthenware has lower mechanical strength than bone china, porcelain or stoneware, articles are made in thicker cross-section, although they are still more chipped. Darker-colored terracotta earthenware orange or red due to a comparatively high content of iron oxide, are used for flower pots and some decorative and oven ware. A general body formulation for contemporary earthenware is 25% kaolin, 25% ball clay, 35% quartz and 15% feldspar. Modern earthenware may be biscuit fired to temperatures between 1,000 to 1,150 °C and glost-fired to between 950 to 1,050 °C, the usual practice in factories and some studio potteries; some studio potters follow the reverse practice, with a low-temperature biscuit firing and a high-temperature glost firing. The firing schedule will be determined by the raw materials used and the desired characteristics of the finished ware; such high temperatures were unattainable in most cultures and periods until modern times, though Chinese ceramics were far ahead of other cultures in this respect.
Earthenware can be produced at firing temperatures as low as 600 °C and many clays will not fire above about 1,000 °C. Much historical pottery was fired somewhere around 800 °C, giving a wide margin of error where there was no precise way of measuring temperature, variable conditions within the kiln. After firing, most earthenware bodies will be colored buff or red. For red earthenware, the firing temperature affects the color of the clay body. Lower temperatures produce a typical red terracotta color. Higher firing temperatures may cause earthenware to bloat. Despite the most valued types of pottery switching to stoneware and porcelain as these were developed by a particular culture, there are many artistically important types of earthenware. All Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman pottery is earthenware, as is the Hispano-Moresque ware of the late Middle Ages, which developed into tin-glazed pottery or faience traditions in several parts of Europe notably the painted maiolica of the Italian Renaissance, Dutch Delftware.
With a white glaze, these were able to imitate porcelains both from East Europe. The most complicated earthenware made was the rare Saint-Porchaire ware of the mid-16th century made for the French court. In the 18th century in English Staffordshire pottery, technical improvements enabled fine wares such as Wedgwood's creamware, that competed with porcelain with considerable success, as his huge creamware Frog Service for Catherine the Great showed; the invention of transfer printing processes made decorated wares cheap enough for far wider sections of the population in Europe. In China, sancai glazed wares were lead-glazed earthenware, as elsewhere, terracotta remained important for sculpture; the Etruscans had made large sculptures such as statues in it, where the Romans used it for figurines and Campana reliefs. Chinese painted or Tang dynasty tomb figures were earthenware, as were sculptures such as the near life-size Yixian glazed pottery luohans. After the ceramic figurine was revived in European porcelain, earthenware figures followed, such as the popular English Staffordshire figures.
There are other several types of earthenware, including: Terracotta: a term used for a rather random group of types of objects, rather than being defined by technique Redware Victorian majolica Lusterware with special iridescent glazes Raku Ironstone china, on the border of earthenware and stoneware Yellowware Rado, P. An Introduction to the Technology Of Pottery. 2nd edition. Pergamon Press, 1988. Ryan W. and Radford, C. Whitewares: Production, Testing And Quality Control. Pergamon Press, 1987. Hamer and Janet; the Potter's Dictionary of Techniques. A & C Black Publishers Limited, England, Third Edition, 1991. ISBN 0-8122-3112-0. "Petersons": Peterson, Peterson, The Craft and Art of Clay: A Complete Potter's Handbook, 2003, Laurence King Publishing, ISBN 1856693546, 9781856693547, google books Digital Version of "A Representation
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15