A bush airplane is a general aviation aircraft used to provide both scheduled and unscheduled passenger and flight services to remote, undeveloped areas, such as the Canadian north or bush, Alaskan tundra, the African bush, Amazon rainforest or the Australian Outback. They does not exist. Since a bush plane is defined by how it is used, a wide variety of different aircraft with different configurations have been used over the years as such. Experience has, shown certain traits to be desirable, so they appear especially on aircraft designed as bush planes. None of these traits are mandatory - that they are seen features of bush planes; the undercarriage is designed to be fitted with floats, skis or wheel/skis to permit operation from water or snow which are for Canadian and Russian use. High wings ease loading and unloading from docks, as well as improve downward visibility during flight and increase clearance to reduce the potential for damage during landing or take-off. A high wing is less to be damaged during loading or unloading than a low wing.
Conventional or "tail dragger" landing gear—two large main wheels and a small rear wheel reduce both weight and drag, increasing the load the aircraft can carry and its speed and it reduces excessive stresses on the airframe compared to a nosewheel. A failure is less critical as a broken tailwheel is repaired and won't prevent the aircraft from flying, unlike a broken nose wheel. Short runway requirements gained through high aspect ratio wings and high-lift devices such as flaps and slats to improve low speed flight characteristics, allowing shorter ground rolls on landing or takeoff. Large, low-pressure tundra tires may be fitted to enable the pilot to operate from broken ground, it is not uncommon for a bush pilot to take off from unprepared surfaces. Years in brackets are of first flight. Aviation museums with large collections of bush planes Alberta Aviation Museum Alaska Aviation Heritage Museum Canada Aviation and Space Museum Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre Western Canada Aviation Museum Ice Pilots NWT Flying Wild Alaska Alaska Wing Men Captains of the Clouds List of STOL aircraft Floatplane Ontario Provincial Air Service - played major role in the development of bush flying and bushplanes.
Bush flying Anderson, Frank W.. The Death of Albert Johnson - Mad Trapper of Rat River. Surrey, BC: Heritage House Publishing Co. ISBN 1-894384-03-2. Boer, Peter. Bush Pilots - Canada's Wilderness Daredevils. Canada: Folklore Publishing. ISBN 1-894864-12-3. Cole, Dermot. Frank Barr - Bush pilot in Alaska and the Yukon. Edmonds, WA: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co. ISBN 0-88240-314-1. Foster, J. A.. The Bush Pilots - A pictoral history of a Canadian phenomenon. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart Inc. ISBN 0-7710-3245-5. Keith, Ronald A.. Bush Pilot with a briefcase. Toronto, ON: Doubleday Canada. ISBN 0-385-07049-7. Matheson, Shirlee Smith. Flying the Frontiers. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House. ISBN 978-1895618518. Terpening, Rex. Bent Props and Blow Pots - A Pioneer Remembers Northern Bush Flying. Madeira Park, BC: Harour Publishing. ISBN 1-55017-381-2. West, Bruce; the Firebirds - How bush flying earned its wings. Ministry of Natural Resources. ASIN B0089GQ3EE. Milberry, Larry. Austin Airways - Canada's Oldest Airline. Toronto, ON: CANAV Books.
ISBN 978-0969070337. Bush-planes.com
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes. A monoplane has inherently the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and is the simplest to build. However, during the early years of flight, these advantages were offset by its greater weight and lower manoeuvrability, making it rare until the 1930s. Since the monoplane has been the most common form for a fixed-wing aircraft; the inherent efficiency of the monoplane can best be realized in the unbraced cantilever wing, which carries all structural forces internally. By contrast, a braced wing has additional drag from the exposed bracing struts or wires, lowering aerodynamic efficiency. On the other hand, the braced wing can be made much lighter; this in turn means that for a wing of a given size, bracing allows it to fly slower with a lower-powered engine, while a heavy cantilever wing needs a more powerful engine and can fly faster.
Besides the general variations in wing configuration such as tail position and use of bracing, the main distinction between types of monoplane is how high up the wings are mounted in relation to the fuselage. A low wing is one, located on or near the base of the fuselage. Placing the wing low down allows good visibility upwards and frees up the central fuselage from the wing spar carry-through. By reducing pendulum stability, it makes the aircraft more manoeuvrable, as on the Spitfire. A feature of the low wing position is its significant ground effect, giving the plane a tendency to float further before landing. Conversely, this ground effect permits shorter takeoffs. A mid wing is mounted midway up the fuselage; the carry-through spar structure can reduce the useful fuselage volume near its centre of gravity, where space is in most demand. A shoulder wing is a configuration whereby the wing is mounted near the top of the fuselage but not on the top, it is so called because it sits on the "shoulder" of the fuselage, rather than on the pilot's shoulder.
Shoulder-wings and high-wings share some characteristics, namely: they support a pendulous fuselage which requires no wing dihedral for stability. Compared to a low-wing, shoulder-wing and high-wing configurations give increased propeller clearance on multi-engined aircraft. On a large aircraft, there is little practical difference between a high wing. On a light aircraft, the shoulder-wing may need to be swept forward to maintain correct center of gravity. Examples of light aircraft with shoulder wings include the ARV Super2, the Bölkow Junior, Saab Safari and the Barber Snark. A high wing has its upper surface above the top of the fuselage, it shares many advantages and disadvantages with the shoulder wing, but on a light aircraft, the high wing has poorer upwards visibility. On light aircraft such as the Cessna 152, the wing is located on top of the pilot's cabin, so that the centre of lift broadly coincides with the centre of gravity. A parasol wing aircraft is a biplane without the lower pair of wings.
The parasol wing is not directly attached to the fuselage, but is held above it, supported either by cabane struts or by a single pylon. Additional bracing may be provided by struts extending from the fuselage sides; some early gliders had a parasol wing mounted on a pylon. The parasol wing was popular only during the interwar transition years between biplanes and monoplanes. Compared to a biplane, a parasol wing has lower drag. Although the first successful aircraft were biplanes, the first attempts at heavier-than-air flying machines were monoplanes, many pioneers continued to develop monoplane designs. For example, the first aeroplane to be put into production was the 1907 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, while the Blériot XI flew across the English Channel in 1909. Throughout 1909–1910, Hubert Latham set multiple altitude records in his Antoinette IV monoplane reaching 1,384 m; the equivalent German language term is Eindecker, as in the mid-wing Fokker Eindecker fighter of 1915 which for a time dominated the skies in what became known as the "Fokker scourge".
The German military Idflieg aircraft designation system prior to 1918 prefixed monoplane type designations with an E, until the approval of the Fokker D. VIII fighter from its former "E. V" designation. However, the success of the Fokker was short-lived, World War I was dominated by biplanes. Towards the end of the war, the parasol monoplane became popular and successful designs were produced into the 1920s. Nonetheless few monoplane types were built between 1914 and the late 1920s, compared with the number of biplanes; the reasons for this were practical. With the low engine powers and airspeeds available, the wings of a monoplane needed to be large in order to create enough lift while a biplane could have two smaller wings and so be made smaller and lighter. Towards the end of the First World War, the inherent high drag of the biplane was beginning to restrict performance. Engines were not yet powerful enough to make the heavy cantilever-wing monoplane viable, the braced parasol wing became popular on fighter aircraft, alth
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
The Fairchild 22 Model C7 was an American two-seat touring or training monoplane designed and built by the Kreider-Reisner division of the Fairchild Aircraft Corporation at Hagerstown, Maryland. The aircraft was designed by Kreider-Reisner during negotiations by Sherman Fairchild to take a major share in the company. Marketed as the Fairchild 22 Model C7 the aircraft was certified in March 1931; the Fairchild 22 was a mixed-construction, braced parasol-wing monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear and a braced tail unit. It had two tandem open cockpits and was powered by an 80 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet radial engine. After test flying the prototype the first production aircraft were re-engined with a 75 hp Michigan Rover inverted inline engine; the aircraft was fitted with both radial piston engines. C7 Powered by a 75hp Michigan Rover four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine C7A Powered by a 95hp Cirrus Hi-Drive four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine. C7B Powered by a 125hp Menasco C-4 Pirate four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine.
C7D Powered by a 90hp Wright Gipsy four-cylinder upright inline piston engine. C7E Powered by a 125hp Warner Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. C7F Powered by a 145hp Warner Super Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. C7G Aerobatic version, powered by a 145hp Warner Super Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. XR2K-1 Military designation for one Scarab powered Model 22 impressed into service and used by NACA. NX14768 Experimentally designed wing added to the 1933 Fairchild 22 owned by Charles Townsend Ludington under the Ludington-Griswold Incorporated company, Saybrook, CT. Test flown in 1944, the wing had a series of wing tip fins; the design proved disappointing and the airplane was sold. Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1640General characteristics Crew: two Length: 22 ft 3 in Wingspan: 33 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 11 in Wing area: 173 ft2 Empty weight: 1102 lb Gross weight: 1750 lb Powerplant: 1 × Warner Super Scarab 7-cyliner radial piston engine, 145 hp Performance Maximum speed: 133 mph Range: 350 miles Service ceiling: 20,000 ft Colombia Colombian Air Force The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1640 Williams Aircraft Collection - Fairchild 22 restoration and history Media related to Fairchild 22 at Wikimedia Commons http://www.sim-outhouse.com/sohforums/showthread.php/17-The-Ongoing-Mystery-Aircraft-Thread-Part-Deux?p=878843&viewfull=1
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing. For aircraft it is both, it was formerly called alighting gear by some manufacturers, such as the Glenn L. Martin Company. For aircraft, the landing gear supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take off and taxi without damage. Wheels are used but skids, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed depending both on the surface and on whether the craft only operates vertically or is able to taxi along the surface. Faster aircraft have retractable undercarriages, which fold away during flight to reduce air resistance or drag. For launch vehicles and spacecraft landers, the landing gear is designed to support the vehicle only post-flight, are not used for takeoff or surface movement. Aircraft landing gear includes wheels equipped with simple shock absorbers, or more advanced air/oil oleo struts, for runway and rough terrain landing; some aircraft floats for water, and/or skids or pontoons.
It represents 2.5 to 5% of the MTOW and 1.5 to 1.75% of the aircraft cost but 20% of the airframe direct maintenance cost. The undercarriage is 4–5% of the takeoff mass and can reach 7%. Wheeled undercarriages come in two types: conventional or "taildragger" undercarriage, where there are two main wheels towards the front of the aircraft and a single, much smaller, wheel or skid at the rear; the taildragger arrangement was common during the early propeller era, as it allows more room for propeller clearance. Most modern aircraft have tricycle undercarriages. Taildraggers are considered harder to land and take off, require special pilot training. Sometimes a small tail wheel or skid is added to aircraft with tricycle undercarriage, in case of tail strikes during take-off; the Concorde, for instance, had a retractable tail "bumper" wheel, as delta winged aircraft need a high angle when taking off. Both Boeing's largest WWII bomber, the B-29 Superfortress, the 1960s-introduced Boeing 727 trijet airliner each have a retractable tail bumper.
Some aircraft with retractable conventional landing gear have a fixed tailwheel, which generates minimal drag and improves yaw stability in some cases. Another arrangement sometimes used is central nose gear with outriggers on the wings; this may be done where there is no convenient location on either side to attach the main undercarriage or to store it when retracted. Examples include the Harrier Jump Jet; the B-52 bomber uses a similar arrangement, except that each end of the fuselage has two sets of wheels side by side. To decrease drag in flight some undercarriages retract into the wings and/or fuselage with wheels flush against the surface or concealed behind doors. If the wheels rest protruding and exposed to the airstream after being retracted, the system is called semi-retractable. Most retraction systems are hydraulically operated, though some are electrically operated or manually operated; this adds complexity to the design. In retractable gear systems, the compartment where the wheels are stowed are called wheel wells, which may diminish valuable cargo or fuel space.
] Pilots confirming that their landing gear is down and locked refer to "three greens" or "three in the green.", a reference to the electrical indicator lights from the nosewheel/tailwheel and the two main gears. Blinking green lights or red lights indicate the gear is in transit and neither up and locked or down and locked; when the gear is stowed up with the up-locks secure, the lights extinguish to follow the dark cockpit philosophy. Multiple redundancies are provided to prevent a single failure from failing the entire landing gear extension process. Whether electrically or hydraulically operated, the landing gear can be powered from multiple sources. In case the power system fails, an emergency extension system is always available; this may take the form of a manually operated crank or pump, or a mechanical free-fall mechanism which disengages the uplocks and allows the landing gear to fall due to gravity. Some high-performance aircraft may feature a pressurized-nitrogen back-up system; as aircraft grow larger, they employ more wheels to cope with the increasing weights.
The earliest "giant" aircraft placed in quantity production, the Zeppelin-Staaken R. VI German World War I long-range bomber of 1916, used a total of eighteen wheels for its undercarriage, split between two wheels on its nose gear struts, a total of sixteen wheels on its main gear units — split into four side-by-side quartets each, two quartets of wheels per side — under each tandem engine nacelle, to support its loaded weight of 12 metric tons. Multiple "tandem wheels" on an aircraft — for cargo aircraft, mounted to the fuselage lower sides as retractable main gear units on modern designs — were first seen during World War II, on the experimental German Arado Ar 232 cargo aircraft, which used a row of elev
The Warner Scarab is an American seven-cylinder radial aircraft engine, manufactured by the Warner Aircraft Corporation of Detroit, Michigan in 1928 through to the early 1940s. In military service the engine was designated R-420. Scarab S-50 A 7-cyl. Air-cooled radial engine introduced in 1928. With a bore and stroke of 4.25 inches and a compression ratio of 5.2:1, the Scarab developed 125 hp at 2,050 rpm from 422 cu in with a dry weight of 285 lb. Scarab Junior A 5-cyl. Version introduced in 1930 developing 90 hp at 2,125 rpm from 301 cu in with a dry weight of 230 lb. Super Scarab SS-50/50A Increased cylinder bore to 4.625 inches to develop 145 hp at 2,050 rpm from 499 cu in with a dry weight of 303 lb. Super Scarab SS-165 Increased compression ratio from 5.2:1 to 6.4:1 to develop 165 hp at 2,100 rpm with a dry weight of 341 lb. Super Scarab SS-185 Increased cylinder bore to 4.875 inches, developing 185 hp at 2175 rpm from 555 cu in, with a dry weight of 344 lb. R-420 Military designation of the Scarab.
R-500 Military designation of the Super Scarab 165. R-550 Military designation of the Super Scarab 185. 145 Alternative designation for the Warner Super Scarab SS-50/50A. 165 Alternative designation for the Warner Super Scarab 165. 185 Alternative designation for the Warner Super Scarab 185. Amongst the many uses for the Scarab, the engine was fitted to the Cessna Airmaster and the Fairchild 24. Notably, in 1942, it was put into use powering the Sikorsky R-4, the first helicopter to be put into production. Many of these reliable engines soldier on today, still powering the aircraft to which they were mounted; the Warner 145 and 165 HP engines are the most seen of the small radials for US-built pre-World War II era aircraft, in large part because of good parts availability due to the engines having been used on World War II Fairchild UC61s and Meyers OTWs. Warner engines are in demand as realistically sized, though far more powerful, replacement powerplants for many replica or restored World War I era airplanes which were fitted with rotary engines.
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet. Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1938 Type: Seven-cylinder, air-cooled, radial piston engine Bore: 4.25 in Stroke: 4.25 in Displacement: 422 cu in Length: 29 in Diameter: 36.5625 in Height: 36.5 in Dry weight: 292 lb Valvetrain: 1 inlet and 1 exhaust valve per cylinder Fuel system: Stromberg NA-5SA carburetor or Holley equivalent Fuel type: 67 octane Avgas Oil system: Dry sump Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 125 hp at 2,050 rpm Compression ratio: 5.15:1 Specific fuel consumption: 0.55 lb/ Oil consumption: 0.025 lb/ Power-to-weight ratio: 0.43 hp/lb Related development Warner Scarab Junior Comparable engines Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major Kinner B-5Related lists List of aircraft engines Oldengine.org - US Aero Engine data page Transcribed manual
Raymond Loewy was a Franco–American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by Time magazine and featured on its cover on October 31, 1949, he spent most of his professional career in the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1938. Among his designs were the Shell, Exxon, TWA and the former BP logos, the Greyhound Scenicruiser bus, Coca-Cola vending machines, the Lucky Strike package, Coldspot refrigerators, the Studebaker Avanti and Champion, the Air Force One livery, he was involved with numerous railroad designs, including the Pennsylvania Railroad GG1 and S-1 locomotives, the color scheme and Eagle motif for the first streamliners of the Missouri Pacific Railroad and a number of lesser known color scheme and car interior designs for other railroads. His career spanned seven decades; the press referred to Raymond Loewy as The Man Who Shaped America, The Father of Streamlining and The Father of Industrial Design.
Loewy was born in Paris in 1893, the son of Maximilian Loewy, a Jewish journalist from Austria, a French mother, Marie Labalme. Loewy distinguished himself early with the design of a successful model aircraft, which won the Gordon Bennett Cup for model airplanes in 1908. By the following year, he had commercial sales of the plane, named the Ayrel. Loewy served in the French army during World War I, attaining the rank of captain, he received the Croix de guerre. After the war he moved to New York, where he arrived in September 1919. In Loewy's early years in the United States, he lived in New York and found work as a window designer for department stores, including Macy's, Wanamaker's and Saks in addition to working as a fashion illustrator for Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. In 1929 he received his first industrial-design commission to contemporize the appearance of a duplicating machine by Gestetner. Further commissions followed, including work for Westinghouse, the Hupp Motor Company, styling the Coldspot refrigerator for Sears-Roebuck.
It was this product. He opened a London office in the mid-1930s. In 1937, Loewy established a relationship with the Pennsylvania Railroad, his most notable designs for the firm involved some of their passenger locomotives, he designed a streamlined shroud for K4s Pacific #3768 to haul the newly redesigned 1938 Broadway Limited. He followed by styling the experimental S1 locomotive, as well as the T1 class. At the Pennsylvania Railroad's request, he restyled Baldwin's diesels with a distinctive "sharknose" reminiscent of the T1. While he did not design the famous GG1 electric locomotive, he improved its appearance with welded rather than riveted construction, he added a pinstripe paint scheme to highlight its smooth contours. In addition to locomotive design, Loewy's studios provided many designs for the Pennsylvania Railroad, including stations, passenger-car interiors, advertising materials. By 1949, Loewy employed 143 designers and draftsmen, his business partners were A. Baker Barnhart, William Snaith, John Breen.
Loewy had a fruitful relationship with American car maker Studebaker. Studebaker first retained Loewy and Associates and Helen Dryden as design consultants in 1936 and in 1939 Loewy began work with the principal designer Virgil Exner, their designs first began appearing with the late-1930s Studebakers. Loewy designed a new logo to replace the "turning wheel", the Studebaker trademark since 1912. During World War II, American government restrictions on in-house design departments at Ford, General Motors, Chrysler prevented official work on civilian automobiles; because Loewy's firm was independent of the fourth-largest automobile producer in America, no such restrictions applied. This permitted Studebaker to launch the first all-new postwar automobile in 1947, two years ahead of the "Big Three." His team developed an advanced design featuring clean rearward lines. The Loewy staff, headed by Exner created the Starlight body, which featured a rear-window system that wrapped 180° around the rear seat.
In addition to the iconic bullet-nosed Studebakers of 1950 and 1951, the team created the 1953 Studebaker line, highlighted by the Starliner and Starlight coupes. The Starlight has ranked as one of the best-designed cars of the 1950s in lists compiled since by Collectible Automobile and Driver, Motor Trend. The'53 Starliner, recognized today as "one of the most beautiful cars made", was radical in appearance, as radical in its way as the 1934 Airflow. However, it was beset by production problems. To brand the new line, Loewy contemporized Studebaker's logo again by applying the "Lazy S" element, his final commission of the 1950s for Studebaker was the transformation of the Starlight and Starliner coupes into the Hawk series for the 1956 model year. The photo to the right shows a Starliner hardtop, which does not have the "C" pillar. In the spring of 1961, Studebaker's new president, Sherwood Egbert, recalled Loewy to design the Avanti. Egbert hired him to help energize Studebaker's soon-to-be-released line of 1963 passenger cars to attract younger buyers.
Despite the short 40-day schedule allowed to produce a finished design and scale model, Loewy agreed to take the job. He recruited a team consisting of experienced designers, including former Loewy employees John Ebstein; the team worked in a hous