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Fairchild Channel F

The Fairchild Channel F, short for "Channel Fun," was the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, the first console to use a microprocessor. It was released by Fairchild Camera and Instrument in November 1976 across North America at a retail price of US$169.95. It was released in Japan in October the following year, it was named "Video Entertainment System," but when Atari, Inc. released its Video Computer System the next year, Fairchild changed the name for its machine, although they continued to use the old name alongside it. By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold about 250,000 units, trailing behind sales of the VCS. In 1974, Alpex Computer Corporation employees Wallace Kirschner and Lawrence Haskel developed a home video game prototype consisting of a base unit centered on an Intel 8080 microprocessor and interchangeable circuit boards containing ROM chips that could be plugged into the base unit; the duo were unsuccessful. Next, they contacted a buyer at Fairchild. Lawson was impressed by the system and suggested Fairchild license the technology, which the company did in January 1976.

Lawson worked with industrial designer Nick Talesfore and mechanical engineer Ron Smith to turn the prototype into a viable project. Changes included replacing the 8080 with Fairchild's own F8 CPU, adapting the prototypes complex keyboard controls into a single control stick, encasing the ROM circuit boards in a plastic cartridges reminiscent of 8-track tapes. Talesfore was responsible for the design of the hand controllers and video game cartridges. Smith was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the video controllers; the F8 was complex compared to the typical integrated circuits of the day and had more inputs and outputs than other contemporary chips. Because chip packaging was not available with enough pins, the F8 used in the original form of the VES/Channel F was instead fabricated as a pair of chips that had to be used together to form a complete CPU. However, due to the F8's design, there was a considerable savings in terms of pins that enabled the inclusion of 64 bytes of internal scratchpad RAM.

A single-chip variant of the F8 was used by both the VideoBrain computer system. The graphics are quite basic by modern standards but were a vast improvement over monochrome systems such as Pong; the Channel F is only able to use one plane of graphics and one of four background colors per line, only three plot colors to choose from that turned into white if the background is set to black, at a resolution of 128 × 64, with 102 × 58 pixels visible and help from only 64 bytes of system RAM, half the amount of the Atari 2600. The Maze game required 1K of on-cartridge static RAM; the Chess game contained more on-cartridge RAM that that. The F8 processor at the heart of the console is able to produce enough AI to allow for player versus computer matches, a first in console history. All previous machines required a human opponent. Tic-Tac-Toe on Videocart-1 had this feature, it was only for one player against the machine; the same is true for the chess game, which would have long turn times for the computer as the game progressed.

One feature unique to this console is the'hold' button, which allows the player to freeze the game, change the time or change the speed of the game. The functions printed on the console is how they work in the built-in games and some of the original games, all buttons are controlled by the programming and can be used for anything the programmer decides; the hold function is not universal. In the original unit, sound is played through an internal speaker, rather than the TV set. However, the System II passed sound to the television through the RF modulator; the controllers are a joystick without a base. It could be used as both a joystick and paddle, not only could it be pushed down to operate as a fire button, it could be pulled up as well; the model 1 unit contained a small compartment for storing the controllers. The System II featured detachable controllers and had two holders at the back to wind the cable around and to store the controller in. Zircon offered a special control that featured an action button on the front of the joystick.

It was marketed by Zircon as "Channel F Jet-Stick" in a letter sent out to registered owners before Christmas 1982. Despite the failure of the Channel F, the joystick's design was so popular—Creative Computing called it "outstanding"— that Zircon released an Atari joystick port-compatible version, the Video Command Joystick, first released without the extra fire button. Before that, only the downwards plunge motion was acted as the fire button. Twenty-seven cartridges, termed "Videocarts", were released to consumers in the United States during the ownership of Fairchild and Zircon, the first twenty-one of which were released by Fairchild. Several of these cartridges were capable of playing more than one game and were priced at $19.95. The Videocarts were yellow and the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge, they featured colorful label artwork. The earlier artwork was created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji and art directed by Nick Talesfore; the console contained tw

List of songs featured in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series

The following list shows the music tracks that were featured in the Pirates of the Caribbean franchise and other movies created by the same team. The film music was composed by Hans Zimmer and Geoff Zanelli. Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl soundtrack, recording sessions, remixes are official release soundtrack albums from the film with the same title; the album was released in 2003, by Walt Disney Records and contains selections of music from the movie's score and some albums never featured music. The music of the film and this album are both credited to composer Klaus Badelt and Hans Zimmer and producer Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Klaus Badelt, Hans Zimmer and various DJs. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest soundtrack, recording sessions, remixes are official release soundtrack albums from the film with the same title; the album was released in 2006, by Walt Disney Records and contains selections of music from the movie's score and some albums never featured music.

The music of the film and this album are both credited to producer Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Tiësto and various DJs. All tracks are written by Hans Zimmer, Klaus Badelt and various DJs. Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End soundtrack, recording sessions, remixes are official release soundtrack albums from the film with the same title; the album was released in 2007, by Walt Disney Records and contains selections of music from the movie's score and some albums never featured music. The music of the film and this album are both credited to producer Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Hans Zimmer and various DJs. All tracks are written by various DJs. Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides soundtrack, recording sessions, remixes are official release soundtrack albums from the film with the same title; the album was released in 2011, by Walt Disney Records and contains selections of music from the movie's score and some albums never featured music.

The music of the film and this album are both credited to composer Hans Zimmer and Rodrigo y Gabriela and producer Hans Zimmer. All tracks are written by Rodrigo y Gabriela and various DJs. All tracks are written by Geoff Zanelli, plus a bonus song by Dimitri Like Mike. Zanelli draws from the past work by Klaus Badelt and Hans Zimmer to connect the franchise, while incorporating many of his own new themese and leitmotifs for the new characters.. Hans Zimmer's Official Site

Color vision

Color vision is an ability of animals to perceive differences between light composed of different wavelengths independently of light intensity. Color perception is a part of the larger visual system and is mediated by a complex process between neurons that begins with differential stimulation of different types of photoreceptors by light entering the eye; those photoreceptors emit outputs that are propagated through many layers of neurons and ultimately to the brain. Color vision is found in many animals and is mediated by similar underlying mechanisms with common types of biological molecules and a complex history of evolution in different animal taxa. In primates, color vision may have evolved under selective pressure for a variety of visual tasks including the foraging for nutritious young leaves, ripe fruit, flowers, as well as detecting predator camouflage and emotional states in other primates. Isaac Newton discovered that white light, after being split into its component colors when passed through a dispersive prism, could be recombined to make white light by passing them through a different prism.

The characteristic colors are, from long to short wavelengths, orange, green and violet. Sufficient differences in wavelength cause a difference in the perceived hue. Although the human eye can distinguish up to a few hundred hues, when those pure spectral colors are mixed together or diluted with white light, the number of distinguishable chromaticities can be quite high. In low light levels, vision is scotopic: light is detected by rod cells of the retina. Rods are maximally sensitive to wavelengths near 500 nm, play little, if any, role in color vision. In brighter light, such as daylight, vision is photopic: light is detected by cone cells which are responsible for color vision. Cones are most sensitive to wavelengths near 555 nm. Between these regions, mesopic vision comes into play and both rods and cones provide signals to the retinal ganglion cells; the shift in color perception from dim light to daylight gives rise to differences known as the Purkinje effect. The perception of "white" is formed by the entire spectrum of visible light, or by mixing colors of just a few wavelengths in animals with few types of color receptors.

In humans, white light can be perceived by combining wavelengths such as red and blue, or just a pair of complementary colors such as blue and yellow. Perception of color begins with specialized retinal cells containing pigments with different spectral sensitivities, known as cone cells. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision; each individual cone contains pigments composed of opsin apoprotein, covalently linked to either 11-cis-hydroretinal or more 11-cis-dehydroretinal. The cones are conventionally labeled according to the ordering of the wavelengths of the peaks of their spectral sensitivities: short and long cone types; these three types do not correspond well to particular colors. Rather, the perception of color is achieved by a complex process that starts with the differential output of these cells in the retina and, finalized in the visual cortex and associative areas of the brain. For example, while the L cones have been referred to as red receptors, microspectrophotometry has shown that their peak sensitivity is in the greenish-yellow region of the spectrum.

The S- and M-cones do not directly correspond to blue and green, although they are described as such. The RGB color model, therefore, is a convenient means for representing color, but is not directly based on the types of cones in the human eye; the peak response of human cone cells varies among individuals with so-called normal color vision. Two complementary theories of color vision are the trichromatic theory and the opponent process theory; the trichromatic theory, or Young–Helmholtz theory, proposed in the 19th century by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz, as mentioned above, states that the retina's three types of cones are preferentially sensitive to blue and red. Ewald Hering proposed the opponent process theory in 1872, it states that the visual system interprets color in an antagonistic way: red vs. green, blue vs. yellow, black vs. white. Both theories are accepted as valid, describing different stages in visual physiology, visualized in the adjacent diagram. Green ←→ Magenta and Blue ←→ Yellow are scales with mutually exclusive boundaries.

In the same way that there cannot exist a "slightly negative" positive number, a single eye cannot perceive a bluish-yellow or a reddish-green. Although these two theories are both widely accepted theories and more recent work has led to criticism of the opponent process theory, stemming from a number of what are presented as discrepancies in the standard opponent process theory. For example, the phenomenon of an after-image of complementary color can be induced by fatiguing the cells responsible for color perception, by staring at a vibrant color for a length of time, looking at a white surface; this phenomenon of complementary colors demonstrates cyan, rather than green, to be the complement of red and magenta, rather than red, to be the complement of green, as well as demonstrating, as a consequence, that the reddish-green color proposed to be impossible by oppo

Holly Earl

Holly Earl is an English actress. She is best known for her role as Zoe in Cuckoo, Kela in Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands, Agnes in the Channel 4 TV series Humans and Nita Clements in the BBC medical drama Casualty. Earl made her television debut at the age of four, she appeared in the BBC Christmas special The Greatest Store in the World. This was followed by her first film role as May Bailey in Possession, she appeared in the popular shows Doctor Who and Cuckoo. In 2012, she made her stage debut as Bertha in The Father at the Belgrade Theatre, she received an Ian Charleson Award nomination for her role. Earl attended Drayton Manor High School, She has an older sister Elizabeth, an actress. Holly Earl on IMDb Holly Earl on Twitter Holly Earl CV at AJ Management Website

Gavro Bagić

Gavro Bagić is a Croatian football striker playing for NK Metalac Osijek. Born in Uglješ, SR Croatia, back in Yugoslavia, Gavro Bagić spent most of his career playing with NK Metalac Osijek, he started playing in the academy of NK Osijek and when he finished his period as youth player he was to move to Belgrade to join Serbian side FK Voždovac but by the insistence of his father he stayed in Osijek and joined lower-level Metalac, where he will play for most of the following decade. He became a prolific goalscorer, his skills didn't pass unnoticed across the border in Serbia where, by that time a stable SuperLiga side FK Hajduk Kula, brought him to their team in summer 2010; as a young foreign newcomer, Bagić had it hard to break into the starting line-up, so he ended up leaving Hajduk Kula during the winter-break after having made only one appearance in the 2010–11 Serbian SuperLiga. He had a short spell with NK Karlovac in Croatian Second League before returning to Metalac Osijek. In July 2012, he signed with Croatian top-league side and the major club in Slavonia, NK Osijek.

Bagić made six appearances with Osijek in the 2012–13 Croatian First League. At the end of the season, he returned to the club he became a symbol of, Metalac Osijek, has revived his goalscoring abilities.

Samuel Weems

Samuel A. Weems was the writer of the book Armenia: The Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State and a disbarred Arkansas lawyer from Hazen, Arkansas, he was disbarred while holding the office of prosecuting attorney for mixing his clients' money with his own. A year he was convicted of arson and conspiring to defraud an insurance firm, but wasn't removed from the office, despite the disbarment decision, he died of a heart attack on January 25, 2003. He was best known for his advocacy of, contribution to, the denial of the Armenian Genocide, he unsuccessfully ran for the position of mayor of the small town of Hazen in 1994 and 1998. He made various controversial remarks such as "the Armenians have never been known as truth tellers" and "the number one export of Armenia is terrorism". Weems' book Armenia: The Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State was condemned by the Armenian Assembly of America as "outrageous and racist anti-Armenian propaganda. In March 2002 Weems visited Turkey on the occasion of the 81st anniversary of the assassination of Talat Paşa and, in numerous interviews with news agencies as well as in the universities of Istanbul and Ankara, spoke on the "Armenian issue" and alleged a smear campaign against Turkey in Europe and the United States, He made arrangements about the printing of his book in Turkish.

He appears in Sari Gelin, a documentary denying the Armenian Genocide, sponsored by the Ankara Chamber of Commerce. His second book, about the Armenische Legion, was complete and ready for printing before he died. Weems was survived by his Turkish wife, Gülnur, a son